A website recently announced that the English language now has over 1 million words.Most Americans have a vocabulary of about 20,000 words.The most famous English speaker in history, William Shakespeare, used 30,000 words in his plays.That's a lot! But where do all these words come from? English likes to borrow words from other languages.For example, “fengshui”， the Chinese term, is now used by English speakers who want to arrange their furniture in harmony.In the age of the Internet, English language is growing more
quickly.Some experts believe that as many as 15 words join the English language every day.Now it is possible to share information quickly with people all over the world, and words from all languages are flying through a shared cyberspace.Speaking of cyberspace, it is a whole new vocabulary.The words like “cyber”，“blog”， “World Wide Web”， “WeChat” were rare ten years ago, but now we use them frequently in our daily life.Now it's hard to imagine the English language and the world without them!
Welcome to the unit & Reading — Pre-reading
English and its history ①all through 一直，从来就
All through① history, ②be made up of 由……组成/构成
people from many different make up 编造；构成；弥补(for)；
countries and cultures have 和解；化妆
lived together in Britain.The ③vocabulary/v?'k?bj?l?rI/n.词汇
English language is made up of② the grammar and vocabulary③ these people
brought to Britain.That is why
English has so many difficult
these people brought to Britain 是 定 语 从 句 ， 修 饰 先 行 词 the grammar and vocabulary，关系代 词省略了。
rules that confuse people④.
英语及其历史 有史以来，在不列颠共同生活着来自许多不同国家和文 化背景的人们。英语就是由这些人带到不列颠的语法和词汇 构成的。那就是英语有如此多令人困惑不解的规则的原因。
Old English Old English is very different from⑤ the English we speak nowadays⑥.In fact⑦，we would not be able to understand it if we heard it today.Before the middle of
⑤be different from ...与…… 不同
⑦in fact 事实上
the 5th century, people in Britain ⑧Celtic/'keltIk/n.凯尔特语 all spoke a language called Celtic⑧.
Then two Germanic⑨ groups from the European mainland⑩ — the Angles? and the Saxons? — occupied ? Britain.Old English consisted of? a mixture? of their languages.(Both the English language and the English people are named after? the Angles; the word Angle was spelt Engle in Old English.)
⑩mainland/'meInl?nd/n.大陆 ?Angle/'??ɡl/n.盎格鲁人 ?Saxon/'s?ksn/n.撒克逊人 ?occupy/'?kj?paI/vt.占领；占用(时间、
空间等) ?consist of 由……组成/构成(＝be
made up of)，无被动语态。 consist/k?n'sIst/vi.组成，构成 ?mixture/'mIkst??(r)/n.混合，混合体 ?name after 以……命名
Aside from? place names such as ?aside from 除……之外
London, very few Celtic words
became part of Old English.At the end of? the 9th century, the
?at the end of ...在……末
Vikings?， people from Northern ?Viking/'vaIkI?/n.维京人，北欧海盗
European countries such as Denmark and Norway?， began
?people from ...and Norway 是 the
to move to Britain.They brought Vikings 的同位语。
with them their languages, which ○21 which 引导非限制性定语从句，修
also mixed with Old
English○21 .By the 10th century,
Old English had become the official○22 language of England.
When we speak English today, we sometimes feel puzzled about which words or phrases○23 to use.This is because English has many words and phrases from different languages○24 ， but with
similar meanings.For example○25 ， the word sick came
from a word once used by the Angles and the Saxons○26 ， while
ill came from a word once used by the Norwegians○27 .
○24 This is because ...“这是因
为……”，because 引导表语从 句。其中介词短语 from different languages 作定语，修 饰 words and phrases。
○25 for example 例如
○26 过去分词短语 once used by ...作
后置定语，修饰 a word。
○27 while 为并列连词，意为“而，
古英语 古英语和现在我们说的英语非常不同。事实上，如果我们 今天听到古英语，会听不懂。公元 5 世纪中叶以前，不列颠所 有的人都说一种叫凯尔特语的语言。后来，来自欧洲大陆的两 个日耳曼部族——盎格鲁人和撒克逊人——占领了不列颠。古 英语是由他们的语言混合而成的。(英语及英国人都是由盎格鲁 人命名的；Angle 这个词在古英语里拼作 Engle。)除了像 London 这样的地名外，极少数的凯尔特单词成了古英语的一部分。在 9 世纪末，来自北欧诸国例如丹麦和挪威的维京人开始向不列颠 移居。他们带来了他们的语言，这些语言也与古英语交汇在了 一起。到了 10 世纪，古英语已成为英格兰的官方语言。
现在，当我们讲英语时，我们有时会对用哪些单词或短语 感到困惑。这是因为英语有着许多来自不同语言的单词和短 语，但是这些单词和短语有着相似的意思。比如，sick 一词就 是来自盎格鲁人和撒克逊人曾经用过的一个词，而 ill 则来自 曾经被挪威人用过的一个词。
○28 given to ...是过去分词短语作后置定
Middle English is the name
语，修饰 name。其中 used from ... given to the English used from 也是过去分词短语作后置定语，修饰
around the 12th to the 15th
centuries○28 .Many things played ○29 play a part in 在……中起作用，参与
a part in○29 the development of ○30 contribution/?k?ntrI'bju??n/n.贡献，促
this new type of English.The
most important contribution○30 make contributions to 为……做贡献
was from the Normans○31 ， ○31 Norman/'n??m?n/n.& adj.诺曼人(的)
a French-speaking people ○32 defeat/dI'fi?t/vt.击败，战胜
○33 take control of
took control of○33 the country ○34 who 引导定语从句，修饰 a
in 1066○34 . However○35 ，the French-speaking people。
Norman Conquest○36 did not 或句末，但要注意标点。
affect○37 English as much as ○36 the Norman Conquest/'k??kwest/诺曼
the Angles and the Saxons' victory about 600 years earlier,
○37 affect vt.影响；感动；(疾病)侵袭
effect n．影响 have an/no effect on对……有/没有影响
which led to○38 Old English ○38 lead to“导致”，其中 to 为介词。
replacing○39 Celtic○40 .Even ○39 replace/rI'pleIs/vt.替换，代替，取代
though the Normans spoke ○40 which 引导非限制性定语从句。
French for the entire○41 250
years they ruled England○42 ， ○41 entire/In'taI?(r)/adj.完全的，整个的
French did not replace English ○42 even though 引导让步状语从句。
as the first language.On the other hand○43 ，
○43 on the other hand 另一方面
the English language did
○44 result in 造成，导致
borrow many words from French.
This resulted in○44 even more ○45 such as 诸如，比如
words with similar meanings, such as○45 answer (from Old
○46 work as 担任，充当
English) and reply (from Old
French)．It is interesting to learn
how the words for animals and ○48 raise/reIz/vt.养育，培养；举起；增
meat developed.After the
Norman Conquest, many English 加，提高；筹募；提及
people worked as○46 servants○47 ○49 who 引导定语从句，修饰 servants。
who raised○48 animals○49 .
Therefore○50 ， the words we use ○50 therefore/'?e?f??(r)/adv.因此，所以
for most animals raised for
food○51 ， such as cow, sheep and ○51 we use ...是定语从句修饰 words；
pig, came from Old
raised for food 是过去分词短语作
English.However, the words for 后置定语。
the meat of these animals, which ○52 which 引导非限制性定语从句。
was served to the Normans○52 ，
came from Old French：beef, ○53 mutton/'m?tn/n.羊肉
mutton○53 ， pork and bacon○54 . ○54 bacon/'beIk?n/n.熏猪肉，咸猪肉
中古英语 中古英语是给大约 12 世纪到 15 世纪期间使用过的英语起的 名字。在这一新型英语的发展中，许多事件起了作用。最重要的 贡献来自讲法语的诺曼人，他们于 1066 年击败英格兰并控制了这 个国家。然而，诺曼征服对英语的影响并不及约 600 年前盎格鲁 人和撒克逊人的胜利对英语产生的影响，那场胜利导致古英语替 代了凯尔特语。尽管诺曼人在统治英格兰的整整 250 年间一直讲 法语，但是法语并没有取代英语成为第一语言。另一方面，英语 也确实借用了许多法语单词。这造成了甚至更多意思相近的单词，
比如 answer(来自古英语)和 reply(来自古法语)。了解有关动 物和肉的词汇是怎样演变而来的是件挺有趣的事。诺曼征服 之后，许多英国人以仆人的身份从事饲养动物的工作。因此， 我们使用的表示专为食用而饲养的大多数动物的单词，比如 cow(母牛)，sheep(绵羊)和 pig(猪)，来自古英语。然而，由 于这些动物的肉是供应给诺曼人的，所以指代这些动物的肉 的词来自古法语，如 beef(牛肉)，mutton(羊肉)，pork(猪肉) 和 bacon(熏猪肉，咸猪肉)。
[原文呈现] Old French made
○55 as well“也”，一般不用于否定句，
other contributions to
Middle English as well○55 .In 中。
Old English, the Germanic way of making○56 words plural○57 was used.For example, they said housen instead of○58 houses,
○56 the way of doing sth.＝the way to do
○57 plural/'pl??r?l/n.& adj.复数形式(的)，
○58 instead of 代替，而不是
and shoen instead of shoes.After the
Normans took control○59 ， they began using the French way of making plurals, adding an -s to○60
○59 after引导的时间状语从句。 ○60 add ...to ...把……加到……上
house and shoe.Only a few words
kept their Germanic plural forms, such as man/men and child/children.
After the Norman Conquest,
high-class○61 people spoke French ○61 high-class/?haI'klɑ?s/adj.上层社
while common people spoke English○62 .However, by the latter half of the 14th century, English
○62 while 作并列连词，表示转折和
had come into widespread use○63
among all classes○64 in England.In ○63 come into use 开始被使用
1399, Henry Ⅳ became King of
England.His mother tongue○65 was ○64 class n．阶级，阶层
English, and he used English for ○65 mother tongue n．母语，本国语
all official events.
古法语也为中古英语做出了其他贡献。在古英语中，单词 变复数采用了日耳曼语中单词变复数的方法。例如，他们说 housen 而不是 houses，说 shoen 而不是 shoes。在诺曼人控制 英格兰之后，他们开始使用法语的复数构成形式，在 house 和 shoe 后面加-s。只有很少的单词保留了日耳曼语的复数形式， 如 man/men 和 child/children。
诺曼征服之后，上层社会的人讲法语，而普通人则讲英语。 但是到了 14 世纪后半叶，英语已经被英格兰所有社会阶层广 泛使用。1399 年，亨利四世成了英格兰国王。他的母语是英 语，他在所有正式场合都使用英语。
appeared ○66 during the
Renaissance ○67 in the 16th
century.Because of ○68 this,
Modern English includes ○69
many Latin ○70 and Greek ○71
words.Pronunciation also went
through○72 huge changes during
this period.Of course, this was
not the end of the changes in the
○66 appear vi.出现，显现，没有被
○67 the Renaissance/rI'neIsns/n.(欧
○68 because of 因为 ○69 include vt.包括 ○70 Latin/'l?tIn/n.& adj.拉丁语(的) ○71 Greek/ɡri?k/adj.希腊语的，希腊
○72 go through 经历
The question of whether English will keep on changing○73 in the
○73 keep on doing 继续做
future is easy to answer○74 .It is 词of的宾语。
certain that this process○75 will ○75 process/'pr??ses/n.过程；进程
continue ○76 ， and people will keep inventing new words and new ways of saying things.
in (the) process of在……的过程 中，在进行中
现代英语 现代英语出现于16世纪的文艺复兴时期。由于这个原 因，现代英语中含有许多拉丁语及希腊语单词。在此期 间，(英语)发音也经历了巨大的变化。当然，这并不是英语 语言变化的终结。在将来英语是否会持续变化的这一问题 是容易回答的。可以肯定的是，这一进程将会继续，而且 人们将会不断地发明新的单词和新的表达事物的方式。
Please match the words with their proper Chinese meanings.
5．entire 6．raise 7．therefore 8．process 9．distinction 10．accent
E．过程；进程 F．区别，差别 G．组成，构成 H．贡献，促成因素；捐赠 I．养育，培养；举起 J．完全的，整个的
答案：1～5 DGHAJ 6～10 ICEFB
Match the following pictures with the meaning of the sign language.
B．Thumbs down！ C．Applause!
D．Victory/Win! E．Thumbs up!
Fast-reading 1．Look at the title and the subtitle (副标题) before each section,
and then finish the following question. This passage is about the developing history of English.
2．Put the following sentences in the right order. (1)In 1399, Henry Ⅳ became King of England and used English for all official occasions. (2)By the 10th century, Old English was the official language of England. (3)During the Renaissance in the 16th century Modern English began. (4)By the latter half of the 14th century English was adopted by all classes in England. (5)Before the middle of the 5th century, people in Britain all spoke a language called Celtic. (6)In 1066, the Normans conquered England and took control of the country. (7)At the end of the 9th century, the Vikings invaded Britain and brought their languages.
Careful-reading (Ⅰ)Choose the best answers according to the text. 1．English is a language with so many confusing rules, because
________ . A．England has a long history B．England is separated from the European mainland C．the English population is large D．the English nation consists of people from different
countries and cultures
2．In the passage of Middle English, it gives us a lot of
examples.What does it really hint? A．There are too many English words for us to use.
B．English is difficult to learn.
C．Foreign cultures affect the English language a lot.
D．Foreign languages have no effect on the English language.
3．Which language had an important effect on the English
language during Middle English period?
4．Which of the following is TRUE about the history of English? A．The language used before the middle of the 5th century is called Old English. B．Middle English started from about the 12th century and ended in the 15th century. C．Only the English we are using today is Modern English. D．The process of English's development will not continue any more.
5．Which of the following terms come from French? A．Beef, sheep and bacon. B．Feet, children and shoe. C．Pig, mutton and tooth. D．Beef, pork and bacon. 答案：1～5 DCBBD
(Ⅱ)Fill in each blank with only one word according to the text.
English and its history
A feature of Having many difficult rules that make people
English 1. confused .
It 2.consists of the grammar and vocabulary
Reason brought by people from different countries
People in Britain all spoke a
language called Celtic before the
middle of the 5th century. After 4.occupying Britain, the
Angles and the Saxons mixed their
languages with Celtic.
The Vikings moved to Britain, 5._a_d_d_i_n_g_ their language to English.
After 6. defeating England, the Normans
took control of the country.They
contributed a lot to the development of
Middle By the latter half of the 14th century,
3._H__is_t_o_r_y_/ _ D__e_v_el_o_p_m__e_n_t
English was 7. widely used by all classes
in England. In 1399, Henry Ⅳbegan to 8.rule England
and used English for all official events.
It appeared during the Renaissance in the
Modern 16th century.Many Latin and Greek
English words entered English and 9. pronunciation changed greatly.
People will keep inventing new words and new ways of saying things, making it
10._c_l_e_a_r_/c_e_r_t_a_in__ that English will keep on
changing in the future.
Study-reading Analyze the following difficult sentences in the text. 1．When we speak English today, we sometimes feel puzzled about
which words or phrases to use. [句式分析]
[尝试翻译] 现在，当我们在讲英语时，我们有时会对用哪些单 词或短语感到困惑。
2．The most important contribution was from the Normans, a French-speaking people who defeated England and took control of the country in 1066. [句式分析]
[尝试翻译] 最重要的贡献来自讲法语的诺曼人，他们于 1066 年 击败英格兰并控制了这个国家。
3．The question of whether English will keep on changing in the future is easy to answer. [句式分析] 主干句为：The question is easy to answer。句中 is easy to answer 为主动形式表被动意义，其结构为：主语＋be＋adj. ＋to do, to do 不定式与主语之间为逻辑上的动宾关系。whether 引导宾语从句。 [尝试翻译]_将___来___英____语___是___否___会____持___续___变___化____的___这___一___问____题___是___容___易____回___答___的____。_
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