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名词专项练习


2014 届中考英语专题复习四:名词考点讲解和训练
一、名词的数 1.单数和复数 可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。复数形式通常是在单数形式后加词尾“-s”构成,其 主要变法如下: (1)一般情况在词尾加-s,例如:book→books,girl→girls,boy→boys。 (2) 以 s,x,ch,sh,结尾的词加-es,例如:bus→buses,class→classes,box→boxes。 (3)以 ce, se, ze,(d)ge 结尾的名词加 s,例如:orange—oranges。 (4) 以辅音母加 y 结尾的词变 “y” 为 “i” 再加-es,例如: city→cities, factory→factories, country →countries, family→families。但要注意的是以元音字母加 y 结尾的名词的复数形式 只加 s,如:boy→boys, day→days。 (5) 以 o 结尾的词多数都加-es。 例如:hero→heroes, potato→potatoes, tomato→tomatoes, 但词末为两个元音字母的词只加-s。例如:zoo→zoos,radio→radios,还有某些外来 词也只加-s,例如:photo→photos,piano→pianos。 (6) 以 f 或 fe 结尾的词,多数变 f 为 v 再加-es,例如:knife→knives,leaf→leaves, half →halves。 (7)少数名词有不规则的复数形式,例如:tooth→teeth,child→children,mouse→ mice。 【注意】与 man 和 woman 构成的合成词,其复数形式也是-men 和-women。例如:an Englishman, two Englishmen。 但 German 不是合成词, 故复数形式为 Germans; man, woman 等作定语时,它的单复数以其所修饰的名词的单复数而定,如:men workers, women teachers。 有个别名词单复数一样,例如:Chinese,Japanese,sheep,deer,fish 等。但当 fish 表 示不同种类的鱼时,可以加复数词尾。 (8)单数形式但其意为复数的名词有:people, police 等。 (9) 数词+名词作定语时, 这个名词一般保留单数形式, 中间加连字符。 例如: ten-minutes’ walk, (10) 还有些名词仅有复数形式, 如: trousers, clothes, chopsticks, scissors, compasses。 (11)只用作单数的复数形式的名词有: 科学名词:physics, mathematics/maths 游戏名称:bowls 专有名词:the United States, Niagara Falls 其他名词:news, falls 2.不可数名词“量”的表示方法 在英语中,不可数名词如果要表示“量”的概念,可以用以下两种方法: (1)用 much, a little, a lot of/lots of, some, any 等表示多少,例如:The rich man has a lot of money. (2)用 a piece of 这类定语,例如: a piece of paper a piece of wood a piece of bread 如果要表示“两杯茶” 、 “四张纸”这类概念时,在容器后加复数,例如:two cups of tea 不可数名词也可用 a lot of, lots of, some, any, much 等来修饰。 二、名词的所有格 名词所有格,用来表示人或物的所有,以及领属关系。 1. 表示有生命的名词的所有格其单数形式是加 's,其复数形式是 s',例如:a student's room 2. 如其结尾不是 s 的复数形式仍加 's,如:Children's Day。

3. 在表示时间、 距离、 长度、 重量、 价格、 世界、 国家等名词的所有格要用 's, 例如: a twenty minutes' walk。 4. 无生命名词的所有格则必须用 of 结构,例如:a map of China, the color of the flowers。 5. 双重所有格,例如:a friend of my father's。 【注意】 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有 's,则表示“分别有” ,例如:John's and Mary's rooms 两个名词并列,只有一个's,则表示“共有” ,例如:John and Mary's room(约翰和玛 丽共有一间) 一、名词介绍 1.名词分类 专有名词:表示人、地方、事物、机构和组织名称。 Lucy, China, the Great Wall 普通名词: A.可数:个体 dictionary,pencil,chair 集体名词 family,police,class,group,team

B.不可数:物质,物质名词表示构成各种物体的物质或材料, paper,air,wood,wheat,steel 抽象,表示状态、品质、行为和感情等抽象概念 Knowledge, danger,health, life, homework 2.名词变复数 一般:加-s, cakes, days,students,beds 以-s,-x,-sh,-ch 结尾名词,加-es, buses, boxes, watches 以辅音字母加-y 结尾,变 y 为 i,加-es, baby-babies, city-cities, country-countries 以元音字母加 y 结尾,加-s, toy-toys,monkey-monkeys 以 f(fe)结尾,变 f(fe)为 ves, leaf-leaves, wolf-wolves, life-lives 以 ce,se,ze,(d)ge 结尾, 加-s, face-faces, orange-oranges 不规则变化:改变单数名词中的元音字母,man-men woman-women, foot-feet, tooth-teeth 单复数形式相同,fish-fish, sheep-sheep,deer-deer, Chinese-Chinese 其他其他形式,mouse-mice 以 o 结尾名词,加 es, negro, hero, tomato,potato 3.不可数名词的数:数词或冠词+量词+of+不可数名词,量词可单复数,但 of 后的名词只用 原形,如 a piece of paper, a drop of water, two cups of tea 4.名词所有格: ’s 和 of 形式。 ’s 形式表示有生命的东西,of 所有格用来表示无生命的东西 my brother’s book the windows of the room

两个并列单数名词表示两者共有时,在最后一个名词后加’s This is Mary and her sister’s

bedroom. 如果表示两者分别有,那么两个词都要加’s 如果以 s 结尾名词,其后加’,其他形式加’s These are Tom’s and Mary’s bags. Teachers’ Day Children’s Day

店铺、 医院名称加’ s, at the doctor’ s someone,everybody,no one 和 else, 在 else 后加’ s, 如 somebody else’s pencil 表示时间,距离,国家,城市等无生命的东西的名词,可以在词尾加’s 或’来构成所有格。 A. 用于时间 An hour’s ride C.用于价值 A hundred yuan’s order E. 用于国家 Belgium’s capital B. 用于度量 Thirteen tons’ weight D. 用于天体 The earth’s satellite F. 用于城市 The Ural’s industry

5. 双重所有格:of+名词所有格,of+名词性物主代词 表示部分概念, of 短语修饰的名词前通常有表示数量的限定词, 如: a, an, one, two, some, several,a few,many,any,no 等。This is a picture of mine.这是我的一张照片。 双重所有格与 of 所有格的不同。如:He is a friend of your father's. 6.名词转化 某些名词后加 y 变形容词,表示“充满?的” ,cloud-cloudy, sun-sunny 某些名词后加 ful 变形容词,表示“?性质的” ,use-useful, care-careful 部分表示人的名词后加 ly 变形容词,具有赞美意味。Friend-friendly, lovely 某些名词后加 less 表示没有,careless, useless 二、名词用法 作主语,English is useful. 做定语,paper tigers, work places

做宾语,She learns Chinese hard every day. 做表语,Tom is my good friend. 做宾语补足语, They chose the boy monitor. 三、既是可数又是不可数名词的意义不同: Work 工作-a work 著作,glass 玻璃-a glass 玻璃杯,paper 纸-a paper 报纸,文件,试卷 Tea 茶-a tea 一种茶,wood 木头-a wood 小树林,room 空间-a room 空间 非复数:physics, maths, politics, news 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes 等,若表达具体数目, 要借助数量词 pair 双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers 等。当物质名词表 示该物质的种类时,可数 【实例解析】

1.These _________ have saved many children’s lives. A. woman doctors B. women doctor C. women doctors doctor 2.This is _________ bedroom. The twin sisters like it very much.

D. woman

A. Anne and Jane B. Anne’s and Jane’s C. Anne’s and Jane D. Anne and Jane’s 3.---Are there any ________ on the farm? ---Yes, there are some. A. horse B. duck C. chicken D. sheep 4.---What would you like to drink, _______or orange?---Orange, please.A. hamburger B. chip C. tea 【中考演练】 一. 单项填空 1.--- Where have you been, Tim? --- I’ve been to ______. A. the Henry house B. the Henry family C. the Henry’s home D. Henry’s 2.In England, if __is in the middle of the day, the evening meal is called supper. 3.A. food B. lunch C. breakfast D. dinner 3.You looked for it twice, but you haven’t found it. Why not try ____ . A. three times B. a third time C. the third time D. once 4.--- They are thirsty. Will you please give them ______ ? --- Certainly. A. some bottles of waters B. some bottles of water C. some bottle of water bottle of waters D. some

5.Mike hurt one of his ______ in the accident yesterday.A. tooth B. feet C. hand D. ear 6.There is some _______ on the plate. A. cakes B. meat C. potato D. pears 7.In England, the last name is the ______.A. family name B. middle C. given name D. full name 8.The are going to fly _______ to Beijing.A. Germen B. Germany C. Germanys D. Germans 9.The______ has two _______ .A. boys; watches B. boy; watch C. boy; watches D. boys; watch 10.The little baby has two _______ already.A. tooth B. tooths C. teeth D. teeths 11.What’s your _______ for being late again? A. idea B. key C. excuse D. news 12.--- It’s dangerous here. We’d better go out quickly. --- But I think we should let _______ go out first. A. woman and children B. women and child C. woman and child D. women and children 13.--- You can see Mr. Smith if there is a sign “_______ ”on the door of his shop. --- Thanks. A.ENTRANCE B.BUSINESS HOURS C.THIS SIDE UP D.NO SMOKING 14.Are they going to have a picnic on _______ ? A. Children’s Day B. Childrens’s Day C. Childrens Day D. Children Day 二. 根据下列句子的情景及所给汉语注释,写出所缺单词。 1. We’ve got a lot of new ________(杂志) in our school library. 2. Please turn to another _______(频道), I don’t like this show. 3. Yesterday the _________(航班) to London was put off because of the bad weather. .4. Autumn is my favourite (季节)

5. ---How many _______(小刀) do you have?---Three. 6. __________ are widely used in the modern world. 7. June 1st is __________(儿童) Day. 8. Mary, would you please tell me your new ________(地址) so that I can write to you. 9. ---Does this piece of ______(音乐) sound nice? ---Yes. It’s wonderful! 10. May 12th is the International _______(护士) Day. Let’s say “ Thanks” to them for their work. A In almost every big university(大学)in the United States, football is a favourite sport. American football is different. Players sometimes kick the ball, but they also throw the ball and run with it. They try to take it to the other end of the field. They have four chances (机会) to move the ball ten yards (码) . They can carry it or they can throw it. If they move the ball ten yards, they can try to move it another ten yards. If they move it to the end of the field, they receive six points. It is difficult to move the ball. Eleven men on the other team try to stop the man with the ball. If he does not move the ball ten yards, his team kicks the ball the other team. Each university wants its own team to win. Many thousands of people come to watch. They all shout for their favourite team. Young men and women come on the field to help the people shout more. They dance and jump while they shout.Each team plays ten or eleven games each season. The season begins in September and ends in November. If a team is very good, it may play another game after the season ends. The best teams play again on January 1, the first day of the New Year. Many people go to see these games and many others watch them on TV. 1. The passage talks about ___________. A. football B. how to play football C. American sports D. American football 2. Why is it difficult to move the ball? Because ___________. A. ten yards is a long way B. many men on the other team try not to let the ball come near C. the playing field is very large D. eleven men have to catch the ball one by one 3. Many people come to watch football and they want their team to win. Which of the following is not their act? A. Jumping B. Dancing C. Crying D. Shouting


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