短文改错题检测考生发现、判断、纠正文章错误的能力. 进而考察学生的词法、句法及行文逻辑等方面的水平，考 察学生在语篇中综合运用英语的能力 考生英语水平的高 低完全可以从这一题型体现出来 然而很多考生对该题感 到束手无策.关键在于找不到错误、不会找错误。那么怎样 找错误、发现错误就成了解题的关键。 短文改错解题思路和检查原则： 1.句中各部分的结构是否完整，特别是每个句子要有 动词; 2. 谓语动词的时态、语态; 3.非谓语动词的用法; 4.名词的单、复数，格的使用是否正确; 5.定冠词和不定冠词是否正确; 6.代词的格和性的使用是否有误; 7.定语从句中关系代词、副词是否准确无误; 8.并列句中的并列连词、主从复合句中的从属连词用 的是否得当。 短文改错解题四原则： 改动以最少为原则; 虚词以添加或删除为原则; 实词以改变词形为原则 以保持句子原意为原则。 短文改错解题步骤： 通读全文，掌握大意; 整句分析，逐行推敲; 反复通读，复查验证。 解题注意要点和能力培养： 1.核对错项时，若的确有一时难以改出的地方，可以 参考所改动项是否基本符合“1：1：8”的比例。即多一词 1 个，缺词 1 个，错词 8 个。 2.核对改正的语法项目是否有重复。因为短文改错往 往覆盖面广，一般不会出现重复考查某个语法点的现象。 3.核对答题符号是否规范，位置是否准确，看看有无 遗漏符号，忽略字母大小写和拼写等问题。 短文改错常见错误类型： 1. 谓语动词的错误是历年考试的重点和热点， 常见动 词错误类型有 ①一般现在时与一般过去时错用;② and 前后动词时态不一致;③主谓不一致; ④缺少动词,特别是 be 动词; ⑤第三人称单数形式错用;⑥主动语态和被动语 态错用。 Theydid not want me to do any work at home; they want me to devote allmy time to my studies.(did 改 为 do， 错误类型属于①)
As weclimbed the mountain, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and toldstories. (visiting 改为 visited, 错误类型属于②) Therewill an important game next month. (will 后加 be,错误类型属于④) Oneevening she told me that something happened when her parents wasout. ( was 改为 were，错误类型 属于③) 2. 名词的常见错误：单复数名词错用，可数名词与不 可数名词错用。 I’ll get good marks in all mysubject.(subject 改为 subjects) Theirword were a great encouragement to me.(word 改为 words) Withoutenough knowledges, you can never teach well.(knowledges 改为 knowledge) 3. 连词错误 连词包括关系代词、副词，并列连词 and/ or/but 等。 关于连词，一般考查从句关系 who/whom/whose/what/which/how/why/when/where/if/wh ether 等。 I havea good friend who’s name is Liu Mei. (错 用了 who 的所有格形式，改为 whose) I teachthem, play with them, but watch them growing up.(此处应该是并列的关系而非转折，but 改为 and) Cleveras she is, but she works very hard.(as 意 为“尽管”，不能再跟 but 连用，所以去掉 but) 4. 冠词错误：误用 a 和 an(根据单词的第一个音素来 判定);误用 a/an 和 the(固定搭配，或泛指、特指;多冠词 或少冠词) We maybe one family and live under a same roof. (a 改为 the，thesame 是固定搭配) Aseveryone knows, it’s famous mountain with all kinds ofpants. (mountain 是可数名词需用冠词，所以其 前加 a) I hopeyou have pleasant journey.(journey 是可数 名词，故 have 后加 a) 5. 形容词和副词错误：系动词后用形容词 (be/am/is/are/was/were/become/go/感官性动词 smell/feel);词性的误用(形容词修饰名词;副词修饰动 词、形容词)。 I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully timetogether. (time 是名词所以要用形容词 wonderful 修饰)
Mypronunciation was terribly.(was 后用形容词， terribly 改为 terrible.) 6. 代词错误：代词的主格和宾格(I / me;he/him; she/ her; we/ us they/ them )错误;反身代词 (myself/yourself/himself/herself/themselves/oursel ves)使用错误;代词的单数和复数使用错误;代词指代错误; 多代词或少代词。 Soon Ibegan to enjoy talking to myself on paper as I was learning toexpress me in simple English. (me 改为 myself) One dayI wrote a little story and showed to my teacher.(to 前加 it) If anyone of us had any difficulty in our life and study, the other wouldhelp him out. (other 后加 s) What’smore, you have to be friends with your pupils and take good care ofhim. (him 改为 them) 7. 非谓语动词的常见错误：不定式、动名词作主语、 宾语时;and 连接的不定式或动名词前后不一致(尤其距离 较远时);介词后用动名词形式作宾语;某些动词后要求接 动名词或不定式。 Soon Ibegan to enjoy talk to myself on paper. (enjoy 后需接动名词，talk 改为 talking) But hisparents think go to college is more important than playing sports.(go 作主语,应改为 going) Children may not develop the habit of read and the abilityto enjoy themselves. (介词后用动名词形式作宾 语，read 改为 reading) Iparticularly enjoyed driving through the countryside with you andsaw the changing colors of the leaves on the trees. (and 连接的不定式或动名词前后 不一致，故 saw 改为 seeing) 8. 介词错误： 词组中的介词误用;介词意思理解偏差; 介词的多用或少用 Thereare too many people among my family. (among 改为 in，in myfamily 为固定搭配) I wasso tired that I fell asleep at the moment my head touched thepillow. (去掉 at, themoment 引导从 句)
横线上写出该词，并也用斜线划掉。 此行缺一个词:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(/\)，在该行 右边横线上写出该加的词。 此行错一个词:在错的词下划一横线，在该行右边横线 上写出改正后的词。 注意:原行没有错的不要改。 All of us need friendship. The understanding 76.______________ between two friends mean both of them have similar 77.______________ ideas and trusting each other. Otherwise, it is 78.______________ impossible for him to help each other and to make 79.______________ their friendship to last long. As an old saying goes, 80.______________ “A friend in need is a friend indeed.” So really friendship 81.______________ should able to stand all sorts of tests. And it is 82.______________ wise to have as many good friends that we can. 83.______________ The more friends we have, the more we can learn for 84.______________ one another, but the more pleasure we can share together. 85.______________
Dear Jeremy and Alice,
[来#源:~中国% &教育 @出版 网]
Although we’ve been delighted to have you as neighbors, we’re hoping to settle something that bothers to us. In a word, your dog—Cleo. We’ve called several time about Cleo’s early morning barking. It is difficult to understanding why she barks every minute she’s outside. The early morning barking have been disturbing us as wc arc often up all night with the baby. Beside, Cleo tends to bark a average of six hours a day. This morning she starts barking even before 5 o’clock. That is too much for us. considering how closely the houses are. We appreciate our apologies and goodwill, but we hope that you can figure a good way of settling the matter.
此题要求改正所给短文中的错误。对标有题号的每一 行作出判断:如无错误.在该行右边横线上画一个勾(√):如有 错误(每行只有一个错误)，则按下列情况改正: 此行多一个词:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。在该行右边
文中共有 10 处语言错误， 每句中最多有两处。 错误涉 及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加：在缺词处加一个漏词符号（∧） ，并在其下面写
出该加的词。 删除：把多余的词用斜线（ ）划掉。 修改：在错的词下划一横线（ ） ，并在该词下面写 出修改后的词。 注意：1.每处错误及修改均仅限一词； 2.只允许修改 10 处，多者（从第 11 处起）不 计分。 My father took me out camping for the first time when I was seven. He wanted teach me about animals, insects and trees. My uncles all come along with bows and arrows for hunting.
[来 &源 ^:%@ 中*教网 ][来 &% 源^: 中~教@ 网]
had any disease or insect attack problem. We are growing wonderfully tomatoes at on cost!
六（2014 浙江卷 ）
I was taking a train to London’s Victoria Station. I had noticed that the carriage was noise and filled with people. Before long, a train inspector comes to check out tickets. A passenger realized he couldn’t find his ticket but became quite upset. Then everyone in the carriage began searching the ticket, which was eventually found under a seat several rows from his owner. The person who found a ticket smiled with pleasure at his success. No one in the carriage had previous spoken to or even noticed the ticket-owner before. Yet, they had so quickly offered the strangers their help. If we could show concern to others on need, the world would be a better place to live in.
One evening at sunset, we sat by the fire, have our barbecue. Just then a bird was flying over us. My uncles immediate jumped up and shot their arrows on the bird. Neither of the arrows hit the target. Suddenly the arrows was flying down at us from the sky — they were looked like rain! We ran to escape but fortunately no one was injured. That day I didn’t learn much about animals, insects or trees, but I learnt a impressive lesson about gravity!
[来源:~中 @国 % 教#育^出 版网]
Hello, boys and girls! Today, I am going to talk with what you should do when a fire alarm go off. If you hear the alarm, stand in line at the door and wait your teacher to lead you outside. Stay close to your teacher and classmate. Don't panic or get out of line, and trying to remain quiet and calmly. Soon the firefighters will come and put out a fire. If it's a false alarm and there is no fire, your teacher will lead us back to the classroom. If you notice that when someone is missing and hurt, tell your teacher immediately.
&#%:中 ^*教网 ]
五（2014 新课标 I）
Nearly five years before ,and with the help by our father, my sister and I planted some cherry tomatoes （圣女果） in our back garden, since then---for all these year---we had been allowing tomatoes to self seed where they please . As result, the plants are growing somewhere. The fruits are small in size, but juicy and taste. There are so much that we often share them with our neighbors .Although we allow tomato plants to grow in the same place year after year, but we have never
专项练习一 （A） 根据短文内容, 从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处 的最佳选项, 选项中有两项为多余选项。 For over one hundred and fifty years, Americans of all social classes have worn blue jeans． 1 Whether they are worn for work or for fashion today．Strauss' invention continues to be popular not only among Americans but also among people around the world． Levi Strauss was born in Germany in 1829． 2 He grew up in Kentucky before moving to New York in 1847．Before becoming an American citizen and moving to the West in 1853, Strauss worked in his brother's dry goods business． This gave him a chance to produce his famous invention． After the gold rush of 1949, Strauss decided to move to the West to seek his fortunes． Strauss did not want to be a person who searched an area for minerals．Instead, he knew he could make a good living by selling supplies to the miners．At first, he planned to sell sewing supplies and cloth． 3 When he heard miners complaining that their clothes were easily broken or they usually tore their pockets during mining, he decided to use a special fabric to make pants for the miners．These pants proved so popular that he quickly ran out of materials to make more． In 1873, Strauss received a letter from a Jewish tailor named Jacob Davis who had invented a process of connecting pockets with copper rivets （铆钉） ． This made the pants last a long time．Because Davis did not have the money to patent his idea, he offered to share it with Strauss if Strauss would agree to pay for the patent． 4 ． By the time Strauss died in 1902, he had made a great contribution to American fashion． 5 The business has been growing ever since and Levi Strauss' company is now one of the largest clothing companies in the world． A．As a young boy, he moved with his family to the United States． B．Nobody knew what kind of material was suitable． C．He did and Levi jeans have been made with metal rivets ever since． D．However, he did not get much business for those products． E．He also made a great contribution to America's clothing industry． F．Since they were invented by Levi Strauss, they have become a symbol of American consumer culture． G．As the business grew, Strauss got much money from it． （B）改错 When I was ten years old, I went to Yangzhou with two American．I became their guide．First, we went to the Shouxi River．They wanted to look around the river by the boat．After buy the tickets, we got into the boat．We went around seeing the beautiful sight．After that, we went shopping．The sellers couldn't spoke English．Though it was very harder, I tried my best listen to their words carefully and translate the sentences．They bought some little things with their help．Next, we went to a small zoo but took some pictures．When we felt hunger, we went out and had lunch．After lunch, we visited some old house and learned more about Chinese history.
专项练习二 （A） 根据短文内容, 从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处 的最佳选项, 并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。选项中有两项为 多余选项。 Recently some American scientists have given a useful piece of advice to people in industrialized nations．They say people should eat more of the same kind of food eaten by humans living more than 10,000 years ago． 1 The scientists say that the human life has changed greatly．Our bodies have not been able to deal with these changes in lifestyle and this had led to new kinds of sicknesses． 2 So they are called "diseases of civilization"．Many cancers and diseases of the blood system are examples of such diseases. Scientists noted that people in both the Old Stone Age and the New Stone Age enjoyed very little alcohol or tobacco, probably none． 3 However, a change in food is one of the main differences between life in ancient times and that of today. Stone Age people hunted wild animals for their meat, which had much less fat than domestic ones． They ate a lot of fresh wild vegetables and fruits． They did not have milk or any other dairy products, and they made very little use of grains． 4 We eat six times more salt than our ancestors．We eat more sugar．We eat twice as much fat but only one third as much protein and much less vitamin C. 5 But scientists say that we would be much healthier if we eat much the same way the ancient people did, cutting the amount of fatty, salty and sweet food. A．Stone Age people lived a simple life. B．But today, we enjoy eating a lot of these. C．In that case, they would live much healthier. D．Ancient people also got lots of physical exercise. E．These new sicknesses were not known in ancient times. F．People today probably don't want to live like our ancestors. G．Modern people used to suffer from "diseases of civilization". （B）改错 Dear Jim, I am so exciting that you will come to China．I will free from December 18 and will have a plenty of time to be together with you．I'll meet you at the airport and then you will take Bus No．8 for my home．You worry about the weather here in your email．In fact, the weather here is quite different from it in your city．It isn't very cold, but you needn't bring many clothes with you．During your stay here, I'll take you to some places of interests and you can taste some local snacks．I am sure we will have greatly fun together. Looking forward to meeting you soon. John
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