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高考英语陷阱题总结归纳——虚拟语气


高考英语陷阱题总结归纳——虚拟语气
◆典型陷阱题分析◆
1. I forget where I read the article, or I _____ it to you now.
A. will show B. would show
C. am going to show D. am showing
【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。
【分析】正确答案选B.根据上文的语境可知句中的 or 隐含有一个虚拟的条件,即 or=if I didn’t forget where I read the article(要是我没忘记我在哪儿读过这篇文章的话——但事实上忘了)。
2. “It looks as if he were drunk.” “So it does. _____.”
A. He’d better give up drinking
B. He shouldn’t have drunk so much
C. Health is more important than drink
D. I wonder why he is always doing so
【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选,主要是受句中 drunk 一词的影响。
【分析】最佳答案为D.关键信息是It looks as if he were drunk 中的虚拟语气,句子既然用了虚拟语气,也就是说,“他喝醉了”不是事实,只是他的言行好像是醉了,所以此题的最佳答案是D.
3. “Mary looks hot and dry” “So _____ you if you had so high a fever.”
A. do B. are
C. will D. would
【陷阱】容易误选A或C.选A者,认为前后两句的动词性质应一致;选C者,认为其后带有if 条件状语从句,从语气上看,主句应用将来时态。
【分析】此题最佳答案为D.分析如下:
(1) “so + 助动词 + 主语”是一个很有用的结构,它表示“……也一样”时。如:
He likes to watch TV, and so do I. 他喜欢看电视,我也一样。
When animals and plants disappear, so will man. 当动植物消失的时候,人类也会随之消失。
(2) 由于空格后的 if 条件状语从句的谓语用的是虚拟语气(这是很重要的信息),所以主句要用 would 而不用 will,即答案应选D.
4. “He will come tomorrow.” “But I’d rather he _____ the day after tomorrow.”
A. will come B. is coming
C. came D. had come
【陷阱】容易误选A或B.根据上文的 He will come tomorrow 以及下文的时间状语 the day after tomorrow 似乎都表明空白处应填一个一般将来时态。
【分析】但此题的最佳答案是 C.按照英语习惯,would rather 后接that 从句时,从句谓语通常要用虚拟语气,即用过去式表示现在或将来,用过去完成时表示过去。又如:
I’d rather you left right now. 我宁愿你现在就离开。
I would much rather it was forgotten. 我更愿这事被遗忘掉。
I’d rather he hadn’t told me about it. 我宁愿他没告诉我这事。
请再做以下试题(答案均为B):
(1) “Shall I come tomorrow ?” “I’d rather you ______.”
A. won’t B. didn’t
C. don’t D. wouldn’t
(2) “I’ve told him about it.” “But I’d rather you ______.”
A. didn’t B. hadn’t
C. don’t D. wouldn’t
(3) “He will take you as well.” “But I’d rather he ______.”
A. won’t B. didn’t
C. doesn’t D. wouldn’t
5. All the doctors in the hospital insisted that he ____ badly wounded and that he ____ at once.
A. should be; be operated on
B. were; must be operated on
C. was; should be operated
D. was; be operated on
【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。
【分析】最佳答案选 D.insist后的从句谓语有时用“should+动词原形”这样的虚拟语气,有时不用,具体要看该谓语动词所表示的含义。一般说来,若该谓语动词所表示的动作尚未发生,或尚未成为事实,则用虚拟语气;若该谓语动词所表示的动作已经发生,或已经成为事实,则要用陈述语气。分析上题的句意,可知只有选D最合适。请做以下类似试题(答案选B):
(1) The patient insisted that he _______ ill and _______ to the hospital.
A. wasn’t, wasn’t sent B. wasn’t, shouldn’t be sent
C. shouldn’t be, wasn’t sent D. shouldn’t be, shouldn’t be sent
(2) The man in prison insisted that he _______ nothing wrong and _______ set free.
A. should do, should be B. had done, should be
C. had done, had been D. should do, had been
(3) I advised that he ______ to the hospital at once, but he insisted that he ______ quite well then.
A. was sent; felt B. be sent; was feeling
C. he sent; feel D. should be sent; should feel
6. ______ smoking, he would not have got cancer in the lung.
A. Was he given up B. Had he given up
C. Did he give D. If he gave up
【陷阱】容易误选 D.
【分析】正确答案应选B.之所以不能选D,是因为时态前后有矛盾。由于主句谓语是would not have got,这表明是对过去事实作出的假设,所以从句谓语应该是 had given up,而不是像D项那样用一般过去时。另外,当虚拟条件句中有 had, should, were 等词时,通常可以省略 if,并将 had, should, were 提前置于句首。又如:
Were they to cease advertising, prices would come down.= If they were to cease advertising, prices would come down. 如果他们停止做广告,价钱会降下来。
Had I been there, I would have filmed the occasion.= If I had been there, I would have filmed the occasion. 如果我在那里,我会把那场面拍摄下来了。


◆精编陷阱题训练◆
1. “I still haven’t thanked Aunt Lucy for her present.” “It’s time you _____.”
A. do B. did
C. had D. would
2. If I hadn’t been lucky enough to meet you. I really _____ what I would have done.
A. don’t know B. hadn’t known
C. wasn’t knowing D. wouldn’t know
3. “I’ve told everyone about it.” “Oh, I’d rather you _____.”
A. don’t B. hadn’t
C. couldn’t D. wouldn’t
4. It has been raining for a day, but even though it hadn’t rained, we _____ there by tomorrow.
A. can’t get B. won’t get
C. hadn’t got D. wouldn’t get
5. “Do you know his address?” “No, I also wish I _____ where he _____.”
A. knew, live B. knew, lives
C. know, lives D. know, lived
6. “Isn’t it about time you _____ to do morning exercises?” “Yes, it is. Would you like to join us?”
A. begin B. have begun
C. began D. had begun
7. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I ____ in love, at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown.
A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen
C. should fall D. were to fall
8. He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he ____ a goal.
A. had scored B. scored
C. would score D. would have scored
9. If only he _______ quietly as the doctor instructed, he would not suffer so much now.
A. lies B. lay
C. had lain D. should lie
10. Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night ____ for us to live.
A. would be freezing cold B. will be freezing coldly
C. would be frozen cold D. can freeze coldly
11. Yesterday, Jane walked away from the discussion. Otherwise, she ____ something she would regret later.
A. had said B. said
C. might say D. might have said
12. You didn’t let me drive. If we ____ in turn, you ____ so tired.
A. drove; didn’t get B. drove; wouldn’t get
C. were driving; wouldn’t get D. had driven; wouldn’t have got
13. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ______.
A. breaks B. has broken
C. were broken D. had been broken
14. But for the help you gave me, I _______ the examinations.
A. would have passed B. would pass
C. wouldn’t have passed D. wouldn’t pass


◆答案与解析◆
1. 选B.It’s time you did 为 It’s time you thanked Aunt Lucy for her present 之略。按照英语语法,it’s time 后从句通常要用过去式。
2. 选A.虽然前有虚拟条件句, 后有使用了虚拟语气的宾语,但 I don’t know 却宜用一般现在时,因为 I don’t know 表述的是现在的真实情况,句意为“我要不是有幸遇到你,我真不知(指现在不知)我会做出什么蠢事来”。
3. 选B.I’d rather 后接从句时,从句谓语的时态规律是:用过去式表示现在或将来,用过去完成式表示过去。
4. 选A.we can’t get there by tomorrow 为客观事实,故宜用陈述语气。
5. 选B.第一空填 knew,因为 I wish 后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气(即用过去式表示现在的想法);第二空要填lives,即用陈述语气,因为 where he lives 是一个客观事实,而不是 I wish 的内容。
6. 选C.It’s time… / It’s high time… / It’s about time… 等后接从句时,从句谓语通常用过去式。
7. 选 B.此题涉及错综时间虚拟条件句,主句与现在事实相反,条件句与过去事实相反。句意为:要不是在七岁时就迷上了 Melinda Cox 图书馆,我真不能想像我如今会在做什么。
8. 选 D.这是otherwise 引出的含蓄虚拟语气,再根据前面的 hesitated 可进一步知道这是与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,由此可推知答案选 D.
9. 选 C.if only 意为“要是……就好了”,其后的句子谓语要用虚拟语气,同时根据 as the doctor instructed 中的过去时态可知从句是与过去事实相反,故选 C.
10. 选 A.without 引出的介词短语为一个与现在事实相反的含蓄条件句。
11. 选 D.otherwise 在此相当于 if she had not walked away from the discussion,即暗示一个与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句。
12. 选 D.根据句中的 didn’t let me drive 可知,这是一个与过去事实相反的虚拟语气句,条件句的谓语用 had+过去分词,主句谓语用 would / should / could / might have+过去分词。
13. 选 C.as if 引导的句子,有时用虚拟语气,有时不用。原则上说,若指事实或可能为事实,不用虚拟语气;若指现在,从句谓语动词用一般过去时(be 用 were);若指过去用过去完成时,若指将来用过去将来时或用 were to do sth.又如下面一题要选 C:
It seems as if the sun ____ round the earth since it rises in the east and sets in the west.
A. circles B. is circling
C. were circling D. has been circling
14. 选C.but for 的意思是“若不是,要不是”,用于引出与事实相反的假设,通常与虚拟语气连用。根据句中的 the help you gave me,可知它表示与过去事实相反,故选C.

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