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高二英语passive-voice


Passive Voice
1. 英语动词有两种语态,主动语态和被动语态。主动 语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是 动作的承受者。如: They will build a new bridge over the river. (主动)

A new bridge will be built over the river. (被动)
2. 汉语中常用“被”、“给”、“由”、“受”等词 用来表示被动,而英语用:助动词be + 及物动词的过 去分词构成。 1)当不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者时,常用被 动语态,这时往往不用by 短语。 “Mr. White, the cup with mixture was broken after class. ”

(只是告诉老师杯子坏了,不知是谁弄坏的,或不 想说出谁弄坏的)。
2) 突出或强调动作的承受者,如果需要说出动作 的执行者,用by 短语。 These records were made by John Denver.

The cup was broken by Paul.
3) 当汉语句子的主语既不是动作的执行者,也不 是动作的承受者时,这时常用in + 名词作状语, 而代替 by 短语。 These cars were made in China.

15, 000 cars will be produced each year in the new factory.

3.主动语态变被动语态的方法 We clean the classroom every day. 主语 谓语 宾语

→ The classroom is cleaned (by us) every day.
主语 谓语 宾语

1)把主动语态的宾语变成被动语态的主语。
2)把主动语态的谓语变成被动语态的be + 过去分词, 时态要与原句保持一致。 3)把主动语态的主语变为介词by 的宾语,放在被动语 态里谓语动词之后,by 短语可以省略。如果原句主语 是地点名词,在被动语态中用in + 地点名词作状语。

4. Exercises
1) People grow rice in the south of the country.

Rice is grown in the south of the country.
2) The students didn't forget his lessons easily. His lessons were not easily forgotten. 3) They will send cars abroad by sea. Cars will be sent abroad by sea. 4) We are painting the rooms. The rooms are being painted. 5) This time last year we were planting trees here. Trees were being planted here this time last year.

6) We have brought down the price. The price has been brought down 7) When I got to the theatre, I found they had already sold out the tickets. When I got to the theatre, I found the tickets had already been sold out.

8) You must hand in your compositions after class.
Your compositions must be handed in after class.

5.被动语态常用时态的形式
1) 主要体现在 be 的变化上,其形式与系动词 be 的变化 形式完全一样。现列表如下: 一般现在时: 一般过去时: 一般将来时: 现在进行时: am / is / are + P.P. was / were + P.P. shall / will +be+ P.P. am / is / are + being + P.P.

过去进行时:
现在完成时:

was / were + being + P.P.
have / has + been + P.P.

过去完成时:

had + been + P.P.
can +be+ P.P.

情态动词的被动语态:

2) get / come /go + P.P. 这种结构多用于口语中,后 面一般不接by短语
(1) To my surprise, he did not _____when he fell from the tree. A. get hurt D. get hurted B. get hurting C. get to hurt

(2) My watch _____ while I was playing basketball.

A. get breaking B. get broke Breaking

C. get broken

D.

(3) The buttons on my coat _____.
A. came undone D. comes doing B. came do C. come undone

(4) The women’s complaints ____.
A. went unnoticed noticing D. go noticing 3)短语动词的被动语态 动词短语是一个不可分割的整体,在变被动语态时, 不可丢掉构成短语动词的介词或副词 (1) A notice _____ on the wall. B. go unnoticed C. went

A. will be put up putting up D. will put

B. will put up

C. will be

(2) Good care ______ the children. A. must be taken of B. must be taken C. must take of D. must be taking of

6.语态转换时所注意的问题
1) 把主动语态变为被动语态时,其谓语动词的时态 要与原句时态保持一致,其谓语动词的数要与新主 语保持一致。 We have bought a new computer.

A new computer has been bought. (正确)
A new computer have been bought. (错误)

2) 含有双宾语的主动句变被动句时,可分别将其中 的一个宾语变为主语,另一个不动,一般变间接宾 语为主语时比较多。 My uncle gave me a present on my birthday.
I was given a present on my birthday.

如果把直接宾语(指物)改为主语,则在间接宾语(指 人)前加适当的介词,如上句还可以说:
A present was given to me yesterday.

注意:一般在下列动词后,常在间接宾语前用介词
to,如:

bring, give, hand, lend, offer, pass, pay, promise, sell, show, take, teach, tell 等。
The cup with mixture was showed to the class. My bike was lent to her. 一般在下列动词后,间接宾语前用介词 for, 如: build, buy, cook, cut, choose, do, fetch, find, fix, get, keep, make, order, paint, play, sing 等。

Mother made me a new skirt. (A new skirt was made for me. )

The meat was cooked for us.
Some country music was played for us.

有些既不用to 也不用for, 根据动词与介词的搭配关 系。
He ask me a question. (A question was asked of me. ) People all over the world know the Great Wall. The Great Wall is known to people all over the world. (不用by短语)

3)由动词+ 介词或副词构成的短语动词,要把它们作 为整体看,即把它们看成一个及物动词,介词或副 词不可拆开或漏掉。这类动词有:

不及物动词+ 介词,如: agree to, ask for, laugh at, operated on, listen to, look after, think of, talk about 等。
The patient is being operated on.
The problem is solved. It needn't be talked about.

及物动词+ 副词:如:bring about, carry out, find out,
give up, hand in, make out, pass on, point out, put away, put off, think over, turn down, work out, turn out

等。

His request was turned down. The sports meet will be put off because of the bad weather. 4)带复合宾语 ( 宾语 + 宾补 )的动词改为被动语态时, 一般把主动结构中的宾语改为主语,而宾语补足语保 留在谓语动词后面。如: We always keep the classroom clean. classroom is always kept clean. →The

She told us to follow her instructions. →We were told to follow her instructions.

注意:在 see, watch, hear, notice, listen to, look at, make, feel 等动词后作宾语补足语的动词不定式都不 带 to,但改成被动语态后都带to,这时不定式为主语 补足语,也就是说不定式作主语补足语不存在省略to 的问题。 We often hear him play the guitar. →He is often heard to play the guitar.

注意:带有复合宾语的句子,如果宾语补足语是名词, 变被动句时,应将宾语变为主语,不要误把宾语补足 语的名词作主语。如: Tomatoes were first taken back to Europe and people called them love apples.

误:Love apples were called them. 正:They were called love apples. 5)还有一种短语动词由动词+ 名词+ 介词构成,变被 动语态有两种形式,如下:

(1) We take good care of the books.
The books are taken good care of. Good care is taken of the book. (2) You must pay attention to your pronunciation. Attention must be paid to your pronunciation. Your pronunciation must be paid attention to.

用于这类结构的短语动词常见的有: catch sight of,
make use of, pay attention to, set fire to, take care of, take hold of, take notice of, keep an eye on 等。 6)当主动句的主语是nobody, no one等含有否定意义的 不定代词时,被动句中将其变为anybody, 作by的宾语, 并将谓语动词变为否定的被动语态。如: Nobody can answer this question. 误:The question can be answered by nobody. 正:The question can not be answered by anybody.

7) 当否定句中的宾语是 anything, anybody, anyone 等 不定代词时 ,在被动句中应将其分别变为 nothing, nobody, no one作主语,并将谓语动词变为肯定的被 动语态。如: They haven't done anything to make the river clean. 误: Anything hasn't been done to make the river clean.

正:Nothing has been done to make the river clean.
8) 以 who 为 主 语 开 头 的 疑 问 句 , 变 被 动 时 , 用 by whom放在句首: Who wrote the story?

误:Who was the story written?
正:By whom was the story written? 9) 有些动词既是及物又是不及物,当它们和 well, badly, easily, smoothly等副词连用时,表示主语内在 品质或性能,是不及物动词,用主动表示被动,这 时不用被动语态,时态多用一般现在时或一般过去 时,常见的有: carry, drive, lock, pick, shut, wear, tear, write, read, clean, sell, wash, cook, iron, burn, draw, cook, keep, cut, open, blow, peel, sell, act 等。如: The cloth washes easily. 这布很好洗。 The new product sells well. 这新产品很畅销。 The pen writes smoothly. 这支笔写字很流畅。

对比: The books sell well. (主动句) The books were sold out. (被动句)

The meat didn’t cook well. (主动句)
The meat was cooked for a long time over low heat. (被动句) 10)下列情况主动句不能改为被动句: 第一,感官系动词一般用主动形式表示被动意义,如: feel,look, seem, taste, sound, remain,prove等+形容 词。

— Do you like the material? — Yes, it feels very soft.

误:It is felt very soft.
The food tastes delicious.

误:The food is tasted delicious.
The pop music sounds beautiful. 误:The pop music is sounded beautiful. 第二,谓语是及物动词leave, enter, reach, suit, have, benefit, lack, own等。如:

He entered the room and got his book.
误:The room was entered and his book was got.

She had her hand burned.
误:Her hand was had burned.

第三,一些不及物动词短语没有被动语态,如: take place, break out, belong to, lose heart, consist of, add up to等。如: The fire broke out in the capital building.
误:The fire was broke out in the capital building.

第四,不及物动词没有被动语态 ,如: rise, happen, succeed, remain, lie等。
When we got to the top of the mountain, the sun had already risen. 误:The sun had already been risen.

After the earthquake, few houses remained.
误:After the earthquake, few houses were remained.

第五,宾语是反身代词,相互代词,同源宾语,不定式, v-ing 形式及抽象名词等,不能变为被动句子的主语,如:
I taught myself English. 误:Myself was taught English. We love each other. 误:Each other is loved. 11)动词need, require, want, deserve, be worth后接v-ing的 主动结构常表示被动含义某些由及物动词转化来的不及物 动词,例如: (1) My watch can’t work, it _________. A. need repairing B. needs repairing repaired D. needs to repair C. needs be

(2) This film is really worth ______.
A. reading B. to read C. read D. be read

(3) Who said the boy deserves _______.
A. punishing B. punished punish C. be punished D. to

12)有少数动词bind, cook, do, owe, print,的进行时有 时有被动含义例如:

(1) The magazine _________.
A. is binding B. is bind C. is binded D. binds

(2) He paid all he ______.
A. was owing B. owed C. was owed D. owes

(3) The meat _______.
A. is cooking cooks B. is cooked C. is being cooked D.

13)有在某些性质形容词+动词不定式的句型中,其动 词不定式的主动形式表示被动含义 (1) The question is easy _________. A. to answer B. to be answered answering D. to have answered (2) That book is difficult _______. C. to be

A. to be understand B. to be understanding
C. to have been understood D. to understand

在这种结构中,动词不定式和主语的关系实际上是一种逻 辑上的主谓关系,可以说是不定式作主语变换来的
The question is easy to answer。= It’s easy to answer the question. 14) 有些动词不定式总是用主动形式表示被动意义,如 blame, let, rent等。如 (1) The question is easy _________. A. to answer B. to be answered D. to have answered (2) That book is difficult _______. C. to be answering

A. to be understand B. to be understanding C. to have been understood D. to understand

15) 以 -able 或 -ible 结尾的形容词可表示被动含义,例 如:

These tickets are available for one month.
It’s a credible explanation.

The fish was hardly eatable.
16) 有些介词短语用作表语或定语时,可以表示被动 含义,例如: The thieves is under arrest. Apples are on sale. The phenomenon under studying is very interesting.

17)在某些名词词组中,表示动作的名词无疑具有动 作的含义,往往可以表现被动含义,而这种被动与 英语的被动结构无任何语法上的联系,例如:
(1) After his _____ from prison, he returned home. A. release B. released release C. releasing D. to

(2) His family lives on government _____ for three years. A. aiding B. to aid C. aided D. aid

18)被动结构和带表语的结构,be+过去分词不一定 都是被动语态结构,有时是系表结构,区别是:

(1) 被动语态中的过去分词是动词,表动作;系表结 构中的过去分词相当于形容词,表状态。
These letters were written in 1853. 被动语态 This letter was well written. 系表结构 She was surprised by his appearance. 被动语态 I was not at all surprises at her success. 系表结构 (2) 被动结构可以跟by短语, 而系表结构则一般不 用。 When the dam was finished, many of temples would be covered by the waters of the new lake. 被动 语态

The old lady was very excited at hearing the news. 系 表结构
(3)系表结构通常只用于一般现在时或一般过去时,而 被动语态结构可用于多种时态。 He was quite interested in pop music. 系表结构

He also wanted to see how the money should be spent. 被动语态 (4)系表结构中的过去分词可被very等副词修饰;被动语 态中的过去分词可用much修饰。
She was very excited. 系表结构 She was much excited by her son’s success. 被动语 态

(5)系表结构中的过去分词常常有其固定的介词搭配, 被动语态则没有。
He was puzzled about it. 系表结构 I was surprised at his coming. 系表结构 What is he so excited about? 系表结构

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