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Unit One Friendship
1.go through 经历,经受 get through 通过;完成;接通电话 2. set down 记下,放下 3. a series of 一系列 4. on purpose 有目的的 5. in order to 为了 6. at dusk 傍晚,黄昏时刻 7. face to face 面对面 8. fall in love 爱上 9. join in 参加(某个活动) ; take part in 参加(活动) join 加入(组织,团队,并成为其中一员) 10. calm down 冷静下来 11. suffer from 遭受 12. be/get tired of…对…感到厌倦 13. be concerned about 关心 14. get on/along well with 与…相处融洽 15. be good at/do well in 擅长于… 16. find it + adj. to do sth. 发现做某事是… 17. no longer / not …any longer 不再… 18. too much 太多(后接不可数 n.) much too 太…(后接 adj.) 19. not…until 直到… 才 20. it’s no pleasure doing sth 做… 并不开心 21. make sb. sth. 使某人成为… make sb. do sth. 使某人做某事


间接引语: 用自己的话转述别人的话。间接引语在多数情况下可构成宾语从句且 不要加引号。 例: Mr. Black said, “ I’m busy.” Mr. Black said that he was busy.

(一)陈述句的变化规则 直接引语如果是陈述句,变为间接引语时,用连词 that(可省略)引导,从句中 的人称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语都要发生相应的变化。 人称的变化——人称的变化主要是要理解句子的意思 例:1. He said, “ I like it very much.” → He said that he liked it very much. 2. He said to me, “I’v left my book in your room.” → He told me that he had left his book in my room. 时态的变化 直接引语 一般现在时 现在进行时 现在完成时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去完成时 例: “I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary,” said Anne. →Anne said that she didn’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary. The boy said, “I’m using a knife.” → The boy said that he was using a knife. ▲注意:如果直接引语是客观真理,变为间接引语时,时态不变,如: He said, “Light travels much faster than sound.” He said that light travels much faster than sound. 间接引语 一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时 过去将来时 过去完成时


直接引语 this these now ago today yesterday tomorrow the day after tomorrow come here the day before yesterday

间接引语 that those then before/earlier that day the day before the next/following day In two day’s time go there two days before/earlier

(二) 祈使句的变化规则 如果直接引语是祈使句,变为间接引语时,要将祈使句的动词原形变为带 to 的 不定式,并根据句子意思在不定式前加上 tell/ask/order 等动词,如果祈使句是否 定句,在不定式前面还要加上 not。例: The hostess said to us, “Please sit down.” → The hostess asked us to sit down. He said, “Don’t make so much noise, boys.” → He told the boys not to make so much noise.

(三)疑问句的变化规则 如果直接引语是疑问句, 变为间接引语时要把疑问句语序变为陈述句语序,句末 用句号。 一般疑问句:如果直接引语是一般疑问句,变为间接引语时,谓语动词是 say 或 said 时,要改为 ask 或 asked,原问句变为由 if/whether 引导的宾语从句。例: “Do you think a diary can become your friend?” the writer says. → The writer asks us if we think a diary can become our friend. 2) 特殊疑问句:如果间接引语是特殊疑问句,变为间接引语时,仍用原来的引 导词,但疑问句要变为陈述句。例:

“What do you want?” he asked me. → He asked me what I wanted

Unit two English around the world
1. be different from 与…不同 be the same as 与…一样 2. one another 相互,彼此(=each other) 3. official language 官方语言 4. at the end of 在…结束时 5. because of 因为(后接名词或名词性短语) because 因为(后接句子) 6. native speakers 说母语的人 7. be based on 根据,依据 8. at present 目前;当今 9. especially 特别,尤其 specially 专门地 10. make use of 利用… make the best of 充分利用… 11. a large number of 大量的,很多(作主语,谓语动词用复数) the number of …的数量(作主语,谓语动词用单数) 12. in fact = actually= as a matter of fact 事实上 13. believe it or not 信不信由你 14. there is no such thing as… 没有这样的事… 15. be expected to …被期待做某事 16. play a part/role in … 在…起作用 17. make lists of…列清单 18. included 包括(前面接包括的对象) Including 包括(后接包括的对象) 19. command sb. to do sth. 命令某人去做某事 command + that 从句(从句用 should+V 原)


20. request sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事 request + that 从句(从句用 should+V 原)


对下级 例:1. “ Look at the example”, the teacher said to us. 2. Open the window!

例:1. “ Would you like to see my flat?” She asked. 2. Would you please open the window?

Unit 3 Travel journal
1. travel----泛指旅行 journey----指长时间长距离的陆上旅行 voyage----指长距离的水上旅行,也可以指乘飞机旅行 trip----常指短时间短距离的旅行 tour----指周游,巡回旅游, 2. prefer to 更加喜欢,宁愿 prefer A to B 比起 B,更喜欢 A prefer doing to doing 比起做…,宁愿做… prefer to do rather than do 与其做…, 不如… 3. flow through 流过,流经 4. ever since 自从 5. persuade sb. to do sth. 说服某人做某事 6. be fond of 喜欢 7. insist on doing 坚持做某事 insist + that 从句(用 should+ V 原) 8. care about 关心


9. change one’s mind 改变想法 10. altitude 高度 attitude 态度,看法 11. make up one’s mind to do 下定决心做某事 = decide to do = make a decision to do 12. give in 让步,屈服 give up 放弃 13. be surprised to … 对…感到惊奇 to one’s surprise 令某人惊讶的是… 14. at last = finally = in the end 最终 15. stop to do 停下来去做某事 stop doing 停止做某事 16. as usual 像往常一样 17. so…that 如此… 以至于… So + adj + a/an + n. + that Such + a/an +adj. + n. + that 18. be familiar with 对…熟悉(人作主语) be familiar to 为…所熟悉(物作主语)

现在进行时表将来, 表示最近按计划或安排要进行的动作,常见的现在进行时表 将来的动词有:come/ go / leave/ arrive / travel / take / stay/ do 等. 例:1. I’m coming. 我就来 2. what are you doing next Sunday ? 你下个星期天做什么? 3. I hear that you are travelling along Mekong River. 我听说你将沿湄公河旅行 4. Where are you staying at night? 你们晚上待在哪里/

Unit four Earthquakes
1. right away 立刻,马上(= at once = in no time)


2. asleep 睡着的;熟睡地(fall asleep 入睡) sleep 睡;睡眠 sleepy 犯困的 3. it seems that/ as if … 看来好像… ;似乎 4. in ruins 成为废墟 5. the number of …的数量(谓语动词用单数) a number of 大量(谓语动词用复数) 6. rescue workers 营救人员 Come to one’s rescue 营救某人 7. be trapped 被困 8. how long 多长时间 how often 多久,指平率 how soon 还要多久(用于将来时当中,用 in+时间段回答) 9. hundreds of thousands of 成千上万的 10. dig out 挖出 11. shake----泛指“动摇,震动”,常指左右、上下动摇,也可以指人“震惊,颤抖” 例:1. She felt the earth shaking under him. 2. She was shaken with anger. quake---- 指较强烈的震动,如地震 例: The building quaked on its foundation Tremble---- 指人由于寒冷、恐惧、不安等引起的身体的抖动或声音的颤抖 例: Suddenly I saw her lips begin to tremble and tears begin to flow down her cheeks. Shiver---- 多指寒冷引起的颤抖、哆嗦 例:A sudden gust of cold wind made me shiver. 12. rise (rose—risen)---- vi, 上升;升起, 无被动语态;give rise to 引起 Raise(raised—raised)---- vt, 举起;筹集;养育 Arise ( arose—arisen)----vt, 出现(常指问题或现象) 13. injure---- 常指因意外事故造成的损伤,也可以指感情上名誉上的伤害 例:He was injured in a car accident. harm---- 泛指“伤害,损害” ,既可以指有生命的,也可以指无生命的


例:1. He was afraid that his fury would harm the child. 2. His business was harmed for some reason. hurt---- 既可以指肉体上的伤害,也可以指精神上的伤害 例:1. She hurt her leg when she fell. 2. He felt hurt at your word. wound---- 一般指枪伤、刀伤等在战场上受的伤 例:The bullet wounded him in the arm. 14. be prepared for …= make preparations for… 为…做准备 15. in one’s honor 向…表示敬意;为纪念 Be/ feel honored to do … 做…感到很荣幸 16. make /give/ deliver a speech 发言 opening speech 开幕词 17. give/ provide shelter to …向…提供庇护所 seek shelter from…躲避 18. happen to + n./ pron. 遭遇,发生 happen to do sth. 偶然;碰巧 happen ----指偶然发生 take place----指事先计划好的事情发生

概念:在复合句中,修饰名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。 成分: 先行词, 即被定语从句修饰的名词或代词; 关系代词: that, which, who(宾
格为 whom,所有格为 whose);或者关系副词 where,when,why 等。关系 代词或关系副词处在先行词和定语从句之间,起着连接主从句的作用。 1. 关系代词 that 的用法 关系代词 that 在定语从句中既能指人,也能指物;既能做主语,也能做宾语 例:1)A plane is a machine that can fly. (指物,作主语) 2)The noodles (that) I cooked were delicious. (指物,作宾语) 3)Who is the man that is reading a book over there? (指人,作主语) 4)The girl (that) we saw yesterday was Jim’s sister,(指人,作宾语) 2. 关系代词 which 的用法


关系代词 which 在定语从句中只能指物,但既可以做宾语也能作主语 例:1)They planted some trees which didn’t need much water. (作主语) 2)The fish (which) we bought this morning were not fresh. (作宾语) 3. 关系代词 who,whom 的用法 关系代词 who,whom 只能指人,在定语从句中分别作主语和宾语 例:1)The foreigner who helped us yesterday is from USA.(作主语) 2)The person to whom you just talked to is Mr. Li. (作宾语)、 4. 关系代词 whose 在的用法 关系代词 whose 为关系代词 who 的所有格形式,其先行词既可以是人也可以 是物,whose 和它所修饰的名词在定语从句中既可以做主语也可以做宾语。 例:1)This is the scientist whose name is known all over the world. (指人,作 主语) 2) The room whose window faces south is mine. (指物,作主语) 3)He has written a book whose name I’ve forgotten. (指物,作宾语) 5. 关系副词 when 的用法 关系副词 when 在定语从句中作时间状语 例: I’ll never forget the time when (=during which) we worked on the farm. 1) 2) Do you remember the afternoon when (=on which) we first met three years ago? 6. 关系副词 where 在定语从句中的用法 关系副词 where 在定语从句中做地点状语 例:1)This is the place where( =at/ in which) we first met. 2) The hotel where (= in which ) we stayed wasn’t very clean. 7. 关系副词 why 在定语从句中的用法 关系副词 why 在定语从句中作原因状语 例: 1). I didn’t get a pay rise, but this wasn’t the reason why(= for which) I left. 2). The reason why (=for which) he has late was that he missed the train.

Unit 5 Nelson Mandela – a modern hero
1. selfish 自私的


selfless 无私的 2. devote oneself to… 致力于;献身于 3. fight against 对抗,反对 fight for 为… 而战 4. principle 原则 principal 校长;主要的 5. offer guidance to …给…提供指导 6. out of work 失业 7. join 加入(组织,俱乐部,成为其中一员) join in 参加(活动) take part in 参加(活动) 8. as + adj +as one can 尽可能… = as + adj. +as possible 9. as a matter of fact 事实上(=in fact) 10. blow up 爆炸,炸掉 11. set up 建立 set off 出发,动身 ; 12. be sentenced to 被判… 13. be equal to 与…相等;胜任 14. be proud of 为…感到自豪 15. give out 分发 (give off 散发出(气味) ) 16. die for 为…而死 die of 死于(自身原因,如疾病) die from 死于(外在原因,如车祸) 17. realize one’s dream of … 实现..的梦想 18. only 位于句首时,要主谓倒装 例:Only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. Only in this way, can we protect the environment better. ; set about 着手,开始做( set about doing sth.) set out 开始,出发(set out to do sth.)





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