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英语划分句子成分精讲和练习题01


英语句子成分和英语句子结构讲解及练习
句子从用途上分: 1. 陈述句: 1) 肯定句 2 疑问句 : 1)一般疑问句 2)选择疑问句 3.祈使句: 4.感叹句: 句子从结构上分: 1.简单句 2.并列句 4.复合句(主从复合句) 2) 否定句 5)双重疑问句

3)反意疑问句 4)特殊疑问句 1)what 2)How 3.并列复合句

1)名词性从句:____________________________________________ 2)形容词性从句:定从 (________________________________________________) 3) 副词性从句: 状从______________________________________________ 简单句的五种基本句型: 1、________________________2、________________________3、_______________________________ 4、________________________________ 5、_______________________________________ 主语(subject): 句子的主要说的人或物。是句子的行为或动作的主体。 (写出做主语的词性) The sun rises in the east._________________________He likes dancing. Twenty years is a short time in history. Seeing is believing. To see is to believe. What he needs is a book. It is very clear that the elephant is round and tall like a tree. (一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词 ① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult. 谓语(predicate): 说明主语的动作、状态和特征。 (写出做谓语的词性) We study English. __________________________ He likes playing the games._______________________

(二) 选出句中谓语的中心词 ① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall ② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C.go D. bus ④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon ⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? A. Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast ⑥ Tom didn't do his homework yesterday. A. Tom B. didn't C. do D. his homework ⑦ What I want to tell you is this. A. want B. to tell C. you D. is ⑧ We had better send for a doctor. A. We B. had C. send D. doctor ⑨ He is interested in music. A. is B. interested C. in D. music

⑩ Whom did you give my book to?
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A. give

B .did

C. whom

D. book

表语(predicative): 系动词之后的成分,表示主语的性质、状态和特征。 (写出做表语的词性)

He is a teacher. He is asleep. The picture is on the wall. To wear a flower is to say “I’m poor, I can’t buy a ring. come.

Five and five is ten. His father is in. My watch is gone / missing / lost. The question is whether they will

(常见的系动词有 : be /feel / sound /look / taste/ smell/ keep, stay ,remain / get, become, turn / feel It sounds a good idea. The sound sounds strange. Her voice sounds sweet. Tom looks thin. The food smells delicious. The food tastes good. The door remains open. Now I feel tired. (三) 挑出下列句中的表语

① The old man was feeling very tired. ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ⑤ She was the first to learn about it.

② Why is he worried about Jim? ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject.

宾语:动作的对象或者内容。 (写出做宾语的词性) 1)动作的承受者-----动宾 I like China. ________ How many do you need? We need two._______ I enjoy working with you. ______ Did you write down what he said? ____________ 2)介词后的名词、代词和动名词-----介宾

He hates you. ________ We should help the old and the poor. _______ I hope to see you again. _________

Are you afraid of the snake?

__________

Under the snow, there are many rocks._________

3)双宾语 -----间宾(指人)和直宾(指物) He gave me a book yesterday. ________________ Give the poor man some money._________________ (四) 挑出下列句中的宾语 ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English.

③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation.

④ How many new words did you learn last class?

⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? ⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ⑦ They made him monitor of the class.

⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. ⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. ⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is.
划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语

① Please tell us a story. ③ Mr Li is going to teach us history next term. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me?

② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ④ Here is a pen. Give it to Tom.

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宾补:对宾语的补充,全称为宾语补足语。 (写出做宾补的词性)

We elected him monitor. ________________ We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. _________ We will make them happy. ____________________ We found nobody in. ____________ Please make yourself at home. __________ Don’t let him do that. ___________________ His father advised him to teach the lazy boy a lesson. ______________ Don’t keep the lights burning. _____________ I’ll have my bike repaired. _______________________ 主补:对主语的补充。 (写出做主补的词性) He was elected monitor. _____________ She was found singing in the next room . ______________ He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson .____________________
(五) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语

① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ④ They call me Lily sometimes. ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus.

⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?
定语:定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子,汉语中常用‘……的’表示。定语通常位 于被修饰的成分前。若修饰 some, any, every, no 构成的复合不定代词时, (如:something、nothing) ;或 不定式、分词短语作定语、从句作定语时,则定语通常置后。副词用作定语时须放在名词之后。 (写出做定语的词性) Ai Yan ling is a chemistry teacher.__________ He is our friend. ________________ We belong to the third world. ________________ He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson.______ The man over there is my old friend._________________________ The woman with a baby in her arms is my sister.___________________ The boys playing football are in Class 2. __________The trees planted last year are growing well now. I have an idea to do it well. _______________You should do everything that I do. ________________ (六) 挑出下列句中的定语

① They use Mr, Mrs with the family name. ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep.

② What is your given name? ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe!

状语:用来修饰 v., adj., adv., or 句子。表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、程度、条件、方式和让步. 状语在句子中的位置很灵活,常见情况为:通常在句子基本结构之后,强调时放在句首;修饰形容词或 副词时,通常位于被修饰的词之前;表示时间、地点、目的的状语一般位于句子两头,强调时放在句首, 地点状语一般须在时间状语之前;一些表示不确定时间(如:often)或程度(如:almost)的副词状语 通常位于 be 动词、助动词、情态动词之后,动词之前。 1)副词做状语: The teacher came in, with glasses on his nose.(注意,此句 on his nose 不可省略! ) The boy needs a pen very much(程度状语) The boy needs very much the pen bought by his mother. 男孩非常需要他母亲买的那支笔。 (宾语较长状前置) The boy really needs a pen. 男孩真的需要一支钢笔。 (程度状语) The boy needs a pen now. Now the boy needs a pen.=The boy, now , needs a pen. 男孩现在需要一支钢笔。
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2)介词短语作状语: In the classroom, the boy needs a pen. 在教室里,男孩需要一支钢笔。 (地点状语) Before his mother, Tom is always a boy. 在母亲面前,汤姆总是一个男孩子.(条件状语) On Sundays, there is no student in the classroom. 星期天,教室里没有学生.(时间状语) 3)分词(短语)作状语: He sits there, asking for a pen. 他坐在那儿要一支笔。 (表示伴随状态) Having to finish his homework, the boy needs a pen. 因为不得不完成作业, 男孩需要一支笔。 (原因状语) Frightened, he sits there soundlessly. (因为)受了惊吓,他无声地坐在那儿。 (原因状语) 4)不定式作状语: The boy needs a pen to do his homework.男孩需要一支笔写家庭作业。 (目的状语) To make his dream come true, Tom becomes very interested in business.为实现梦想,汤姆变得对商很有兴趣. 5)名词作状语: Come this way!/走这条路! (方向状语) 6)状语从句:时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、结果状语从句、目的状语从句、比较状语 从句、让步状语从句、条件状语从句 . (七) 挑出下列句中的状语 ① There was a big smile on her face. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast.

⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. ⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine.

划分句子成分练习题:
1. Our school is not far from my home. 3. All of us considered him honest. 5. He broke a piece of glass. 7. ---I love you more than her,child . 9. They pushed the door open. 11. He wrote carefully some letters to his friends. 13. We need a place twice larger than this one. 15. Don't get nervous,help yourself to what you like. 17. He didn't come.That is why he didn't know. 19. The old man lives a lonely life. 2. It is a great pleasure to talk with you 4. My grandfather bought me a pair of sports shoes. 6. He made it clear that he would leave the city. 8. Tees turn green when spring comes. 10. Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 12.All the students think highly of his teaching 14. He asked us to sing an English song. 16.We will make our school more beautiful. 18. She showed us her many of her pictures.

20. Luckily the 1989 earthquake did not happen in the center of town.

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简单句的基本句型: 一、主谓结构 ( 主语 + 不及物动词 ) 1、You should study hard. 3、That morning we talked a great deal. 2、 She went home very late yesterday evening. 4、The meeting will last two hours.

5、Great changes have taken place in my home town in the past ten years. 6、Things of that sort are happening all over the world every day. 7、The May Fourth Movement broke out in Beijing in 1919. 二、主谓宾结构 (主语 + 及物动词 +宾语 ) 1、I wrote a letter last night. 3、 He has read this book many times. 5、You must finish reading these books in two weeks. 三、主系表结构 (主语 + 系动词 1、My brothers are all college students. 3、 Mrs Brown looks very healthy. 5、 Children, keep quiet please. 四、双宾语结构 (主语 + 双宾动词 +间接宾语 +直接宾语 ) 1、Mr Johnson taught us German last year. 3、Mary handed the wallet to the schoolmaster. 5、He showed the ticket to the conductor. 五、复合宾语结构 (主语 + 宾补动词 + 1、We call her Alice. 3、All of us considered him honest. 5、They have set the thief free. 7、He asked us to join in the game. 9、The guards ordered us to leave at once. 1、1Every morning we hear him read English aloud. 13、We won’t let her go out at night. 15、I’ll get my recorder mended. 17、She is listening to someone telling stories. 19、I have never seen the word used that way before. 21、I think it more comfortable to go there by ship. 22、 I consider it possible to work out the problem in another way. 23、 I thought it no use talking with that man。 24、The school made it a rule that the students should stand up when class begins. 六、There be 句型 1、There isn’t going to be a meeting tonight. 3、There is (are) a teacher of music and a teacher of art in the school. 4、Among the guests there were two Americans and two Frenchmen. 2、There was only a well in the village. 宾语 + 宾语补语 ) 2、His parents named him John. 4、They pushed the door open. 6、We will make our school more beautiful. 8、I want you to tell me the truth. 10、Tomorrow I’ll have someone repair the machine. 12、The pain made him cry out. 14、He has his hair cut once a month. 16、The terrible sound made the children frightened. 18、he boys were watching the soldiers drilling. 20、He felt it very difficult to talk with you. 2、 Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 4、Would you please pass me the dictionary? +主语补语 ) 2、In winter, the days are short and the nights are long. 4、At the age of fifteen he became a famous pianist. 2、I want to talk with you this afternoon. 4、 They have carried out the plan successfully. 8、Classes begin at eight every day.

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5、The weatherman says there’ll be a strong wind in the afternoon. 6、The light is on. There must be someone ion the office. 7、There used to be a cinema here before the war. 8、There happened to be nobody in the room.

U1 more adj 更多的 honest adj 诚实的,正直的 special adj 特别的,特殊的 teenager n 13-18 岁的青少年 nothing pron 没有东西;没有事情 secret n 秘密 adj 秘密的 sad adj 难过的,令人难过的 magazine n 杂志 bowl n 碗 joy n 欢乐,高兴;乐趣 believe vt 相信 good-looking adj 好看的,漂亮的 slim adj 苗条 willing adj 乐意的,愿意的 singer n 歌手 almost adv 几乎,差不多 humour n 幽默

musical adj 有音乐天赋的,音乐的;爱好音乐 generous adj 慷慨的,大方的;宽厚的 ready adj 乐意的,愿意的 round adj 圆形的 bored adj 无聊的 advertisement n 广告 true adj 忠实的;真实的;真的

smart adj 聪明的 joke 玩笑

sense n 观念,意识, ;感官;感觉 fit vi 被容纳 off

prep 离开,脱离 everyone pron 每个人 thin adj 瘦的,薄的 handsome adj 英俊的 eyesight n 视力

shoulder-length adj 齐肩的 vote vi 选举,投票

square adj 正方形的;平方的 n 正方形;广场 cheerful adj 令人快乐的,快乐的 unit 2 British adj. 英国的 lift n. <英>电梯 corridor n. <英>走廊 fall n. <美>秋天 movie n. <美>电影 printer n 打印机

dustbin n. <英>垃圾箱 hall n. <美>走廊

garbage n. <美>垃圾

elevator n. <美>电梯 soccer n. <美>足球 subject n. 科目
6/6

recess n. <美>课间休息 together adv. 在一起,共同 myself n. 我自己

mixed adj. 男女混合的;混合的 home Economics n. 家政课

tasty adj. 味道好的 twice adv. 两次;两倍 buddy n. 好朋友;搭档 close adj. 密切的,亲密的 geography n. 地理

meal n. 一顿饭 softball n. 垒球

guy n. <口>家伙, 朋友们;各位 practice vt.&vi. <美>练习,操练 hero n. 被崇拜的对象;英雄 admire language vi. 钦佩,羡慕

senior n. (8A)(大学或中学的)毕业生 least adj. 最少的;最小的 history n. 历史 science n. 科学

n. 语言

PE(Physical Education) abbr. 体育(课) unimportant adj. 不重要的

useful adj. 有用的;有益的 useless adj. 无用的 paper clip n. 回形针 timetable n. 时刻表;时间表

boring adj. 无聊的,令人乏味的 article n. 文章

unpopular adj. 不受欢迎的;不流行的 alike adj. 同样的,相像的 length n. 长,长度 n. 千米,公里

notebook n. 笔记本 off adv. 休假,休息 monkey n. 猴子

summertime

n. 夏季

kilometer finish

news n. 新闻 tick n.&vt. 小记号; 给……标记号

vt.&vi. 结束,停止; 结束,完成 table tennis drama

baseball n. 棒球 chess n. 国际象棋

n. 乒乓球 support

tennis

n. 网球

n. 戏剧

n. &vt 帮助;支持; 支持;鼓励 tennis court n. 网球场

ideal adj. 想像的;理想的 unit 3 Come on. 来吧。快点。 greeting n. 问候 mom n. <美>妈妈 coach sky real n. 长途汽车,教练 n. 天,天空

pop adj. 通俗的;流行的

ourselves greetings invite

pron. 我们自己 n. 祝愿语

coffee shop president

n. 咖啡馆; 小吃部 n. 总统,国家主席

vt. 邀请

beginning n. 开始,起初 highway n. (城镇间的)公路

city n. & adj. 城市的; 城市, 市

metal n. & adj. 金属; 金属的

interest n. 令人感兴趣的事(或人);兴趣

adj. 真的,天然的;真实的 n. (庆祝)游行

amazing adj. 令人惊奇的,惊人的 home page n. 主页

parade
7/7

himself pron. 他自己

yourself

pron. 你自己

yourselves pron 你们自己 main adj. 主要的

herself

pron 她自己

movement n. 行进;运行;走动 stone n. 石头 hike

stomach n. 胃,肚子 leaf n. 叶子([复数]leaves decide vt.&vi. 决定 possible adj. 可能的 rock n. 岩石

maple adj.&n. 枫树的; 枫树 beauty n. 美,美丽 sunset n. 日落;傍晚 itself pron. 它自己

vi. 徒步旅行,远足

prepare vt.&vi. 准备 themselves pron. 他们自己 hide-and-seek climber n. 登山者 cheer n. 捉迷藏 luckily

wonder adj.&n. 对……感到疑惑;想知道; 奇迹 adv. 幸好,幸运的是 final n. &adj. 决赛;期终考试; 最后的 supporter n. 支持者,拥护者 cup n. 奖杯

vi. 欢呼,喝彩

fare n. 车费,船费,飞机票价

half-time n. 中场休息 medal n. 奖牌,奖章 receive vt. 得到; 接到

presentation n. 授予(赠送)仪式;演示 cost n. 费用,价格 over prep. 超过 per prep. 每,每一

sure adv. 当然

winner n. 获胜者

pack vt. 把……打包,把……装箱 airport unit 4 wild adj. 野生的 dolphin n. 海豚 n. 机场 shuttle bus

badly adv. 拙劣地,糟糕地;严重地 n. 短程往返运行的公共汽车

delicious adj. 美味的,可口的 giant panda n. 熊猫 bamboo shoot n. 竹笋

bear

n. 熊

kangaroo n. 袋鼠 sadly adv. 可惜; 令人伤心地

squirrel n. 松鼠

survive vi. 活下来,继续存在,幸存 farmer danger n. 农民;农场主 n. 危险 forest

hunter n. 猎人 fur n. (动物的)毛,毛皮 n. 森林 nowhere n. 无处,没有地方

following adj. 以下的,接着的 reserve n. 自然保护区

action n. 行动 encourage alive vt. 劝告;鼓励 adj. 活着的

protect vi. 保护 safe adj. 安全的
8/8

thick adj. 厚的;密的;浓的

writer n. 作者 polar bear n. 北极熊 zebra report spit male n. 斑马

camel n. 骆驼

fox n. 狐狸

giraffe

n. 长颈鹿

tortoise n. 龟,乌龟 bamboo n. 竹子

wolf n. 狼 rainforest n. (热带)雨林

n. &vt. &vi. 报告;报道

attack vt. &vi. &n. 攻击,进攻 step vi. 踩,踏上 poison n. 毒物,毒药

vt. &vi. 吐出; 吐唾沫 adj. 雄的;男(性)的

hunt vt. &vi. 寻找;打猎,猎食; 追猎;搜寻 medicine loss n. 药 smell n. 嗅觉 chairperson n. 主席

character n. 特点;性格,品质 insect n. 昆虫 peaceful snail n. 蜗牛

n. 丧失,损失;失败

adj. 和平的,安宁的

continue

vi. & vt. 继续; 使继续 sell vt. 卖,出售 sharp adj. 尖的;锋利的

suitable adj. 合适的,适宜的 train vt. 训练 mice

farmland n. 农田,耕地 n. [mouse 的复数形式]老鼠

upright adv. 挺直地;竖立地;垂直地

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