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Web-Based Teaching And Learning A Panacea

Web-based Teaching and Learning - a Panacea?

Andreas Ausserhofer December 21, 1998
Abstract

Applying the WWW for educational purposes is a major eld of research nowadays. Discussions in the public arena are largely being led by wild enthusiasm for the far-reaching possibilities o ered by this new technology and there appears to be no place for an objective review. Everything seems to be possible, no limitations are in sight. The WWW and its applications are seen as the panacea for educational problems. This paper is intended to draw attention to some of the limitations and pitfalls inherent in the application of teaching and learning methods based on use of the WWW, at the same time taking a step back from the often emotional and poorly informed speculations in the mass media. The paper shows actual trends in Web-based educational research and tries to plot the location of the front-line as it stands today.
Keywords { CBL,

CAL, Web-based teaching and learning

1 Introduction
The World Wide Web plays a continually increasing role in today's society. The fast development of a ordable and powerful personal computers for the home and the greater availability of, and access to, high-powered communications technology, together with an increasingly computer-wise society { primarily led by our children { enables a rapid and broad dissemination of the appeal of the Internet and its various applications. In research facilities across the whole world, think-tanks consisting of computer scientists, multimedia specialists and programmers are gathering in ever greater profusion in the search for new elds of interest and new, and bigger corporate research grants. Although the idea of applying computers for educational purposes dates back some 30 years, computer supported education through the use of the Internet seems to be of particular interest. International conferences, journals, working groups, even discussions in the public news make us believe that traditional education is about to be replaced by computer supported teaching and learning. Beginning with educational software for children up to computer assisted learning tools for students and adults there seems to be no educational subject which cannot be applied to Web-based teaching and learning systems. The interest in the WWW and its obviously rich possibilities of application in the eld of education has led to a kind of hysteria. Although this has the e ect of leading to strong competition and thus faster development, the situation also has many disadvantages. This uncritical excitement about all matters relating to the WWW gives rise to a form of tunnel-vision: unsolved problems and unanswered questions which still exist are wilfully ignored. The fanatical enthusiasm prevalent in many, normally sober-minded, sections of the establishment make us believe that no serious problems remain and that WWW-techniques can be applied successfully to every educational eld, without restriction.
Andreas Ausserhofer is currently researching at the Institute for Software Technology, Technical University Graz, Austria. E-mail: ausserhofer@ist.tu-graz.ac.at.

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The intention of this paper is to present information and stimulate debate about the remaining problems and unanswered questions in the eld of educational software with special respect to the use of the WWW. The paper is structured as follows: It starts by giving an overview of di erent types of educational systems and thus educational methods. This section is followed by a problem analysis where an overview of actual problems concerning the design and implementation of web-based educational systems will be given. A case study of an actual project illustrates the problems mentioned before and shows partial solutions. The paper is ends with conclusions and a small section where open research questions will be introduced.

2 Computer Supported Education { an Overview
Applying computer software for educational purposes is not a new concept and already dates back some 30 years. Through the Internet and its necessary communication and computer technologies, computer based teaching and learning becomes more and more interesting, as a matter of fact it seems to be the most interesting eld of WWW-application research today. The actual paper covers Web-based Educational Systems, i.e. a special type of online education. Nevertheless it seems useful to present a brief overview on some important types of computer based education systems. Online versions of books are furthest from teaching and learning systems in our understanding, although this approach seems to be the most obvious of all. Preparing electronic versions of lecture notes and books is a fast and easy way of going online on the WWW. There is nearly no need for deeper programming knowledge nor a requirement for knowledge of HTML1 or JAVA. Software tools allow export from nearly every word processing program into HTML. As a matter of fact this approach is the worst and most ine cient with respect to educational success. Preparing an electronic, multimedia representation of a book or lecture note is not acceptable for many reasons, some of which will be mentioned in the ongoing description of actual problems. Pure online books are a well-tried relic from the early days of the Internet. This area seems to be useful for technical reports, online manuals or software documentation. Attempts which were started in the early days of the WWW have been transformed into Online Education Systems which will be discussed in a further section of this paper. It is not all that long since developers of educational software have recognised that children nd computer games much more interesting than educational programs. Studying children interacting with computer games, heading through several levels of di culty in an easy and fun progression, it seemed as if all the problems found within educational software could be made to simply disappear. No lack of concentration, obvious high learning e ciency, training of reaction, . .. { the list can be continued easily. The derived facts are far less impressive. There are many problems in applying a game model for educational purposes. Kamran Sedighian 10] has written an excellent paper where he discusses some of them. Applying a game model for educational purposes implies a walk on the ridge. The fact that children have fun, interacting with an education program because it acts like a computer game, does not imply that they really learn! Reaching higher levels of di culty is most often possible by pure trial and error. Of course this is an important part of the human process
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2.1 Online Books

2.2 Edutainment Software

HyperText Markup Language

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of learning { but useless for the learning e ciency if performed exclusively and without the need for applying any fundamental concept or theory in addition. Apart from the fact that the structure of these educational programs have to follow a perfect didactic storyboard, it is important that the goals of the game are closely related to the educational concepts. Experiments have proved that many users loose interest when it comes to learning and applying the gained knowledge. The game model itself is not suitable for every eld of education. Games are naturally restricted to a certain group of users (i.e. children) which is another limitation to application. Although this is only a short overview of a problem domain it should be clear that applying a game model for educational purpose is far more complicated than it obviously seems to be. Thus the number of serious examples is small. The distinction between educational software and online education might not be clear. It is indeed useful to distinguish between these rather di erent approaches. The main di erence lies in the architecture of the software systems. Educational software is designed to be run on a single computer in o -line mode. The target users are from 12 year olds up to students and adults. The programs are highly specialised, i.e. each of them is designed to cover a distinct educational subject. The market is too crowded to keep track with the actual front-line. Hundreds of software companies compete in the educational marketplace; 10 new titles are published every month, on average. The product line ranges from share-ware to rather expensive solutions. There seems to be no limit in the range of di erent education subjects: mathematics, chemistry, astronomy, biology, languages and psychology are only a random sample. Although the number of competitors should help increase quality there are still a lot of problems and open questions. In addition to the problems discussed in the next section of this paper there are some di culties which these programs have to deal with: There is normally no connection to the authors, i.e. teachers of the course. Thus educational software systems have to be self-contained. All the knowledge has to be included within the system. To be able to handle the size of such systems, they are often restricted to some distinct level of di culty. To cover one educational subject as a whole, one has to have several educational programs possibly from di erent authors. Online education is the type of teaching and learning system which Web-based systems are part of. Two major trends can be examined: tele-teaching and learning systems and web-based educational systems. Tele-teaching and learning has its origin in video technology. In the early days the idea was to record and store lectures on video tapes and thus make them available independent from the live presentation. The lack of interactivity and the broad availability of high power communication technology led to a change in method: video cameras and audio facilities transfer lectures online and live to distant places where students are able to take part remotely in synchronous mode. First the Internet has been experimented with for transferring the lectures. ISDN and SISDN have opened a new possibility of high-speed communication facilities where this educational method is not restricted to unidirectional use. Students often are enabled to interact by means of computer technology and/or video and audio recording and transmitting techniques.

2.3 Educational Software

2.4 Online Education

2.4.1 Tele-teaching and learning

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Web-based educational systems are asynchronous, i.e. they do not require simultaneous presence of teacher and students. Already prepared lectures are available via the Internet through WWWbrowsers or special clients. The front-ends are most often designed in HTML, enriched by JAVA, Java-script or Dynamic HTML. The WWW enables worldwide access independent of time and location. Using such systems does not require expensive equipment. A personal computer, nearly any operating system, a WWW-browser, a modem and a land-line telephone connection enable the entrance to the WWW and thus web-based educational systems.

2.4.2 Web-based teaching and learning

3 Problem Analysis
Restricting the focus to Web-based education systems, the aim of this section is to show and discuss problems which are seldom discussed but nevertheless still present and important. Super cially seen, many of these problems seem to be of no importance when designing an educational systems. This paper will prove that this is not true and that it is of major importance to work on these problems in order to make real improvements in the eld of educational systems. In 1970 when the ARPANET the father of the Internet was invented, the goals were de ned di erently. The aim was to develop a communication network which was able to sustain a nuclear fallout through a special network architecture. A host-to-host protocol (NCP2 ) and some basic services (telnet, FTP and e-mail) were the result. Even the research scientists at Berkeley did not predict the present boom in the use of the Internet when they designed TCP/IP in 1980 which indeed led to an emerging development boost of the Internet. The intent was to send and receive pure textual information. Gradually at rst, but with increasing rapidity in the last few years, the requirements evolved. First it was electronic images which had to be transferred, audio and video-streams followed. Today we expect the Internet to carry complete software programs written to be compiled on the y at the receiver. The number of parallel users at a time ampli es the worst e ects. 20-50 million estimated users at a time are expected to spend their time sur ng, chatting, e-mailing, simply using the Web. As a matter of fact, the Internet was not designed to ful l these demands and the limits can be seen every day: slow connections, long loading and response times. The technical questions of how to build a web-based educational system are well answered. Lots of books have been published on this very topic. Colin McCormack and David Lester 9] have published a very good book where they not only answer technical questions but also provide a detailed analysis of requirements. Building a web-based teaching and learning environment is easy, from a technical point of view. However, analysing, designing and implementing the contents of an education system, i.e. the provided knowledge is very di cult. It is the intent of this section to give an overview of the problems related to the design and implementation of the knowledge base of a teaching and learning environment and its behaviour. The following subsections present problems to which solutions can rarely be found in existing education systems.
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3.1 The Internet - a Bottleneck

3.2 Education System Architecture

Network Control Protocol

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Remembering the origin goal of an education system it is useful to take a closer look at the de nition of the term education itself. Referring to The American Heritage Dictionary 6] education is de ned as follows:

3.2.1 Complexity of Learning

Education 1. The act or process of educating or being educated. 2. The knowledge or skill obtained or developed by a learning process. 3. The eld of study that is concerned with teaching and learning
pedagogy.

Education is driven by the human process of learning. Obtaining knowledge means going through a process of learning. Independent from the subject matter of the educational act and independent from the person obtaining education, the actual learning process is, of itself, necessarily complex. Many human senses interact and collaborate. Already obtained knowledge and experiences are used to prove and verify the new cognitions. Discussions are used for information exchange, examples help to strengthen and solidify the skills. The existence of di erent learning styles complicates the set-up. We know humans who are audio centred, visual centred, people whose learning ability peaks when manually demanded and many others. Of course human learning ability depends on various additional set-ups which can hardly be managed by a computer system. Health of the person, ability to concentrate and many others more. Most of today's teaching and learning systems do not take this into account. The knowledge most often is presented in a xed manner. Alternative settings are hardly available. The bulk of the knowledge is presented as text or linked hypertext. However, neither textbooks nor on-screen texts can actually answer questions; the student is merely provided with information.

3.2.2 Interaction

Web-based teaching and learning systems must be interactive. Students must be able to communicate with the education system. Examining and analysing many actual education systems, interaction often seems to be restricted to navigation through the system and possible e-mail with the lecturer and other students. It is important to extend the de nition of interaction: in a general way but also context sensitive, i.e. add annotations and notices to distinct information in the learning environment. Thomas Dietinger has developed a web-based training system called GENTLE 7] which provides rich possibilities for adding customised annotations and notices to the prepared knowledge base. Asking questions: Asking questions and automatically retrieving a proper answer is one of the open research elds in computer science which will roughly be discussed in the last section of this paper. There is yet no useful solution to this problem. Discussing: Electronic discussion through an education environment is a powerful tool for efciency improvement and thus should be a standard feature of any educational system. Collaborative Teamwork using electronic discussion is described in 1]. Using a computer system in order to teach should prevent us from making the same mistakes which have been made in traditional education through the years. Lack of individuality is one of them. 5

Annotations: Users must be able to add electronic material of any kind to the system, not only

3.2.3 Individuality

Although it is obviously important and useful, individuality is seldom implemented in webbased education systems. The reason is that designing an education system to be adaptive is not trivial. Before discussing the problems inherent in this topic, let's have a look at what individualisation means. It is not merely the customisation of a system to which we refer here, changing colours, setting fonts in size and type or customising other elements of the GUI3 is not part of individuality of an education system. Individuality means that a computer based teaching and learning system must adapt itself to the skill level of the actual student. This simple phrasing covers a complete eld of research. Peter Brusilowsky is one of the successful researchers in this eld. He published some good papers , one of which 5] was truly remarkable. Depending on the educational subject, the clari cation of repeated examples is a useful tool. Examples may be of various types: programming source code, mathematics, chemistry formulas, electronic circuits and others. Many of these examples are intended to strengthen the user's understanding through practice. Recollecting traditional education, examples ful l several requirements. Solved examples enable students to analyse and rethink solutions. Working on solutions of examples helps to train application of knowledge, modifying or optimising solutions is a well known tool for developing and expanding knowledge. A computer-based education system must always be an improvement, compared to traditional education. Thus the above mentioned features are a must in implementation. Students must have the possibility not only to look at examples but also be able to modify them, try them out, get feedback on their modi cations or solutions. A partial solution to this problem will be outlined later in this paper.

3.2.4 Activity

4 Teaching Computing - a Case Study
Teaching computing is a useful example for demonstrating the presence of the problems described in the previous sections. In late 1997 the Institute for Software Technology at the Technical University of Graz started a research project 3] with the aim of working towards solutions to some of the prevalent problems. The objectives of the project are the design and implementation of an interactive web-based education system to support the lectures for teaching computing at the Technical University of Graz.

4.1 Educational Goals

Our aim in computer science lectures and practical programming courses is to teach basic principles and methods of computing which survive through the rapid change of actual programming languages. Traditional teaching of computing mainly focuses on a single programming language. The problems coming from this traditional method have been well described in 3] and 2]. Our new approach is to teach language independent knowledge. For explanation purposes several programming languages, each of them based upon a di erent programming paradigm are used to show applications and strengthen the skills. As there has been no software tool to support this new approach, the actual project was started in order to design and implement such an educational system.
3

Graphical User Interface

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4.2 Key Features referred to Problems

Supporting the teaching and learning of computing through a computer system asks for solutions to problems previously discussed in other section of this paper. The intent of this section is to show some interesting problems and solution approaches. Where possible a reference to the appropriate problem description is made. The education system described herein is designed as web-based client/server application. In the problem analysis of this paper, it was stated that the Internet is a communication bottleneck. Taking this into consideration our intent is to design a system which is primarily used locally, i.e. students access the system from within the campus network. The system is designed to be used as an accompanying tool for the theoretical lectures and the practical course. It implements a layered design where only registered students from the Technical University Graz have full-featured access. Anonymous users from outside the campus network have guest status which means they are allowed to take part of the course material but are denied network intensive features which would be ine ciently performed over long distances in the Web. Thus our system does not take part in slowing down Internet performance but enables public access to the basic services. It is perfectly appropriate for intra-net use in companies, schools and universities. Referring to the problems discussed in previous sections of this paper, the herein presented education system is following a new approach.

4.2.1 System Architecture

4.2.2 System Functionality and Behaviour

Customisation: Every user is given a personal workspace in the education system. From this

individual working environment he can access the online course and examples. He may use this work area to store annotations to the course, store his own examples, solutions and all kinds of electronic material related to the course. He is able to export or print the stored information as a whole or partially after selection. The personal workplace is also a starting platform for communication activities. Annotations: Students being registered for the system are enabled to make annotations to the prede ned course material. Annotations may be electronic material of every kind and programming examples being handled by the compile/run server of the system. Activity: Teaching computing is strongly related to practise programming. The system integrates a powerful compile/run server which enables the testing and execution of programming examples within the system. This approach has many advantages (see 4] for further reading): 1. Students are set free from installing the latest version of the required programming language environment and compiler. They don't have to deal with platform dependent problems. 2. All examples used to demonstrate and show are active, i.e. students immediately can try prede ned examples, watch them being compiled and run within the system. They are enabled to modify existing examples or simply add new ones. 3. The compile/run server is designed to have an open interface. Any programming language ful lling some basic architectural criteria can be implemented. 4. Students thus can use several programming languages to experiment with without being forced to leave or change the system. 7

Communication: As state of the art, students are enabled to communicate on a student to student
and student to lecturer basis. Additionally we implement an electronic discussion forum to increase communication activity, collaboration and e ective problem handling. Course Content: The content of the course is not primarily text-based. Taking into consideration the human process of learning we strongly recommend a new approach to course content in teaching computing: Teaching and learning computing causes a multiple interaction between several activities. Additional to explaining text, software speci cations, source code and examples have to be combined. Compared to traditional lectures where time acts as a major limit, the use of educational hyper-media allows students to select time and subject on their own. The still traditional lectures are able to keep track of language-independent knowledge where the educational system adds language concerned parts for explanation and training purposes. Due to the possibility of linked information, some improvements could be reached:

1. Each educational subject of the lecture can be explained by means of programming language examples (i.e. source code examples). 2. One example can be expressed using several di erent programming languages. Advantages and disadvantages of programming solutions can be seen easily. 3. The link mechanism allows direct comparabilitybetween di erent types of programming languages referring to one problem domain. 4. An alternative approach to the system is gained through language speci c knowledge, i.e. online help facilities. Lectures fail to have resources for this subject. Students are now able to get help on several programming languages without leaving the system.

5 Conclusion
A lot of e ort is being spent in research of educational systems. Working in the mainstream and at the edge of research is far more than simply interesting. Creating systems that people will use means making big sacri ces in the research aims. In particular the prime quality of any research, novelty, must be kept in check. Making educational systems fancier, adding nice and easy interfaces, adapting the game model to gain better acceptance or wrapping the content into nice stories or applying ever new educational subjects to web-based solutions does not lead to the solution of the herein described problems and open questions. The actual paper is not intended to re ect a pessimistic point of view on educational systems. The aim was to show actual problems and open questions and draw attention to these.

6 Future Research and Work
Many researchers spend their e ort in design, development and implementation of online education systems. Many improvements have been made. But as a matter of fact, real progress is slow. There are still lots of unanswered questions of which many are even missing the light at the end of the tunnel. The intent of this section is to introduce two of them in a short way. The rst problem is of general importance for educational systems as a whole, independent from the type of the system, i.e. whether it is an online or o -line, web-based or self-contained educational system. The latter problem is one which is strongly related to the subject of teaching computing.

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Educational systems, independent of type or subject, still fail to give answers to questions asked by their users. Students are merely provided with information. Dialogue design is most often restricted to the menu choice of allowed questions. Presenting a typical and very simple dialogue situation of any teacher { student conversation may help to plot the problem:
Imagine a student asking his teacher a question where an exact answer exists. A good teacher will be able to give the correct answer by adapting to the students skill level, taking his education level, age and many other dependencies into consideration. He is making an educated guess and chooses one proper argument to explain the answer to the question.

6.1 Dialogue Design

There are hundreds of possibilities why the dialogue may not be nished then: the explanation was not clear to the student, the student has a continuing question due to the lack of necessary knowledge within the context, the student did not understand the explanation because it was too complicated for him, are only random samples. A simple question beginning with why . . . implies a necessarily complex answering mechanism which can not be implemented by a computer system in an easy way. There are attempts in working towards this problem, most often they end in a complex structure of arti cial intelligence technology. The knowledge required to ful l demands in building a knowledge base for automated answer generation can hardly be limited or self-contained. An architecture where dialogs need not be modelled by means of thousands of prede ned structured sequences of questions and answers is complex and lead to a research direction where neural networks are experimented with. Program or data structure animation and visualisation is a useful tool in teaching computing. The graphical representation and visualisation helps students to understand functionality and behaviour of software architectures and data structures. Several tools exist to support lectures by means of animation and visualisation techniques, two of which are remarkable: Jane Fritz 8] introduces a concept where visualisation is used to teach proof-techniques. Geo Whale 11] has implemented a data-structure animation program. The problem still existing is that animation programs and visualisation techniques are not parameterised, i.e. there is no dynamic binding to the program source code which is to be visualised or animated. Animation programs work on a static bound structure. This means that a sample source code is taken for explanation purposes and the animation sequence is constructed for this program example. Program code and animation are not dynamically connected. Whenever the source example is being modi ed or expanded, the animating sequence has to be adapted manually. The goal is to design a parameterised animation tool which parses any proper program source code ful lling prede ned requirements, and is able to animate and visualise parts of this program or the source as a whole automatically and in a dynamic way without external construction of visualisation sequences.

6.2 Parameterised Program Visualisation

References
1] Andreas Ausserhofer. Collaborative Asynchroneous Distant Teamwork in University Lectures using the WWW and Electronic Discussion Forums. Paper presented at WebNet'97, November 5, Toronto, Canada., 1997. 2] Andreas Ausserhofer. C.U.P.O. Project Description. Technical report, Institute for Software Technology, Technical University Graz, 1997. 9

3] Andreas Ausserhofer. Teaching Computing using an Interactive Multiparadigm Programming Environment. In Procceedings of the 15th International Conference on Technology and Education, 1998. 4] Andreas Ausserhofer. S.E.A.L. - Actual Improvement in and New Perspectives on Future Teaching Computing. In Procceedings of the 16th International Conference on Technology and Education, March 29-31, 1999. Edinburgh, Scotland. ICTE, 1999. to be published. 5] Peter Brusilowski and Elmar Schwarz. Concept-based Navigation in Educational Hypermedia and its Implementation on WWW. In Tomasz Mueldner and Thomas C. Reeves, editors, Educational Multimedia/Hypermedia and Telecommunications, 1997, pages 112{117. University of Calgary, AACE, 1997. 6] Houghton Mi in Company. The American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mi in Company, Boston, second college edition, 1985. 7] Thomas Dietinger and Hermann Maurer. GENTLE - GEneral Networked Training and Learning Environment. In Proceedings of ED-MEDIA98/ED-TELECOM98, Freiburg, Germany, pages 274{280, 1998. 8] Jane Fritz. Learning proof techniques through visualization. In Tomasz Mueldner and Thomas C. Reeves, editors, Educational Multimedia/Hypermedia and Telecommunications, 1997, pages 1204{1205. University of Calgary, AACE, 1997. 9] Colin McCormack and David Jones. Building a Web-Based Education System. Wiley Computer Publishing, 1998. 10] Kamran Sedighian. Challenge-driven learning: A model for children`s multimedia mathematics learning environments. In Thomas C. Reeves Tomasz Mueldner, editor, Educational Multimedia/Hypermedia and Telecommunications, 1997, pages 952{953. University of Calgary, AACE, 1997. 11] Geo Whale. Evaluation of the e ectiveness of a data-structure animator on computer science student's learning. Full Talk at ED-Media'97, June 15-19, 1997, Calgary, Canada.

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