? 英语句子通常有两种语序：一种是 陈述语序，一种是倒装语序。 ? 将谓语的一部分或全部置于主语之 前的语序叫做倒装语序。 ? 倒装可分为二种：将整个谓语提到 主 语 之 前 的 叫 完 全 倒 装 （ full inversion）； ? 而只将be 、情态动词或者助动词放 在主语之前的叫做部分倒装 （partial inversion）。
1. There be结构。另外,在此结构中可以用 来代替be动词的动词有:exist, seem, happen, appear, live, rise, stand等。如:
There stood a dog before him. There exist different opinions on this question. 巩固练习: 1) ________ a beautiful palace ________ the foot of the hill. A. There stand; at B. There stands; under C. Stands there; under D. There stands; at
2 (1).在以here、there、now、then等副词开 头的句子里。 “Here, There, Now, Then + come (或be,go,lie,run) + 主语" 结构。 Here comes the old lady! Then came the hour we had been looking forward to. There comes the bus. Now comes your turn. 如果主语是人称代词,就不用倒装。如: Here you are. There she comes.
(2). 表示方向的副词out, in, up, down等置于 句首,要用全部倒装。如果主语是人称代词, 就不用倒装。如: In came Mr. White. Up went the arrow into the air. Away went the boy. 2) There ________. And here ________. A. goes the phone; she comes B. is the phone going; is she C. does the phone go; does she come D. the phone goes; come she
3) Out ________, with a stick in his hand. A. did he rush B. rushed he C. he rushed D. he did rush
4) ________ from the top of the building when the policeman pointed the gun at him. A. Jumped down the robber B. Jumped the robber down C. Down jumped the robber D. Down the robber jumped
(3).当表示地点的介词词组(如on the wall, under the tree, in front of the house, in the middle of the room等)在句首时。 At the foot of the hill lies a beautiful lake. The soldiers ran to the building, on the top of which flew a flag. East of the lake lie two towns. Under the tree was lying a wounded soldier. 5) Near the church ________ cottage. A. was such an old B. had a so old C. was such old a D. is so an old
3."分词(代词) + be + 主语"结构。如: Walking at the head of the line was our teacher. Such was the story he told me. 6) ________, a man of achievements, deep thoughts, but with simple habits. A. Einstein was such B. Such was Einstein C. Einstein was so D. So was Einstein 7) ________ are the days when teachers were looked down upon. A. Gone B. Go C. To go D. Going
部分倒装是把be动词、情态动词、助动 词放到主语之前。如果句子中没有这些词, 要在主语之前加助动词do / does / did等,而把 原来的谓语动词变成原形放在主语之后。
1. 句首状语为否定词或半否定词的句子。 这类词或短语主要有never, neither, nor, little, seldom(很少，不常）, rarely（很少，罕有）, hardly, scarcely（几乎不，简直没有）, no sooner （立即）, not only, in no way（决不）, at no time, few, not, no等, 如: Not a word did I say to him. Never have I found him so happy. Little does he care about what I said. I can't swim. Neither can he. No sooner had he gone to bed than he fell asleep.
巩固练习: 1) Hardly ____ the airport when the plane took off. A. I had arrived at B. had I arrived C. had I reached D. I had got to 2) —Have you ever seen anything like that before? —No, _____ anything like that before. A. I never have seen B. never I have seen C. never have I seen D. I have seen 3) She is not fond of cooking, ____ I. A. so am B. nor am C. neither D. nor do
2. only + 状语放在句首,要部分倒装。如: Only by this means is it possible to explain it. (介词短语) Only then did I realize the importance of math. (副词) Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get happily back to work. (从句)
4) Only in this way ____ make progress in your English. A. you B. can you C. you be able to D. will you able to 5) Only when the meeting was over___ go back to meet his friend. A. he could B. he was able to C. was he able to D. was able to he
3. so或so引导的短语放在句首,要部分倒装。如: I saw the film, so did she. So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him. 6) The doctor told Charlie to breathe deeply and ____. A. so did Charlie B. Charlie did so C. Charlie does so D. did Charlie so 7) So loudly _____ that ____ hear her clearly. A. did she speak; could everyone B. did she speak; everyone could C. she spoke; could everyone D. she spoke; everyone could
4. "Not only + 分句,but also + 分句"句型中的前 一分句要部分倒装。如:
Not only does John love Chinese, he is also good at speaking it.
但not only...but also...连接主语时,不倒装。如: Not only the mother but also the children are sick. 8) ___ himself wrong, but his friends were wrong. A. Not was only he B. Not only he C. Not only was he D. Not only was
5. Not until放在句首,从句不倒装,主句倒装。如: Not until last week did they find the lost bike. (简单句) Not until my son had entered the university did he realize the importance of time. (复合句)
9) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___know what heat is. A. man did B. man C. didn't man D. did man 10) Not until I began to work ____ realize how much time I had wasted. A. didn't I B. did I C. I didn't D. I
6. 在以often, well, many a time, now and again 等方式或频度副词(短语)开头的句子中,要用部 分倒装结构。如: Many a time has John given me good advice. Often have we made that test. 12) Many a time ________ swimming alone. A. the boy went B. went the boy C. did the boy go D. did go the boy
? May you succeed! ? Long live the People’s Republic of China!
在带有倒装句的复合句（或并列句） 中，到底应在何处倒装，不少初学 者觉得难以掌握。下面的顺口溜可 以帮助你较容易地掌握其结构形式。 NB前倒后不①， O，NU主倒从不倒②， 2N前倒后也倒③， NM前后均不倒④。
? ①NB代表Not only…，but also… 引导的并列句。 not only位于句首 时，所引导的前面的分句倒装，后 面的分句不倒装。故此称为“前倒 后不倒”。如： ? 1）Not only did he come，but also he was very happy． ? 2）Not only was everything that he had taken away from him ， but also his German citizenship （was taken away）．
②O代表only＋状语从句；NU代表Not until＋ 状语从句。此两种结构位于句首时，倒装主句 而不倒装从句，即：“主倒从不倒”。如： 1）Only when he told me did I know it． 2）Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted． No sooner…than…，Hardly／ Scarcely…when…等句型也属此类用法。如： No sooner（Hardly） had we reached home than（when）it began to rain．
③2N代表Neither…nor…所引导 的并列句。2N若位于两分句之首， 则前后分句均倒装。即“前倒后 也倒”。如： Neither do I know her name， nor does he.
④NM即No matter…引导的状语从句。 此时前面从句及后面主句均不倒装。 即“前后均不倒”。如： No matter how busy he is，he always comes to help us．
? 1. ---“ Look ! Here ____.” D ---“Oh, thank God . Here____.” A. the teacher comes ; he comes B. comes the teacher ; comes he C. does the teacher come ; does he come D. comes the teacher ; he comes ? 2. We waited and waited. ____ we had been looking A forward to. A. Then came the moment B. Then did the moment come C. The moment then came D. Then was coming the moment ? 3. ____can you expect to get a pay rise. C A．With hard work B．Although work hard C．Only with hard work D．Now that he works hard
? 4. Only after ____ to go to school. C A. New China was founded ; he was able B. was New China founded ; was he able C. New China came into being ; was he able D. New China founded ;he was able B ? 5. Little ____ about his own safety, though he was in great danger himself. A. does he care B. did he care C. he cares D. he cared ? 6. Not until all the fish died in the river ____ howA serious the pollution was . A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized C. the villagers did realize D. didn't the villagers realize ? 7. No sooner ____to the cinema ____the film began. A A. had he got ,than B. he had got, when C. did he get ,than D. had he got ,when
? 8. Not only ____interested in football but D ____beginning to show an interest in it. A the teacher himself is; all his students are B. the teacher himself is; are all his students C. is the teacher himself; are all his students D. is the teacher himself; all his students are ? 9.--Did you enjoy that trip? --I’m afraid not. And ____. D A. my classmates don’t either B. my classmates didn’t ,either C. neither did my classmates D. both B and C ? 10. So difficult ____ it to work out the problem that I B decided to ask Tom for advice. A. I did find B. did I find C. I have found D. have I found
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