Section Ⅱ— Learning about Language
一、选出画线部分在句子中作状语的类型 A.原因状语 B.让步状语 C.条件状语 D.结果状语 E.时间状语 1.Told that his mother was ill,Li Lei hurried home quickly. 答案:E 2.Having broken down on the highway,his car was carried away by the police. 答案:A 3.Given a few minutes,I’ll finish it. 答案:C 4.Explained a hundred times,he still can’t understand it. 答案:B 5.He fell off a tall tree,his leg broken. 答案:D
二、仿照例句把下列定语从句改为过去分词作定语的形式 例:Most of the scientists who were invited to the party were from America. →Most of the scientists invited to the party were from America. 1.All the windows that were broken have been repaired. →All the bought windows have been repaired. 2.This will be the best novel of its kind that has ever been written. →This will be the best novel of its kind ever written .
3.Five people won the “China’s Green Figure” award,a title that is given to ordinary people for their contributions to environmental protection.
→Five people won the “China’s Green Figure” award,a title given to ordinary people for their contributions to environmental protection.
4.Don’t use words,expressions,or phrases,which are known only to people with specific knowledge.
→Don’t use words,expressions,or phrases known only to people with specific knowledge.
5.Prices of daily goods which are bought through a computer can be lower than store prices.
→Prices of daily goods broken through a computer can be lower than store prices.
1.The disco,digitally recorded (record) in the
studio,sounded fantastic at the party that night.
2. Reading (read) aloud in the reading room is a bad habit.
3.The prize of the game show is $30,000 and an all-expense-
(pay) vacation to China.
4. Considering (consider) he was just a little boy,we didn’t
5. Seen (see) from the top floor,the garden looks more
1.When we wanted the hovering carriage to speed up... 当我们想让气垫车加速时…… 考点speed up加速 He’ll never get there on time unless he speeds up. 如果他不加速就不能按时到那儿。 They have speeded up production. 他们加快了生产速度。 Dad stepped on the gas and the car speeded up to 100 kph. 爸爸一踩油门,车速冲到每小时一百千米。
1)speed up既是不及物动词短语,又是及物动词短语。speed的过去 式和过去分词有两种形式: ①当词义为“增加……的速度或速率”时,是规则动词。 They have speeded up the train service. 他们已提高了火车的运行速度。 The train soon speeded up. 火车很快就加速了。 ②当词义为“(使)速进,(使)速行”时,是不规则动词。 He sped down the street.他沿街急走。 The car sped past the school. 汽车迅速驶过学校。
2)speed也可作名词,其常见短语有: at a speed of 以……的速度 pick up speed 加速 with great speed 快速地 at full/top speed 全速地 speed limit车速限制,最高车速
活学活用 语法填空 1)(2015·湖南高考改编)Mrs.Byrnes put the dishes in the oven because this would speed up washing them. 2)How exciting!I drove my new car at a speed of 80 kph on Sunday morning. 句子翻译 3)你必须提高你的车速。 答案:You must speed up your car.
The medicine will
speed up her recovery
5)The train began to pick up speed after it pulled out of the station.
The train began to
after it pulled out of the
2.Grammar:过去分词(3)——过去分词作状语和定语的基本用法 考点一 过去分词作状语概述 过去分词作状语时,像现在分词作状语一样,修饰谓语,很多都是用 来说明动作发生的背景或情况,意义上相当于状语从句。一般来说, 分词结构的逻辑主语就是主句的主语。过去分词作状语可以分为 以下几种情况:
①Seen from the hill,the park looks very beautiful. =When it is seen from the hill,the
句,也可在过去分 park looks very beautiful.
“when,while,until” ②Don’t speak until spoken to.
=Don’t speak until you are spoken to. 当别人和你讲话时,你才能讲话。
③Surrounded by his sons and
表示原因,相当 于一个原因状 语从句
grandchildren,the old man felt happy. 儿孙绕膝,老人十分开心。 ④Deeply moved by the story,the
excited people stopped quarrelling with each other. 激动的人们被那个故事深深地感动了, 停止了争吵。
可加连词 if,unless 等转 换成条件状语 从句
⑤Given more time,we could do it much better.=If we were given more time,we could do it much better. 多给我们点时间,我们会做得更好。
方 式、 伴随 状语
⑥Though warned of the storm,the
although,thoug h,even if,even though,whether ...or 等连词 转换成让步状
farmers were still working in the fields. =Though they had been warned of the storm,the farmers were still working in the fields. 虽然农民们已被告知将有暴风雨,但他
表示行为方 式、伴随情况 或补充说明,加 and 可转换成 并列结构
⑦The teacher entered the classroom,followed by a group of students. =The teacher entered the classroom and he was followed by a group of students. 老师走进教室,后面跟着一群学生。
考点二 过去分词作状语的注意点 1)过去分词作状语时,前面往往可带有when,if,while,though,even if 等连词,这样就能使过去分词所表示的意义更加明确。这种带有连 词的过去分词结构通常可看作是一种省略句,句中省略的部分是 “主语+be动词的相应变化形式”,省略的主语通常与主句的主语相 同。
Though defeated for a second time,he still didn’t give in.(=Though he was defeated for a second time,he still didn’t give in.) 他虽然又一次被击败,但仍不屈服。 Even if invited,I won’t go.(=Even if I am invited,I won’t go.) 即使被邀请,我也不去。
2)过去分词作状语时,有时它的逻辑主语不是主句的主语,而是不同 于主句主语的名词,构成“过去分词独立结构”。过去分词独立结构 可在句中作状语,表示时间、条件、伴随状况等。 The house painted white,we liked it better. 房子漆成白色后,我们更加喜欢它了。 His work finished,he left the office. 完成工作,他离开了办公室。
考点三 过去分词作定语概述 一般来说,过去分词作定语时含有“完成”和“被动”的双重意义。但 要注意不及物动词的过去分词常表示“完成”的动作,而不表示“被 动”意义。如:boiled water(开水);fallen leaves(落叶);risen sun(升起 的太阳)等。 The tall man is a returned student. 高个子的那个男人是个回国留学生。 My parents are both retired teachers. 我的父母都是退休教师。 考点四 过去分词作定语的注意点
单独的过 去分词作 定语
过去分词 短语作定 语
不及物动 词的过去 分词作定 语
①You need to improve your
②Hurry up.There is only a
little time left.
③He is a teacher respected by
常置于所修饰的名 all his students.
词构成逻辑上的动 ④He is the student referred to
by all people just now. 他就是那位刚才被提到的学
1) Translated (translate) into English,the sentence was found
to have an entirely different word order.
2)With the programme not completed
to stay there for another two weeks.
3)Unless asked (ask) to speak,you should remain silent at the
4) Founded (found) in the early 20th century,the school keeps
on inspiring children’s love of art. 5)A great number of students questioned
(question) said they
were forced to practise the piano.
6)Though surprised (surprise) to see us,the professor gave us a warm welcome. 7)In some languages,100 words make up half of all words
used (use) in daily conversations. 8)Time, used (use) correctly,is money in the bank. 9)Film has a much shorter history,especially when compared (compare) to such art forms as music and painting. 10)After completing and signing it, please return the form to us in the envelope provided (provide). 11)The injured (injure)workers are now being taken good care of in the hospital. 12)They are cleaning the fallen (fall)leaves in the yard.
(encourage)by the speech,the young
people made up their minds to take up the struggle.
14) Seated (seat)at the table,my father and I were talking about
15) Guided (guide)by these principles,they went on with the work.
16) Delighted (delight)with her work,they made her the general
17) Built (build)in 1192,the bridge is over 800 years old.
18) Faced (face) with so much difficulty,they failed to finish the
work on time.
19) Based (base) on a true story,the film is popular.
20) Dressed (dress) in a white uniform,he looks more like a cook
than a doctor.
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