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试论从《论语》看孔子关于教师发展的若干思想中英文对照 Try to talk about from the analects of Confucius, Confucius ideas about teachers' development of several contrast in both Chinese and English
一、 “一日三省” :需有教学代写论文反思心 A, "a day of three provinces: teaching generation to write an essay reflecting on the heart

“学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆” [1]18 是孔子的一句名言。长期以来,教育界把“学 而不思则罔,思而不学则殆”看做是针对学生学习而言的,其实,在当前的形势下,对 "Learning without thought is labor lost, thought without learning is perilous" [1] 18 is a famous saying of Confucius. For a long time, educators "learning without thought is labor lost, thought without learning is perilous" as for the student to study, actually, in the current situation, right

中小学教师更有启发意义。现在许多中小学提出培养“研究型教师” ,提倡教师应当具有一 定的科研能力,要求把日常教学活动与教学科研结合起来,对教师的综合素质提出了更高 Primary and secondary school teachers more enlightening significance. Now many elementary and middle schools put forward to cultivate research-typed teachers ", advocates the teacher should have a certain scientific research ability, requested the daily teaching activities combined with teaching and research, to teacher's comprehensive quality higher

的要求。 这就要求教师一方面要努力掌握先进的教学理论和教学方法, 另一方面则应把这些 理论和自己在日常教学活动中遇到的问题紧密结合起来加以思考,研究, “学然后知不足 Of the requirements. This requires the teacher on the one hand, try to grasp the advanced teaching theory and teaching method, on the other hand, should take these theories and their problems in daily teaching activities combining thinking, research, "learn and know

,教然后知困” 。孔子的学生曾子提出的“吾日三省吾身” [1]3,孔子提出的“见贤思齐焉, 见不贤而自省也” [1]39, “择其善者而从之,其不善者而改之” [1]72, “子 , teach and then stuck. "student of Confucius zengzi" I three provinces, my body is "put forward by the [1] 3, Confucius put forward the" virtue, see emulating and introspection, "[1] 39," its good qualities from it, its shortcomings are to be not "[1], 72," the child

绝四:毋意,毋必,毋固,毋我” [1]87 等等,都是强调要虚心学习,以人为鉴,不断自 省的。当然,自省只是检查过失,并不是目的,目的是把检查出来的过失加以改正,他指 Unique four: no sense, no will, no, not me "[1], 87, etc., are emphasized to learn from them, to


guide, constant work. Of course, introspection is only check the fault, and is not the goal, the purpose is to check out the mistakes to correct, referring to

出, “过而不改,是谓过矣” [1]68, “过则勿惮改” [1]6。孔子并非不许别人有过失,而 是反对隐瞒过失而不改,只要正视过失,迅速改正,才可以“不贰也” ,也正如子贡 , "and don't change, is" yi "[1], 68," is not fears change "[1] 6. Confucius does not forbid others have faults, but opposed concealed fault and do not change, as long as the face fault, quickly correct, can be "no." also, as zi gong

所说, “君子之过也,如日月之食焉;过也,人皆见之;更也,人皆仰之” [1]203。孔子还 提出, “君子有九思:视思明,听思聪,色思温,貌思恭,言思忠,事思敬,疑思问 Says, "the gentleman has also, as the food of love how; also, they see; the more also, everybody is back of" [1], 203. Confucius also proposed that "the gentleman has 9: SiMing, listen to chung, color temperature, and thought, speech, sincerity, am thinking, doubt, ask

,忿思难,见得思义” [1]177,要求考虑自己的言行诸方面,也可以作为教师内省的内容。 因此,教学反思作为教师专业发展的一种路径或策略,主要目的并不在于获取外在的 And thought hard, see righteousness "[1] 177, requirements, considering his words and deeds of also can be used as the content of teachers' introspection. Thus, teaching reflection as a path or strategies of teacher professional development, the main purpose is not to get outside

、技术性的知识,而在于通过这种或那种形式的“反思” ,促使教师对自我和自己专业活动 直接相关的物、事有更为深入的“理解” ,发现其中的“意义” ,以追求促成“反思性实 , technical knowledge, but in this or that form of "reflection", encourage teachers to self and their professional activities that directly related to the content, more in-depth "understanding", found that the "meaning", in pursuit of "reflective

践” 。 [2] Practice "[2].

二、 “学无常师” :应在交往中教与学 2, "impermanence" : should be in contact in the teaching and learning

孔子的教师素质论是全面的, 自然没有忘记怎样处理师生之间以及师师之间的关系。 首 先,在处理与学生之间的关系问题上,孔子提出, “当仁,不让于师” [1]170。 《论 Confucius' theory of teachers' quality is a comprehensive, natural not forget how to deal with between the teachers and students, and the relationship between the division division. First of all,



on the issue of dealing with the relationship between the students, Confucius, "when, don't let the" [1], 170. The theory of

语》中记载了大量孔子师徒之间相互切磋、共同讨论、教学相长的故事。有一次,子夏引用 《诗经》中的“巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮,素以为绚兮”来请教孔子。孔子说: “有酒窝的脸 Language is recorded by a large amount of play between Confucius mentoring, mutual discussion, teaching is learning. On one occasion, zixia quoted in the book of songs "QiaoXiaoQianXi MeiMuPanXi, reputation as the ribbon xi" to consult Confucius. The master said, "have a dimple face

, 笑起来才美丽, 有黑白分明的大眼睛, 才能顾盼生情, 美丽的花卉是画在洁白的底子上的。 ” [1]25 子夏由此引用到礼、乐产生在仁义之后。孔子听了非常高兴,称, “起予者 , smile is beautiful, there are black and white eyes, look around to living feeling, beautiful flowers are painted in on a white background. "[1] this 25 xia's reference to the ritual and music after righteousness. Confucius listened to very happy, said," up to the person

,商也!始可与言《诗》已矣” [1]25。正因为如此,他说: “回也,非助我者也,于吾言无 所不说。[1]111 即是说,颜回不是对我有所帮助的人,他对我的话没有不喜欢的 ” , also! Beginning with "poem" gone "[1] 25. Because of this, he said:" back, also not helped me, also don't say I speak no's. That said, "[1] 111 YanHui don't help me, he doesn't like me no

。学生不仅是教师发展的受益者,也是教师发展的一面镜子,一个重要的资源。孔子重视青 年一代的发展前途,认为“后生可畏,焉知来者之不如今也?” [1]94 孔子的学生在各 . Student is not only beneficiary of teacher's development, but also a mirror of the teacher development, an important resource. Confucius attaches importance to the younger generation, the future development of thought ", that's quite beyond me how newcomers from now?" 94 [1] Confucius' students in all

种场合都敢于用孔子的话反驳孔子, 孔子也乐于接受意见, 修正自己的观点和做法。 有一次, 孔子来到子游做县长的武城,听到弹琴瑟唱诗歌的声音,就笑着说: “割鸡焉用牛刀! Kinds of occasions are dare to contradict with Confucius' words Confucius, Confucius also willing to accept opinions, modified his views and practices. Once, Confucius went to swim do Wu Cheng county, hear the sound of the playing harps singing poems, smiled and said: "cut chicken how use the wheel!

”意思是说治理这种小地方,用不着教育。子游听后反驳道: “昔者偃也闻诸夫子曰: ‘君子 学道则爱人,小人学道则易使也’。指明教育总是有用的,孔子听了这番话后很高兴 ” "Which means that management this small place, don't need education. Children swim after listen



to retort:" XiZhe suppress also smell of the master said, 'the gentleman's learning way is lover, a small study way is easy to make also'. Specify education is always useful, Confucius listened to the words very happy

,忙说,子游的话是对的,我刚才那句话不过是同他开玩笑而已[1]182。随着教育观念的 转变,教育被看做一种主体与主体之间的交流、合作活动,主体之间只有平等相待、相 , busy said, child's words is right, I just that sentence is just a joke with him [1], 182. With the transformation of education idea, education as a main body and main body of communication and cooperation between activities, only equality between the main body, phase

互学习, 才能实现双赢。 因此对于从事教书育人工作的教师来说, 更应该向自己的学生学习。 Mutual learning, to achieve a win-win situation. So for teachers engaged in teaching work, more should learn from his students. 孔子的师生观不仅包括“教学相长”的内容,还囊括了向一切有学识的人问学的思想。 “以能问于不能,以多问于寡,有若无,实若虚,犯而不校——昔者吾友尝从事于斯矣” Confucius view of teachers and students not only includes the content of the "so", contains also to all who have knowledge of thoughts. Ask "Can I ask to to ask more in widowhood, if have no, if virtual reality, committed and not the school - XiZhe my friend have engaged in si yi"

[1]80。曾子的这一言论便是对孔子的最好概括。孔子“问礼于老聃”“访乐于苌弘”“学 , , 琴于师襄” ,他“入太庙,每事问” [1]106。他提出“三人行,必有我师” [1 80 [1]. Zengzi's this speech is the best generalization of Confucius. Asked Confucius, "due to tze2", "visit to paragonimus hong", "on the piano teacher and discuss", his "into the ancestral temple, every thing ask" [1], 106. He put forward "threesome, thus [1

]72,主张治学应“敏而好学,不耻下问” 。在新课程的实施过程中,合作学习强调学 [1] 科课程间的相互整合,尤其是综合课程的出现,对教师之间的合作提出了新的要求。教 ] 72, argues that research should be "sensitive and studious, fools" [1]. Cooperative learning in the process of the implementation of the new curriculum, emphasis on mutual integration between discipline curriculum, especially the emergence of integrated curriculum, puts forward new requirements to the cooperation between teachers. To teach

师合作的实施需要善于沟通的品质和能力, 需要有理智的判断和成熟的热情, 需要有进行换 位思考的能力。有学者称这种合作的教师专业发展方式为生态取向的教师专业发展,它比 Division, implementation of the quality of the need to be good at communication and cooperation ability, need to have the enthusiasm to rational judgment and mature, needs to have the perspective-taking ability. Some scholars said the cooperation way of teacher professional development for ecological orientation of teachers' professional development, it is



理智取向的教师专业发展和实践及反思取向的教师专业发展更具有独特的优势。 Rational orientation of teachers' professional development and the practice and reflection orientation of teachers' professional development has unique advantages.

三、 “学而不厌” :要懂得“终身学习” Three, "to be insatiable in learning" : want to know "lifelong learning"

1994 年至 1997 年,有两次世界性的终身学习会议召开,会议强调, “终身学习是 21 世 纪人类的生存概念” 。其实,终身教育思想在中华民族的传统文化中早已存在。孔子 [3] From 1994 to 1997, there are two worldwide lifelong learning conference, the meeting stressed that "the concept of lifelong learning is the survival of mankind in the 21st century" [3]. In fact, lifelong education idea already exist in the traditional Chinese culture. Confucius

一生都在孜孜不倦地学习,他“吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命, 六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲不逾矩” [1]12;年近半百时,他还感叹地说: “加我 Spent his life diligently study, his "I have five and ten volunteers from learning, thirty, forty and perplexity, fifty and around 50, 60 and sixties, the seventy rather than placing no bounds" [1] 12; In nearly 60 years, he also lamented: "add me

数年, 五十以学 《易》 可以无大过矣。 , ” [1] 《史记· 71 孔子世家》 也记载, 孔子晚而喜 《易》 , 读《易》至韦编三绝,可见其好学不倦的精神。在孔子看来,作为一个教师, For years, 50 to learn easily, can be no greater than. "[1] shi-ji 71 Confucius aristocratic family" also records, Confucius and later xi "easy", read "easy" to study diligently, is the spirit of the fast. In Confucius' opinion, as a teacher,

必须博古通今,不但要了解过去,还要知晓现实。他称自己无非是“学而不厌,诲人不倦” [1]66 而已。他曾经自信地说: “十室之邑,必有忠信如丘者焉,不如丘之好学也。 ” Must be erudite and informed, not only to understand the past, but also know the reality. He said he is "to be insatiable in learning, teaching" [1], 66. He once said confidently: "the room ten city, there will be a faithful how, such as high as high studious also."

[1]53 他的好学曾达到“发愤忘食,乐以忘忧,不知老之将至” [1]71 的地步。孔子指斥 那种“无而为有,虚而为盈”的态度,并且说: “知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也, [1] his studious reached 53 "FaFenWangShi, with lotus, don't know to old" [1], 71. Confucius in order that "no to have, but to surplus" attitude, and said, "know for know, response, and is also,



” [1]19,同时指出, “好仁不好学,其蔽也愚;好智不好学,其蔽也荡;好信不好学,其 蔽也贼;好直不好学,其蔽也绞;好勇不好学,其蔽也乱;好刚不好学,其蔽也狂” [ "[1] 19, at the same time, points out that" benevolence is bad to learn, its crumbling fool also; Think bad to learn, its all about; Good letter not good learn, its all thieves also; Good straight not good study, its all heave also; Good yong not good learn, their houses also disorderly; Good just not good to learn, its all also crazy"

1]184。孔子的学生子贡也说: “日知其所云,月无忘其所能,可谓好学也已矣。[1]203 ” 教师需要具备终身学习的意愿和能力,对于专业教师来说,只有人人终身学习,才能 1) 184. Confucius' student zi gong said: "day, is known by its month no forget it can, indeed a studious has." [1] 203 teachers need to have the willingness and ability of lifelong learning, for professional teachers, only everybody, lifelong learning ability

实现其发展的连续性。所以,广大的教师应该像孔子那样有“学如不及,犹恐失之” [1]83 的意识。 四、 “温故知新” :教师不应只是教书匠 Achieve the continuity of its development. So, the teachers should have like Confucius "of learning such as, fear of loss of" the consciousness of 83 [1]. Four, "the view" : teachers should not only teacher

如果说知过必改还只是行为上的自省,能者为师倡导的只是向别人学习,那么,在必须 实施终身学习,经常更新知识的同时,教师还需要尝试教育科研。 “子曰:温故而知新, If ZhiGuoBiGai is introspection on behavior, those who know more act as teachers advocate is to learn from others, so, must be implemented in lifelong learning, constantly update the knowledge at the same time, teachers also need to try the education scientific research. "Confucius said: consider,

可以为师矣。[17]这其中包含着三层含义:一是指不仅要了解掌握过去的知识,还要认识 ” 当今社会的实际;二是指从已知到未知,建立新旧知识间的联系;三是指温故创新[4 Can for the teacher. "[17] which contains three meanings: one refers to not only understand the knowledge of the past, but also practical in today's society; the second is from the known to the unknown, the relationship established between the old and new knowledge; three [4. Therefore, innovation refers to the temperature

] 。教育活动本身是一种极具复杂性与创造性的实践活动。教师面对的永远是不同年龄、不 同水平、不同性格的学生,在教学过程中,教师也要不断遇到新的问题、新的情境,也就 ]. Education activity itself is a kind of highly complexity and creative practice. Teacher is always faced with students of different age, different level, different personality, in the teaching process, teachers should also be constantly new problems, new situation, also



是说,教育教学过程中的诸要素变化和发展永远是复杂的、不可预知的。为此,就需要教师 不断地设计、采用新的教学方案,创造性地处理教学中的各种问题。 Is to say, education teaching the essential elements in the process of change and development is always complicated and unpredictable. Therefore, requires teachers to constantly design and adopt a new teaching plan, deal with the problems of teaching creatively. 这个命题和他的学思结合的思想是一致的。温故而不能知新,就是学而不思;不温故而欲 知新,就是思而不学;只有学思的结合,才能做到温故知新。 This thesis combined with the thoughts and his thoughts are consistent. Is not new, learning without thought; Don't temperature to realize the new so, thought without learning is; Only learn to think, can do it there.

五、 “诲人不倦” :克服教师发展之职业倦怠 Five, "evangelistic" : to overcome the job burnout of teacher development

孔子一生能“学而不厌,诲人不倦” ,努力于他的教育事业,一个重要的原因就是他对 教育事业的热爱和忠诚。他说: “爱之能勿劳乎?忠焉能勿诲乎?” [1]147 孔子虽然在 Confucius life can "be insatiable in learning and teaching", and strive to in his education career, an important reason is that he love education career, and loyalty. He said: "love can not pain? Loyalty don't how to?" Confucius though in 147 [1]

政治上不得志,有时生活困难,工作受到挫折,但是他还能“饭疏食饮水,曲肱而枕之,乐 在其中” [1]71。其“乐业”精神真是难能可贵。他的学生子贡说: “学不厌,仁也, Politically frustrated, sometimes living difficulties, setbacks in work, but he can also "rice steam feed water, brachial and pillow, enjoy" [1], 71. The "happy" spirit is commendable. His student zi gong said: "can learn, benevolence, also

诲不倦,圣也。[5] ” “诲人不倦”的精神是他对学生忠与仁的精神的表现,是作为教师的负 责精神的表现。 “知之者不如好之者,好之者不如乐之者” [1]61,作为一个教师 His tireless, SAN also. "[5] the spirit of" teaching "is his performance of students in the spirit of" loyalty "and" benevolence ", is as a teacher is responsible for the spirit." Know of as well, good than of joy "[1] of 61, as a teacher

,首先应该热爱自己的事业。只有认识到自己事业的重要性,才会积极地献身于这一事业, 工作起来才会主动积极,发挥潜力,想方设法做好本职工作。 “诲人不倦"正是教师区别 , first of all should love their career. Only realize the importance of their own businesses, and actively dedicated to the cause, the work will be initiative and potential, to completes the labor of duty. Teachers of "teaching" is difference



于其他行业的显著特征,是教师对职业忠诚的最好评判。目前,教师的职业倦怠问题已引起 人们注意。教师的职业倦怠严重影响着教师的身心健康,对学生的健康成长、教育事业的 The salient features in other industries, is the best judge to loyalty to professional teachers. At present, teachers' job burnout problem has aroused people's attention. The teacher's job burnout has seriously affected the teachers' physical and mental health, for the healthy growth of the students, education career

顺利发展也将产生消极影响。 因此, 教师的信念和职业理想是教师在压力下维持心理健康的 重要保证。 The smooth development will produce negative influence. Therefore, teachers' beliefs and professional ideal teacher is under pressure to maintain the important guarantee of mental health.

六、 “不令而行” :教师发展之师德教育 Six, "don't make it" : the ethics education of the development of the teachers

学校教育,育人为本。古往今来, “传道、授业”从来就是教育的一个整体。长期以来, 浮躁的社会心态和功利性驱使着人们把升学率作为评价学校教育成败的唯一指标,从而 School education, education for this. Through the ages, "preaching, putting" has always been of education as a whole. Long-term since, blundering social mentality and utilitarian driving people to graduation rates as evaluation index, the success or failure of the school education only to

淡化了德育在学校教育中的地位。 而德育恰恰是教师职责的一个重要组成部分。 孔子教育成 功的重要原因之一是他个人人格的感化。 “其身正,不令而行;其身不正,虽令不从” [ Played down the status of moral education in school education. And the moral education is teachers' duty is an important part of. One important reason for the success of the Confucius education was his influence of personality. "The body is, don't make it, its a crooked stick, although make not from" [

1]136。这几句话虽不是专对教师说的,但也包含着做教师的应有的规范。又说: “不能正 其身,如正人何?” [1]138 孔子不仅这样说,事实上也是这样做的。教师是学生的榜样 1) 136. These words is not designed for teachers, but also contains the norms should be as a teacher. Say again: "can't is the body, such as what is man?" 138 [1] Confucius not only that, in fact do so. Teacher is an example to the students

,自己的一言一行都会直接影响到学生的健康成长。子贡称赞孔子教人“正身以矣” ,荀子 赞扬孔子“早正以待” 。孔子严格要求自己,做到忠恕信实,言行一致,克己教人,改过 , own a line and say will directly affect the healthy growth of students. Zi gong praised Confucius



teaches "am with yi", xun zi praised Confucius "is for" early. Confucius, strict with oneself, be loyal and faithfulness, match words with deeds, self-denial teach, to mend

迁善,做到断绝四种偏向:不凭空揣测,不完全肯定,不拘泥固执,不自以为是。他曾经自 我评价说: “盖有不知而作之者,我无是也。多闻,择其善者而从之;多见而识之——知 Four bias cut, do good: do not speculate about, not entirely sure, not stubborn, don't self-righteous. Carries he self-assessment once said: "I don't know and make the person, I have no is also. Book, the good qualities from it; see and know, know more

之次也。[1]67 意思是,大概有一种自己不懂却凭空造做的人,我没有这个弊病。多多地 ” 听,选择其中好的加以接受;多多地看,全记在心里。这样的知,是仅次于“生而知之 The Times also. "[1] 67 mean, there are about a themselves don't understand, but do it out, I don't have the ills. Great to hear, choose ok to accept, to see many, all in mind. Such knowledge, is second only to" inborn

”的。他经常检查自己, “德之不修,学之不讲,闻义不能徙,不善不能改,是吾忧也” [1] 67。意思是,品德没有培养,学习没有讲习,听到义在那里,却不能以身赴之;自己 ". He often check yourself, "don't speak, don't fix, learn, WenYi cannot migration, is not good can't change, is my sorrow also" [1] 67. Mean, moral training, learning not assembly, hear just there, but not with the body to; himself

有了缺点,却不能改正,这些都是我所忧虑的。这些主张,对我们今天的教师来说,仍然有 学习和借鉴的价值。 Have drawbacks, but they could not correct, these are my worries. These ideas, for our today's teachers, there are still learning and reference value.




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