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高考英语句法复习专题-定语从句


定 语 从 句
在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句,被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系代词或关系副词,关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as,关系副词有 when, where, why。 一、关系词的基本用法 who 指人,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语 关 whom 指人,在从句中作宾语 系 whose 指人或物,在从句中作定语 代 that 指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语 词 which 指物,在从句中作主语或宾语 as 指人、物,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语 关 when 指时间,在从句中作时间状语 系 where 指地点,在从句中作地点状语 副 why 指原因,在从句中作原因状语 词 (1)The man (whom /who/that) my mother saw in the street is my teacher. (2)The book which/ that tells us about the earth is interesting. (3)She lives in a house whose windows faces south. (4)Do you know the boy whose father is an English teacher? (5)I have never heard such stories as he tells. (6)I’ll never forget the day when /on which I joined the army. (7)I won’t forget the factory where / in which my father worked. (8)Tell me the reason why you came late. 二、必须用“that”引导的定语从句 1、当先行词是不定代词 all,little, few, much, anything , everything, none, nothing, no one, some 等时。 He did everything that he could to help us. 2、先行词被 all, every, no , some, any , little, much, the only, the very, the right, last , few , just 等修饰时。 The only thing that we can do is to give you some advice. 3、先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时,或先行词本身就是序数词或形容词最高级时。

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This is the most interesting film that I’ve ever seen. 4、当先行时前有 such 或 the same 修饰时,先行词和关系代词指同一物时。 She is wearing the same dress that she wore yesterday. 5、先行词既有人又有物时, Later they talked of things and persons that they remembered in the school. 6、当主句是以 who 或 which 开始时的特殊疑问句时, Who is the boy that won the gold medal? 7、在同一个句子里,若有两个定语从句,其中一个关系词已用了 which, 另一个宜用 that. Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before. 8、当关系代词在从句中作表语时。 (只限于限制性定语从句中) China is no longer the country that it used to be. 9、当先行词是集体名词时,多用 that, He wants to join the team that won the game. 10、that 在有些句型中可作为关系副词,且可省略。 I don’t like the way (that) he talks to me. 三、只用 which 不用 that 时情况 1、引导非限制性定语从句时:Bruce went toward the fire, which was still smoking. 2、先行词在从句中作介词的宾语且介词前置。 This is the house in which Lu Xun lived. 3、先行词本身是 that 时:What’s that which flashed in the sky just now? 4、先行词后有插入语时, Here is the English grammar book which, as I’ve told you, will help improve your English. 5、which 用作表语,指人时,一般指从事某种职业或是有某种特性、品质或才能的人。 He is an engineer, which I am not。 关系代 as:在限制性定语从句中用在 such, the same, as, so 之后,as 引导的定语从句常采用省略形式。 I have the same book as you(have). Take as many as you want. Here is so big a stone as no man can lift. This is such a book as was given to me. 四、关系代词的省略情况

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1、关系代在从句中作宾语时。 Have you received the book (that) I sent you last week? 2、关系代词在从句中作表语时。 Mary is no longer the girl (that) she used to be. 3、关系代词在从句中作介词的宾语,而这个介词又在句末时。 This is the artist (whom) I spoke to you about. 注意:关系代词的省略是指在限制性定语从句中,在非限制性定语从句中,关系代词不能省略。 五、介词+关系代词 在这种结构中,关系代词若是表示人的意义,就只能用 whom ;关系代词若是表示事物的意义,就只能用 which 。而这种结构中较难解决的问题是介 词的选择问题,因为这个问题的解决取决于多种因素: A)动词与介词的搭配 B)名词与介词的搭配 C)形容词与介词的搭配,等等。总之,要依从句的具体需要而定。例如: A)动词与介词的搭配 He has found a good job for which he is qualified .( qualify... for "使…具有…资格" )他找到了一份他能胜任的工作。 The man to whom you talked just now will chair the meeting tomorrow.( talk to + 名词 "与某人谈话" ) 你刚才与他谈话的那个人明天主持那个会议。 He is bargaining with the landlord over the monthly price at which the apartment rents. (名词+ rent at + 表示价格的词 "某物以某价格出租" ) 他在与房东就那套公寓出租的月租金进行磋商。 B)名词与介词的搭配 They are still living in the little house in which they've been lived for 15 years . ( in the house "在屋子里" ) 他们现在还住在他们已住了 15 年的那个小房子里。 We've worked out a method by which our production can be raised on a large scale.( by a method 通过某种方法) 我们已研制出了一个能大规模提高生产的方法。 She didn't realize the extent to which she had been distracted.( to extend "到某种程度" ) 她没有意识到她心烦意乱的程度。 C)形容词与介词的搭配 The secretary with whom the boss is not happy will be fired for her inefficiency . (happy with "对…表示满意") 老板对其不满意的那个秘书将由于她没有工作效率而被解雇。 I've found the job for which I've been eager for a long time.( eager for "渴望得到…" ) 我已找到了我渴望已久的那份工作。 He is a learned man with whom we are familiar . (familiar with 熟悉…)他是一位我们熟悉的有学识的人。

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六、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别 ·限制性定语从句对先行词起限制确定作用。如果没有它,主句的意思就不完整,这种定语从句和主句的关系十分密切,不可用逗号隔开,在口语 中前后没有停顿。 He is the man whose father died last week. That is the reason why I didn’t open the door. ·非限制性定语从句与主句的关系不十分密切,只是对先行词起描述或补充说明的作用,省略后也不影响全句的意思,非限制性定语从句可以修饰 名词、代词、短语、主句的一部分或全句,它和主句之间常用逗号隔开,朗读时前后有停顿。 I live in Beijing where my parents worked ten years ago. His sister, who works in WuHan, is coming to see him tomorrow. 七、as 引导非限制性定语从句与 which 的区别 1、用于非限制性定语从句时,可以指代整个主句的内容,as 和 which 可以换用。 He left her, as/ which was strange. 2、as 引导非限制性定语从句,指代整个主句的内容,从句可置于句首,句中和句尾。 As everyone knows, Tom is good at English. The earth, as we know, moves round the sun. 3、非限制性定语从句中谓语为被动时,常用 as 作主语。 as is said/ known/ announced/ reported/ mentioned/ expected/ disused 等。 As is known to all, Taiwan is part of China. 4、as 引导非限制性定语从句,有“正如”的含义,因此,下列句式中多用 as: as has been said above as anybody can see as we had expected as (it) appears Things are not always as they appear. 5、which 引导非限制定语从句,指代整个主句的内容,从句只能置于句尾。 The decision was postponed, which was exactly what he wanted. 6、which 引导非限制性定语从句,指代主句中的一个词(先行词)从句置于先行词后,可在句中或句尾。 The football match, which I watched yesterday, is very interesting. 7、which 引导非限制性定语从句,指代整个主句的内容,从句的谓语带有宾语,有的还带宾语补足语。 After that things improved, which astonished me. Water changes into steam, which is known to be a physical change.

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8、which 引导非限制性定语从句,指代整个主句的内容,从句意思可与主句相反,即从句为否定式或带否定前缀的形容词。 He can write a letter in English, which I cannot. He was married again, which was unexpected. 八、定语从句运用中的注意点 1、 (1)是用 the one 还是用 that , which, where. (2)Is this school _______ you study in? (3)Is this the school ______ you study in? (4)Is this the school _______ you study? (5)Is this school ______ is a senior one? A. that/which B. where C. the one D. the one where E. the one that / which 遇到这类句子,先将其变成肯定句,再看主句是否缺少表语。若缺表语,则必须用 the one 的形式,接着再看 the one 在从句中作什么成分,若作状 语,则必须用 the one where,若作主语或宾语时,则用 the one (that/ which) 2、是用 when 还是用 that, which (1)May 1 is the day ______ we spent together. (2)May 1 is the day ________i joined the army. A. that/ which B. when 当先行词是表示时间的名词时,作时间状语时,用 when, 若作主语或宾语时,就用 that/ which. 3、定语从句与强调结构的区别 (1)It was in this house ______ he was born. (2)It was this house ______ he was born. (3)It was in the house ________ he used to live that the exhibition was held.. A. where B. that C. which D. there 判断是否是强调结构的方法是去掉 it is /was ?that, 若整个句子结构和意义不受影响,则为强调结构,否则为定语从句。 4、定语从句与其他从句的区别 (1)定语从句与地点状语从句的区别是看有无表示地点的名词作先行词,有则是定语从句,试比较: You should leave the toy where you can find. I still remember the bus stop where / at which I met you. (2)定语从句与结果状语从句的区别是看从句的边接词是否在从句中作成分,作成分的是定语从句;若连接词在句中不作成分时,则为结果状语 从句。 试比较: He is such a kind person as everybody likes. He is such a kind person that everybody likes him. (3)定语从句与同位语从句的区别主要是看连接词是否在从句中作成分,作成分的是定语从句,不作成分而只是表示前面名词的具体内容的则是 同位语从句。试比较:

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The news that he had been back surprised us all. The mews (that) he told us surprised us all. 5、way 后面的定语从句(用 that/ in which 或省略) :Please tell me the way (that/ in which) you did the job. Consolidation: 一、用适当的关系代词填空: 1. He lent me a thousand dollars, _________ was exactly the amount I needed. 2. The proposal ________ we have to export more goods is to be discussed at the meeting. 3. Bungee jumping is a sport ________ a person makes a vertical jump from a high platform with a rubber rod cord tied to their ankles so that they bounce. 4. ________ was expected, their team failed in the competition because of insufficient preparations. 5. The waterfalls, the largest of _________ is like a semicircle, are 670 meters wide, and fall 56 meters in an awesome white sheet of water. 6. _________ there is no fire, there is no smoke. 7. The question ________ we’ll put off the meeting remains to be discussed. 8. I’ve just finished reading a poem ________ meaning is completely beyond me. 9. Compared to _________ the girl is now today, she showed no confidence then especially in front of the public. 10. Hope Project got another donation of one million yuan with ________ to assist more poor children back to school. 二、将下列句子转换成含有定语从句的复合句。 1. China is a developing country, with Beijing as its capital. China is a developing country, __________________________. 2. The thief, having been caught slipping into the bank, was arrested by the police. The thief, __________________________________., was arrested by the police. 3. It is known to us all that light travels faster than sound. ___________________, light travels faster than sound. 4. There are lots of birds flying south for winter every year. There are lots of birds ____________________________. 5. The Hope School has been set up where a wasteland used to be. The Hope School has been set up __________________________. 6. That stone is so heavy that no one can remove it away. That is such a heavy stone ________________________. 三、定语从句易混点对比专练

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1.① The man ______ she married last year was a soldier. A. whom B. to whom C. with whom D. whose ② The man ______ she was married was a soldier. A. whom B. to whom C. with whom D. who 2.① The day ______ she spent with us was never to be forgotten. A. / B. on which C. when D. in which ②The day ______ she played with us was never to be forgotten. A. that B. when C. which D. / 3. ① Is this the factory ______ you visited last week A. where B. which C. to which D. in which ② Is this factory ______ you visited last week A. that B which C in which D. the one 4. ① The house ______ window faces south is for the doctor. A. which B. that C. whose D. of which ② The house ______ faces south is for the doctor. A. which B. whose C. who D. where 5. ① She brought forward a plan ______ we couldn't agree. A. that B. which C. / D. to which ② She brought forward a plan ______ we couldn't accept. A. / B. for which C. to which D .of which 6. ① The invention ______ she spent 2 years will do well to the world. A. which B. / C. on which D. when ② The invention ______ took her 2 years will do well to the world. A. which B. / C. on which D. it 7. ① The English subject, ______ I do well, is important in middle schools. A. which B. that C. in which D. at which ② The English subject, ______ I have mastered well, is important in middle school. A. / B. at which C. that D. in which 8. ① Tom, ______ I went to the concert, is a friend of mine.

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A. whom B. who C. with which D. whose ② Tom,______ bicycle I went to the concert, is a friend of mine. A. whom B. who C. whose D. on whose 9.① The place ______ you visited during your holidays is where I used to be for years. A. where B. which C. in which D. to which ② The place _______ you stayed for 3 years is where an ancient city used to be. A. where B. which C. that D. to which 10.① She will fly to Washington,______ is the capital of the U.S. A. that B. where C. which D. in which ② She will fly to Washington,______ she can enjoy herself. A. where B. that C. which D./ 11.① The story happened on a day ______ the weather was wet and cold. A. when B. which C. in which D. on when ② The story happened on a day ______ was wet and cold. A. then B. on which C. which D./ 12.① The sun heats the earth,______ we all know. A. that B. which C. as D. where ② The sun heats the earth,______ makes it possible to grow crops. A. which B. that C. as D. where 13.① Tom,______ we had expected, got the 1st place in the competition(比赛). A. as B. which C. whom D. who ② Tom,______ we had expected to help us, didn't even show his face . A. as B. whom C. that D. which 四、定语从句精选练习 50 题 1. Such things of __________ you are not sure should be discussed again. A. which B. what C. as D. those 2. Is this the factory __________ you visited the other day? A. that B. where C. in which D. the one 3. Is this factory __________ some foreign friends visited last Friday? A. that B. where C. which D. the one

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4. Is this the factory __________ he worked ten years ago? A. that B. where C. which D. the one 5. The wolves hid themselves in the places ________couldn’t be found. A. that B. where C. in which D. in that 6. The freezing point is the temperature _____ water changes into ice. A. at which B. on that C. in which D. of what 7. This book will show you __________ can be used in other contexts. A. how you have observed B. what you have observed C. that you have observed D. how that you have observed 8. The reason is __________ he is unable to operate the machine. A. because B. why C. that D. whether 9. I’ll tell you __________ he told me last week. A. all which B. that C. all that D. which 10. That tree, __________ branches are almost bare, is very old. A. whose B. of which C. in which D. on which 11. I have bought the same dress __________ she is wearing. A. as B. that C. which D. what 12. He failed in the examination, __________ made his father very angry. A. which B. it C. that D. what 13. We’re talking about the piano and the pianist __ were in the concert we attended last night. A. which B. whom C. who D. that 14. The girl _________an English song in the next room is Tom’s sister. A. who is singing B. is singing C. sang D. was singing 15. Those __not only from books but also through practice will succeed. A. learn B. who C. that learns D. who learn 16. Anyone __________ this opinion may speak out. A. that against B. that against C. who is against D. who are against 17. Didn’t you see the man __________? A. I nodded just now B. whom I nodded just now C. I nodded to him just now D. I nodded to just now 18. Can you lend me the novel __________ the other day?

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A. that you talked B. you talked about it C. which you talked with D. you talked about 19. Is there anything __________ to you? A. that is belonged B. that belongs C. that belong D. which belongs 20. ---- “How do you like the book?” ---- “It’s quite different from __________ I read last month.” A. that B. which C. the one D. the one what 21. Mr. Zhang gave the textbook to all the pupils except _______ who had already taken them. A. the ones B. ones C. some D. the others 22. The train __________ she was traveling was late. A. which B. where C. on which D. in that 23. He has lost the key to the drawer __________ the papers are kept. A. where B. in which C. under which D. which 24. Antarctic _____ we know very little is covered with thick ice all the year round. A. which B. about that C. that D. about which 25. It’s the third time __________ late this month. A. that you arrived B. when you arrived C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived 26. It was in 1969 ______ the American astronaut succeeded in landing on the moon. A. that B. which C. when D. in which 27. May the fourth is the day ______ we Chinese people will never forget. A. which B. when C. on which D. about which 28. We are going to spend the Spring Festival in Guangzhou, _________ live my grandparents and some relatives. A. which B. that C. who D. where 29. The hotel __________ during our holidays stands by the seaside. A. we stayed at B. where we stayed at C. we stayed D. in that we stayed 30. Is it in that factory __________ “Red Flag” cars are produced? A. in which B. where C. which D. that 31. It is the Suez Canal __________ separates Asia __________ Africa. A. which, to B. where, from C. that, from D. that, with 32. Under the bridge, however, almost directly below, _________ was a small canoe, with a boy in it.

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A. there B. where C. it D. which 33. He is not __________ a fool __________. A. such, as he is looked B. such, as he looks C. as, as he is looked D. so, as he looks 34. Is that the reason __________ you are in favour of the proposal? A. which B. what C. why D. for that 35. He must be from Africa, __________ can be seen from his skin. A. that B. as C. who D. what 36. He has two sons, __________ work as chemists. A. two of whom B. both of whom C. both of which D. all of whom 37. I, __________ your good friend, will try my best to help you out. A. who is B. who am C. that is D. what is 38. He is a man of great experience, __________ much can be learned. A. who B. that C. from which D. from whom 39. ---- Do you know the town at all? ---- No, this is the first time I __________ here. A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming 40. I don’t like __________ you speak to her. A. the way B. the way in that C. the way which D. the way of which 41. The two things _________ they felt very proud are Jim’s gold watch and Della’s hair. A. about which B. of which C. in which D. for which 42. The dinner was the most expensive meal we __________. A. would have B. have had C. had never had D. had ever had 43. Do you know which hotel __________? A. she is staying B. she is staying in C. is she staying D. is she staying in 44. There is only one thing __________ I can do. A. what B. that C. all D. which 45. Who can think of a situation __________ this idiom can be used? A. which B. that C. where D. in that 46. I have many books, some of __________ are on chemistry. A. them B. that C. which D. those

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47. They were interested __________ you told them. A. in which B. in that C. all that D. in everything 48. The astronaut did many experiments in the spaceship, _____ much help for knowing space. A. which we think it is B. which we think are of C. of which we think is D. I think which is of 49. The great day we looked forward to __________ at last. A. come B. came C. coming D. comes 50. I like the second football match __________ was held last week. A. which B. who C. that D. / 五、将下列各句翻译成英文。 1. 我们昨天学的那课书不好懂。 2. 你可以拿你感兴趣的任何一本书。 3. 这是本月上映的最好的一部影片。 4. 人们喜欢住在空气新鲜,噪声很少的地方。 5. 1949 年是新中国诞生的一年。 6. 是在上星期开英语晚会的时候,我们遇到珍妮的。 7. 你在会上看到的那个女孩是个出名的游泳运动员。 8. 他就是我们昨天在报纸上见到照片的那个工人。 9. 他进大学的那一天非常高兴。 10. 我总不太明白他犯这样一个错误的原因。 11. 我哪儿没讲清楚,你们只管问我。 12. 我最远走过 20 多里地。 13. 他就是我在展览会上遇到的那个人。 14. 不要读那些你看不懂的书。

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15. 这是你借给他词典的那个学生吗? 16. 这就是你们谈论那么多的那本新小说吗? 17. 昨天在动物园我和他说话的那个人是一位工程师,我父亲的一个朋友。 18. 这位为祖国献出生命的小英雄将永远活在人们心中。

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