英语句子成分分析 组成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。它包括：主语、谓语、宾 语、定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语等。 各成分在句中的作用如何?分别由哪些词及短语充当? 1.主语： 是句子要说明的人或事物， 是句子的主体， 一般由名词、 代词、数词、不定式或动名词等充当。如： The car is running fast.(名词) We are students.(代词) One of my classmates is from Shanghai.(数词) It's bad manners to spit in public.(不定式) Eating too much is bad for your health.(动名词) 若不定式短语作主语常用 it 作形式主语，而把真正的主语(不定 式短语)放在句后。 2.谓语：说明主语的动作或状态，也是句子的主体部分，一般由 动词充当。动词分为实义动词、连系动词、情态动词和助动词。 实义动词单独作谓语， 连系动词与表语一起构成谓语， 情态动词 与省略 to 的不定式构成合成谓语，助动词与动词原形共同构成 谓语部分。如： He works in a factory.(实义动词) I felt cold.(系动词+表语) How can I get to the station?(情态动词+实义动词) Do you speak English?(助动词+实义动词) They are working in a field.(助动词+实义动词) 【注意】谓语与主语在人称与数方面要相互照应。 3.宾语：是及物动词所涉及的对象，一般由名词、代词、不定式 及动名词等充当。如： He is doing his homework.(名词) They did nothing this morning.(代词) She wants to go home.(不定式) We enjoy playing football.(动名词) 【注意】 ①有的动词可接双宾语， 间接宾语指人， 直接宾语指物。 这类动词常见的有：give，buy，lend，pass， tell，leave 等。如： He bought me a book. Pass me the ball，will you?(间宾+直宾) 直接宾语一般放在间接宾语之后， 但若把直接宾语放在前面， 则 要在间接宾语前加适当的介词如 to 或 for 等。如： Han Chen lent some money to Li Hai.(直宾+间宾) Xiao Liu bought a dictionary for Tom.(直宾+间宾) ②有的动词常用不定式作宾语，而不能用动名词。这类动词有： want，wish， hope，promise，decide，agree， choose，care 等。 如： I hope to see you again. ③有的动词一般只用动名词作宾语， 而不用不定式。 这类动词有： enjoy，finish，mind，practise，miss， suggest，keep(on)等。如： Do you mind my opening the window? ④有的动词后接不定式与动名词含义不同。 forget to do 表示“未发生的动作” ，forget doing 表示“已完成的 动作” 。如： Don't forget to come here earlier tomorrow.(还没来) I forgot returning the book to him.(书已还给他了)
4.定语：用于修饰名词或代词，一般由形容词、名词、数词、 不定式等充当。如： What a beautiful kite it is!(形容词) She is a chemistry teacher.(名词) There are two students in the classroom.(数词) We have something to do tomorrow.(不定式) The man in blue is my brother.(介词短语) 【注意】定语一般位于被修饰词之前，但若修饰不定代词或 不定式等短语作定语，则放在后面。 5.状语：用于修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句，一般由副词、 介词短语、不定式短语或从句充当。单个副词作状语一般放 在被修饰词之前，短语或从句放在句首或句末。如： Thank you very much.(副词) I get up at five in the morning.(介词短语) He is studying hard so as to catch up with others.(不定式短语) We were having breakfast when the telephone rang.(从句) 【注意】enough 作状语只能放在被修饰词之后。如： He is old enough to go to school. 6.表语：用于说明主语的身份、特征或感受，一般由名词、 数词、形容词、分词等充当。常用的连系动词有：be，look， get，sound(听起来)，feel，become， smell，turn，taste(尝 起来)等。如： They are workers.(名词) Two and three is five.(数词) The story is very interesting.(形容词) M y job(工作)is teaching English.(动名词) She is at home.(介词短语) I feel terrible.(形容词) The dish tastes delicious.(形容词) 7.宾语补足语：用于补充说明宾语的动作，一般位于宾语之 后，宾语与宾语补足语一起构成复合宾语。需接复合宾语的 动词有：tell，let，help，teach， ask，see，have，order， make 等。 “宾补”一般由不定式短语、分词、名词、形容词 等充当。如： We elected him monitor.(名词) I found it difficult to learn English well.(形容词) The doctor told me to do more exercise.(不定式短语) He is going to have his hair cut.(过去分词) They saw a bird flying in the sky.(现在分词) 8 同位语： 同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者加以说 明的成分，近乎于后置定语。如： We students should study hard. / (students 是 we 的同位语，都 是指同一批‘学生’ ） We all are students. / (all 是 we 的同位语， 都指同样的 ‘我们’ ） 9 分词独立结构：分词作状语时其逻辑主语与句子的主语一 致! 否则应有自己的逻辑主语，构成分词独立结构。 例： Studying hard, you score will go up.
答案： 1They(主语） are working（系表结构做谓语） on the farm（地 11.We always work hard at English。 点状语） now（时间状语）. —— —— —— —— —————— 2.Seeing（动词 ing 做主语）is（谓语） believing （宾语） 主语 状语 谓语 状语 状语 3.All of us（主语） like （谓语）Kobe Bryant （宾语）very much 12. He said he didn't come. ——— ——— ——— —————— （程度副词状语） 主句主语 主句谓语 从句主语 从句谓语 4.She（主语） became（谓语） a doctor （宾语）in 1998 （时 13 .They love each other. 间状语） —— —— —————— 5.The book（主语） lying on the floor（补语） are（谓语） mine 主 谓语 宾语 （宾语） 14. What did you bye? 6.Suddenly （状语）it（形式主语） began to rain （谓语） —— —— —— —— 7.To catch the train ,（目的状语）I（主语） got up （谓语）early 宾 助动词 主 谓 yesterday （时间状语） 15. She watched her daughter playing the piano. 8.I（主语） always find（谓语） her （宾语）happy （状语） —— ———— —————— ————————— 9.He （主语） wonders （谓语） if I （条件句中的主语） still study 主 谓 宾 宾语补足语 （条件句中的谓语） English （条件句中的宾语）整个条件句做 16. Your job today is to help the old. 主干的宾语 ———— ——- —— ———————— 10.The letter （主语） which I received the day before yesterday （定 主 定语 系动词 表语 语从句） was（谓语） a friend of mine （宾语） 17. Speaking doesn't mean doing. ———— —————— —— 主 谓 宾 18. Bye the time I got to the station, the train had left. ———————————————— ————— ———— 时间状语从句 主句主语 主句谓语 19. The children bought their parents a car for the 25th anniversary of their marriage. —————— ——— —————— ——— ————————————— 主语 谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语 状语 20. It takes me an hour to get there. —— ——— ————— —————— 形式主语 谓语 宾语 真正主语 (三) ① D ② D ③ B ④ A ⑤ B ⑥ D ⑦ C ⑧ D ⑨ A ⑩ D (四) ①D ②B ③D ④C ⑤B (五) ① C ② C ③ A ④ B ⑤ B ⑥ D (六) ① C ② C ③ C ④ C ⑤ D ⑥ B (七) ① D ② A ③ D ④ D ⑤ A ⑥ D ⑦ C ⑧ D (八) ① us, 间接宾语 a story, 直接宾语 ② me, 间接宾语 a new bike, 直接宾语 ③ us, 间接宾语 history, 直接宾语 ④ Tom, 间接宾语 it, 直接宾语 ⑤ me, 间接宾语 message, 直接宾语
1. They are working on the farm now. 2. Seeing is believing. 3. All of us like Kobe Bryant very much 4. She became a doctor in 1998 5. The books lying on the floor are mine 6. Suddenly it begins to rain 7. To catch the train , I got up early yesterday 8. I always find her happy 9. He wonders If I still study English 10.The letter which I received the day before yesterday was a friend of mine. 11. We always work hard at English. 12. He said he didn't come. 13.They love each other. 14.What did you bye? 15.She watched her daughter playing the piano. 16.your job today is to help the old. 17.Speaking doesn't mean doing. 18.Bye the time I got to the station,the train had left. 19.The children bought their parents a car for the 25th anniversary of their marriage. 20.It takes me an hour to get there. 挑出下列句中的宾语 ① My brother hasn't done his homework. A A B A A swimming, how about you? A A A B C B B D C C D D ⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ⑦ They made him monitor of the class. ⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. B C B B C C D D C D D ② People all over the world speak English. ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation.
挑出下列句中的表语 ① The old man was feeling very tired. A A A A A B B B B C B C D C C D C D D D ② Why is he worried about Jim? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. ⑤ She was the first to learn about it. 挑出下列句中的定语 ① They use Mr. Mrs. with the family name. A A B B A A A A B B C C B B D C C C D D D D C D ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe! 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语 ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. A A A B B B C C C D D D ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③ She found it difficult to do the work.
④ How many new words did you learn last class? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go
B A B C
C C D D
⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. ⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is. A B
④ They call me Lily sometimes. AB C D ⑤ I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus. A B C D ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on playground just now? A B C D (七) 挑出下列句中的状语 ① There was a big smile on her face. A B C D ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. A B C D ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. A B C D
④ The man on the motorbike was travelling to fast. A B A A A A B B B C C C C B D D D D C D ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. ⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine.
(八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语 ① Please tell us a story. ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen. Give it to Tom. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me?
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