专题讲座：基础写作 1.上周，我们以“谁是你的偶像”为题，在 2600 名学生中进行了一次调查(survey)。以下是 调查数据：
1．调查时间、调查问题以及调查对象； 2．男女生在以明星为偶像方面的差异； 3． “父母”在男女生偶像中的排序差异； 4．男女生在以伟人为偶像方面的异同； 5．你的偶像及理由。 2. 你很荣幸地成为 2008 北京奥运会的一名志愿者，负责编写奥运比赛项目的英语介绍。 【写作内容】 ：请根据以下中文提纲，编写射击项目的英语介绍： 背景：射击最初只是生存工具，19 世纪末才发展成为一项体育运动。 1896：第一次成为奥运项目 1904：中断 1928：中断 1932：重回奥运会 1968：第一次允许妇女参加奥运射击比赛 现状：稳步发展，1896 奥运会只有三项射击项目，现今有 17 项。 3. 假设你参加了学校组织的慰问福利院儿童的活动。请根据表格提供的信息，写一篇英文 日记，描述这次活动的情况。 活 动 安 内容 1. 时间:2008 年 6 月 29 日星期六 8:30 出发,与福利院的孩子们共 排 进午餐后返回。 2. 地点:校门口集中,骑自行车一个半小时到达目的地:市儿童福 利院。 3. 活动内容:亲切交谈,牵手唱歌、跳舞，赠送礼物，拍照留念。
一、题型特点： 1、写作题材贴近考生的学习和生活。 2、信息点多，必须用 5 句话表达。 3、信息呈现方式多为表格、图表、文字等。 4、以翻译为基础，但注重考察表达能力。 二、能力要求：
1、审题能力 2、处理信息的能力： 信息组合、排列合理 3、表达能力 ①语法正确 ②句式灵活 ③信息内容表达准确、完整 ④语篇连贯 三、表达能力训练 1.写好简单句 简单句的五种基本句型： 1）主语+不及物动词 (S+V) 2）主语+及物动词+宾语 (S+V+O) 3）主语+系动词+表语 (S+V+P) 4）主语+及物动词+双宾语 (S+V+O+O) 5）主语+及物动词+宾语+宾补 (S+V+O+C) Ex : 改正下列病句并指出基本句型。 1. My favourite subjects including English and Chinese. 2. Last week we hold a discussion about this topic. 3. The future life will become more and more better. 4. The fire destroied their houses. 5. He spends two hours to study English every night. 6. He cost ten dollars for the book. 7. He watched TV for a while before went to bed. 8. She is confidence and patience. 9. In his opinion, get fat is a terrible thing. 2、如何做到句式灵活？ 1)并列句 2)复合句 (定语从句、状语从句、名词性从句) 3)强调句型 4)非谓语动词 5)倒装句 6)其他句型及结构 Ex:按要求改写下列句子。 1) English is widely used in the world. Most business letters are written in English. (合并为并列 句) 2) People thought of some ways to solve the problem. These solutions didn’t work. (合并为并 列句) 3) I suggest that you visit the Great Wall. It has a history of more than two thousand years. (合并 为定语从句)
4） July 11 has been named the Sailing Day in our country since 2005. Zheng He began his famous voyage on July 11. (合并为定语从句) 5) I will not be able to meet you at the airport. I have some experiments to do that day.(合并为 状语从句) 6）The problem was complicated. He solved it in only two hours with a computer. (合并为状语 从句) 7) In the past five years, there have been changes in people’s diet. It is a fact.(合并为名词性从 句) The weather was fine. We went to visit the ZhongShan Park. (独立主格结构) You should never give up when you are faced with difficulties. (倒装句+非谓语)
10) When a man and a woman meet, the woman first offers her hand. (改为强调句) 11) 众所周知, 吸烟危害健康。 （一句多译） a. It is known to all that smoking does harm to people’s health. b. As is known to all, smoking harms people’s health. c. Everyone knows that smoking is harmful to people’s health. 四、如何使文章连贯？(过渡词的使用) 1) 时间： soon, then, suddenly, meanwhile, before, after, earlier, in the morning, afterwards, later, immediately, next, the other day, nowadays, gradually… 2) 空间: above, below, up, down, under, near, far from, in front of, behind, beside, beyond, on the right/left, around, inside, outside, opposite to, next to, on top of, across... 3) 列举： for example, such as, first(ly), second(ly), finally, besides, apart form, for one thing…for another thing … 4) 比较: like, unlike, on the contrary, in contrast to, on the one hand…on the other hand, than, not so…as…, as…as…, while, similarly, the former, the latter, some…others, one…the other, compared with… 5) 逻辑关系： a. 并列：and, as well as, also? b. 转折：but, however, yet? c. 递进：besides, apart from, in addition, what’s more, furthermore, moreover, to make things worse… d. 原因：because, because of, as, since, for that reason…
e. 结果：so, therefore, thus, as a result? f. 让步：though, although, in spite of? 五、基础写作的推荐步骤： 、认真审题 2、归纳、排列信息点 3、确定短语和句型、连词成句 4、组句成篇 5、检查修改 基础写作例题分析 1 某报设有一个求助信箱，请根据以下表中列出的信 息，以高三学生李华的名义给 Mr. Helper 写一封英文 短信。信的开头和结尾已写好，不计入五句话。
Dear Mr. Helper, I’m a senior 3 student. I am now in great need of your help because I can hardly stand the great pressure._______________________________________________________________ I am looking forward to your advice. Yours sincerely, Li Hua 写作步骤： 第 1 步 审题 1 2 3 4 体裁格式 内容 人称、时态 信息点的整 合和排列
第 2 步 整合信息, 译成英语。 1) 每天在校时间约 10 小时。每天完成作业时间 3～4 小时。 Every day we stay at school for about ten hours to have lessons. We spend at least three to four hours doing our homework. 2) 每天几乎没有时间娱乐、消遣。 a. We hardly have any time for relaxation. b. Hardly can we find any time to do what we want. 3) 每天睡眠时间不足，不利于健康。
a. We don’t have enough time to sleep, which does harm to our health. b. We suffer from lack of sleep, which, in the long run, is not good for our health. 4) 负担过重的原因是面临高考。 a. The main cause of our heavy burden is the pressure from the college entrance examination. b. The reason why we are carrying such a heavy burden is that we are facing the college entrance examination. 5) 父母对我们的期望很高。 a. Our parents expect too much of us. b. Our parents have high expectations of us. 第 3 步 连句成篇 Dear Mr. Helper, I’m a senior 3 student. I am now in great need of your help because I can hardly stand the great pressure. Every day we stay at school for about ten hours to have lessons ____ spend at least three to four hours doing our homework. _________, hardly can we find any time to do what we want. _____________, We suffer from lack of sleep, which, in the long run, is not good for our health. The reason why we are carrying such a heavy burden is that we are getting the pressure from the college entrance examination. ___________, Our parents have high expectations of us. I am looking forward to your advice. Yours sincerely, Li Hua 基础写作分析 2: ? 假设你是王强，拾到电子词典一部，请失主前来认领。 ? [写作内容] ? 时间：2008 年 11 月 11 日晚地点：学校图书馆阅览室特征：新、白色、比名片稍大、 杂志般厚联系地址：C 楼 305 房联系电话：28250001[写作要求] ? 1. 标题：Lost and Found ? 2. 必须用五个句子介绍全部所给内容 ? 3. 将 5 个句子组织成连贯的短文
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 必须认真审阅题目的全部内容，写作时才能做到无一信息遗漏。 从题目要求我们可以判断这是一则寻物启事，四个“W”一个“H”很清晰。 捡获者(Who): 王强 什么事(What): 拾到电子词典一部，请失主前来认领 时间(When): 2006 年 11 月 11 日晚 地点(Where)：学校图书馆阅览室 联系方式(How)：C 楼 305 房 28250001 还有电子词典的特征。
学生写作过程分以下 4 个步骤： 1、定标题 文章已给出题目：Lost and Found 2、分信息要点写草稿
引导学生列出本题的三个要点： 1) When & where you found it 2) The feature of the e-dictionary 3) Your contact information 然后分信息要点来写。 1) When & where you found it in, on, at. ____ the evening of November 11, 2006 两分钟思考并用英文表达这信息要点，然后请个别同学读出他(她)写的句子，最后教师展示 范例： On the evening of November 11, 2008, I found an e-dictionary in the reading room of the library in the school. 2) The feature of the e-dictionary 怎样用英文表达“比名片稍大、杂志般厚” The e-dictionary is a new white one. It is a little bigger than a business/visiting card and as thin as a regular magazine. 3) Your contact information 该部分可再细分为两个信息要点： Where you live: At Room 305 in Building C Your phone number: 28250001 Please call me at 28250001 or come to Room 305 Building C 3、写完整文章 写完文章后要注意用好连接词，文章末尾不能签自己的名字，而应写“王强” 。还应从以下 几个方面给文章润色： ①全篇文章是否五句话； ②内容是否完整， 是否漏了要点或发挥过多； ③语法是否正确（检查时态、语态、主谓一致、搭配、名词单复数等）; ④单词拼写是否正 确; ⑤人称是否符合要求; ⑥过渡词是否使用自然; ⑦句子成分是否完整。 ? Lost and Found On the evening of November 11, 2006, I found an e-dictionary in the reading room of the library in our school. The e-dictionary is brand new and white in color.It is a little bigger than a business card and as thinas a regular magazine. The owner of the e-dictionarycan call me at 28250001 or come by and claim it in Room 305 Building C where I live. You are welcome any time. Wang Qiang 范文 On June 28th of 2008, which was Saturday, I took part in an activity to visit the city’s Home for the Homeless Children organized by our school. We started out at school gate at 8:30 in the morning and got there one and a half hours later on our bikes. We talked with the children there heartedly and sang and danced with them hand in hand, besides giving them lots of gifts and taking photos. We had lunch together with the children there before we came back to school. I thought such a visit was very meaningful as we can do a little bit for those children without parents so that they can enjoy the friendship and care from other people. Last week, we did a survey among 2600 students on “ Who Is Your Idol”. The survey shows that half of the girls choose film and TV stars as their idols, while 48% of the boys favor sports stars.
As date shows, “parents” ranks the second for the girls, but the fourth for the boys. However, the percentage of the boys choosing “great figures” is the same as that of the girls. As for myself, Thomas Edison is my idol, because his inventions have greatly changed our life. Version 1 Shooting, originated as a means of survival, developed into a sport only in the late 19th century. The sport first appeared in 1896, but none were contested during the 1904 and 1928 Games. The sport returned to the Olympics in 1932. Women were first allowed to compete in the Olympic shooting in 1968. The sport has grown steadily from just three shooting events at the 1896 Olympic Games to 17 today. Version 2 It was not until at the end of 19th century that shooting, originated as a means of survival, earned its status as a sport. Shooting became an Olympic event officially in 1896. Yet, twice in history (1904, 1928) shooting was suspended at the Olympics. It returned to the Games in 1932, and women were first allowed to participate in the competition in 1968. The sport has been growing steadily from 1896's three events to today's seventeen. Version 3 Shooting, simply a means of making a living, developed into a kind of sport at the end of the 19th century. Shooting first appeared in the 1896 Olympic Games. Having been canceled in 1904 and in 1928, the sport returned to the Olympics in 1932. It was not until 1968 that women were first allowed to compete in Olympic shooting. Now, with its steady development, shooting includes 17 events, while only 3 in 1896. Version 4 Shooting, at first only a means to make a living to our ancestors, became an item/event in Physical Education at the end of the 19th century. In the year 1896 it came into the Olympic Games but between the years 1904 and 1928 it was stopped. It was in the year 1932 that shooting came back into the Olympic family and in 1968 women athletes were allowed to take part in it for the first time. Shooting has been developed smoothly and steadily by now. In 1896 there were only 3 shooting competition items but now there are 17. 练习 学校体育课与体育锻炼 ? 现代社会人们越来越重视健康和体育锻炼，学校更是重视体育课的开设，规定高中 生体育课至少两节。请根据以下提示写一篇关于短文： ? [写作内容] ? 1. 你校每周有几节体育课？ ? 2. 体育课的内容； ? 3. 你校另外还有哪些体育锻炼形式； ? 4. 谈谈你或的同学对体育锻炼的看法和做法。 Nowadays people focus more and more on the physical training, and the students in the school especially enjoy more physical training. We high school students have two PE classes every week and we have many forms of training, such as running, playing basketball, football, table tennis, and so on. Besides, some students get up early in the morning to run, some even run to school every day, many boy students often play basketball or football and after school or at weekend. In fact, we students all like to have PE classes very much. But sometimes we are so busy with our studies that we have little time to take part in sports.
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