情态动词表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度。 二、特点 1．有一定词义； 2．不受主语人称和数的变化影响； 3．与主要动词的原形(或称不带 to 的不定式)一起构成谓语(除 ought to 作固定词组看待)。 情态动词无人称和数的变化， 情态动词后面跟的动词需用原形，否定式构成是在情态动词 后面加 “not”。 个别情态动词有现在式和过去式两种形式， 过去式用来表达更加客气， 委 婉的语气， 时态性不强， 可用于过去，现在或将来。情态动词属非及物动词，故没有被动 语态。 基本助动词与情态助动词最主要的区别之一是， 基本助动词本身没有词义， 而情态助动词则 有自己的词义，能表示说话人对有关动作或状态的看法，或表示主观设想。 三、用法 1．can (could) Everyone here can speak English. (表能力) He can't / couldn't have seen her there. (表猜测) He could have gone home. (表猜测) Could / Can I use your pen? Yes, of course you can. (表允许) How can you be so careless? (表怀疑、惊异，主要用于否定、疑问句) Can / Could you lend me a hand? (表委婉发表观点) 2．may (might) You may take whatever you like.(表允许，证据更委婉) 注： 在回答以 may 引起的问句时， 多避免用这个词， 而用其他方式， Yes, please. / Certainly. 如 / Please don't. / You'd better not. / No, you mustn't.等，以免显得太严谨或不客气。 They might be having a meeting, but I'm not sure. (表可能) 3．must
You must buy a ticket. (表义务，意为“必须”) 注： 回答 Must...? 引出的问句时， 肯定回答用 must; 否定回答不能用 mustn't, 而要用 needn't 或 don't have to。 —Must I finish my homework now? —Yes, you must.(No, you needn't / don't have to.) This must be Lucy's. (表猜测，意为“想必；准是；一定”等，用于肯定) “must have ＋ 过去分词”表示“想必”之意，表示对过去的事情的推测。 4．shall Shall I play soccer after supper? May I play soccer after supper? If you don't behave yourself, you shall be punished. 5．will I will do anything for you. 我愿为你做任何事。 (表意愿，用于各种人称陈述句) Will you give me a cigarette? Or I will tell the boss.(表请求，用于疑问句) She will stand there sleeping for hours. (表示某种倾向或习惯性动作) 6．should You shouldn't be so careless. (表义务，意为“应该”，用于各种人称) They should have arrived in Beijing by this time. (表推测，意为“想必一定、照说应该、估计” 等) It is simply a miracle that rice should grow in such a place. (表示语气较强的意为“假设；万一； 竟然”) 7．would I said I would do anything for you. (表意愿) Would you please tell me the way to the nearest bus stop? (表委婉地提出请求、建议或看法) When he had a problem to solve, he would work at it until he found an answer. (表过去反复发生 的动作或过去的一种倾向) 8．ought to I really ought to phone my mother.(表义务，意为“应该”，口气比 should 稍重) There's a fine sunset; it ought to be a fine day tomorrow. (表推测，暗含很大的可能，语气较弱) 9．used to
There used to be a building at the street corner, but it has been pulled down. (表示过去的习惯动 作或状态，现在不再发生或不复存在) I usedn't / didn't use to smoke. (否定式) Used you (Did you use) to go to school on foot? (疑问式) 虚拟语气 一、定义 虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望、假设、猜测或建议，而不表示客观存在的事实。虚拟语气通过 谓语动词的特殊形式来表示二、用法 1．虚拟语气用于非真实条件句中，一是在 if 条件状语从句中；二是在含蓄虚拟条件句中， 通过 with, without, but for 和动词不定式短语等表示虚拟的条件或句中含有 or, or else, otherwise, but 等词语，暗示句子的某一部分(前句或后句)需用虚拟语气。 。 条件状语从句 与过去事实相反 与现在事实相反 had ＋ 过去分词 一般过去时 (be 用 were) 主句 should / would / could / might ＋ have ＋ 过去分词 would / should / could / might ＋ 动词原形
一般过去时或(should would / should / could / might 与将来事实相反 / were to) ＋ 动词原 ＋ 动词原形 形
If I were you, I would go with them. 假若我是你，我就同他们去。 If it hadn't been for your assistance, we wouldn't have succeeded. ＝ But for your assistance, we wouldn't have succeeded. ＝ Without your assistance，we wouldn't have succeeded.要不是你的 帮助，我们就不会成功了。 If I asked him, I'm sure he'd help us.如果我向他提出要求，肯定他会帮助我们。 注意：错综时间虚拟条件句，即条件从句与主句所指时间不一致，如从句指过去，而主句即 指的是现在或将来， 此时应根据具体的语境情况， 结合上面提到的三种基本类型对时态作相 应的调整。 If it had rained last night, the ground would be wet now. 要是昨晚下过雨的话， 现在地面就会是 湿的。 You would be much better now if you had taken my advice. 假若你当时听我的话，你现在就会 好多了。
2．虚拟语气用于主要是表示命令、要求、建议的动词后的宾语从句中。常见动词：一个坚 持： insist； 两个命令： order, command； 三个建议： advise, suggest, propose； 五个要求： demand, require, request, desire，ask。这些动词后面的宾语从句要使用虚拟语气用法。即从句中的动 词使用 should ＋动词原形，或者将 should 省略。 Mr Johnson insisted that the problem worthy of attention (should) be discussed at the meeting. 约 翰森先生坚持应该 在会议外讨论这个值得注意的问题。 He urged that they go to Europe. 他敦促他们到欧洲去。 He suggested that we should leave early. 他建议我们早点动身。 He ordered that it (should) be sent back. 他命令把它送回去。 注意：insist 作“坚持说；强调”解时，宾语从句不用虚拟语气；只有当 insist 作“坚持(应该)” 解时，宾语从句才用虚拟语气。 The stranger we caught insisted that he had never stolen anything. 我们抓住的那个陌生人坚持 说他什么东西也没偷。 3．虚拟语气用于 wish 后的宾语从句中，表示不能实现的愿望，意为“可惜……；…… 就好 了；悔不该……；但愿……”等。表示现在不能实现的愿望，从句的谓语动词用过去式；表 示将来不能实现的愿望， 用“would (could)＋动词原形”； 表示过去不能实现的愿望， 用“had ＋ 过去分词”或“(could) would have＋过去分词”。 She wished she had stayed at home. 她后悔的是她当时要是留在家里就好了。(与过去相反) I wish you would go with us tomorrow.要是你明天同我们一起去就好了。(与将来相反) I wish I were you. 我要是你就好了。(与现在相反) 4．虚拟语气用在 would rather 后的从句中。若与现在或将来事实不符，从句用一般过去时； 若与过去事实不符，从句用过去完成时。 I would rather you paid me now. 我希望你现在就给我钱。(与现在事实相反) I would rather you had attended the meeting yesterday. 我希望你昨天参加会议了。 (与过去事实 相反) 5．虚拟语气用于以 as if (as though) 引导的表语从句或状语从句中。 如果从句表示与现在事实相反，谓语动词用一般过去时；表示与过去事实相反，谓语动词用 “had ＋过去分词”；表示与将来事实相反，谓语动词用“would (might, could) ＋动词原形”。 The coach always treats the players as if they were his own children.教练对待队员就像是对自己
的孩子。 She was suffering from a bad cold. Her head felt as if it would burst。她正患重感冒，头疼的感 觉就像要炸开一样。 但 as if (as though) 后的从句也常用陈述语气，这是因为从句中的情况往往是可能发生的或 可能被设想为真实的。 It looks as if it is going to rain. 似乎要下雨。 6．虚拟语气用于 if only 引导的感叹句中。 If only I knew his name！我要是知道他的名字就好了。 If only I had known the answer when my teacher questioned me.老师提问时， 我要是知道答案就 好了。 7．“It's necessary / strange / natural / important ＋ that...”在主语从句中的动词要用虚拟，即 (should)＋动词原形，表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等。 It is important that we (should) have a good knowledge of computer in modern times.在现代社 会，有电脑常识是非常重要的。 It is necessary that these useful expressions (should) be learnt by heart.我们记住这些有用的表达 方式是很有必要的。 It is suggested that she should finish her task this afternoon.有人建议她下午就应完成任务。 注意：这种从句表示的是事实，如果不表示惊奇，that 从句也可用陈述语气。 8．表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟语气。 在 suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice 等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用 虚拟语气，即 (should) ＋动词原形。 My suggestion is that the project (should) be completed by the end of the year.我建议工程应该在 年底前竣工。 We all agreed to his suggestion that we (should) go to Beijing for the National Day military parade. 他提出去北京看国庆阅兵的建议，我们都非常赞成。 9．虚拟语气用于定语从句 这种从句常用在“It is (high) time (that) ...”句型中，定语从句的谓语动词用过去式，或“should ＋ 动词原形(should 不能省略，be 用 were)”来表示，意为“(现在)该……”。 It's high time that you should stop smoking.你该戒烟了。 10．虚拟语气用于其他几种结构
在某些虚拟语气结构中没有 if 条件句，虚拟条件是用其他形式表示出来，这种现象在语法 上称为“含蓄条件句”。含蓄条件具体分为以下几种情况： 1)通过动词不定式短语表示条件 You would be a fool to refuse his offer. ＝ If you should refuse his offer, you would be a fool. 要 是你拒绝他的建议，就太傻了。 2)通过介词短语表达条件 But for your help, we couldn't have succeeded. ＝ If it had not been for your help, we wouldn't have succeeded. 要不是你的帮忙，我们就不会成功了。 3)通过连词 otherwise, or, but, that, though, once 等表达条件 She wasn't feeling very well. Otherwise she would have attended the meeting.她本可以参加会 议，但是她当时感觉不舒服。 4)通过“Were it not for...”或“Had it not been for...”等句式表达条件 Were it not for / If it were not for the leadership of the Party, we could not live a happy life.要不是 党的领导，我们不可能过幸福生活。(与现在事实相反) Had it not been for the kind guide, I might have got lost in the mountains.要不是这位好心的向 导，我可能就在山中迷路了。 (与过去事实相反) 5)通过分词短语表达条件 Given more information, they could have done the job better.倘若给予更多的信息，他们本来可 以把工作做得更好。(＝ If they had been given more information...) 高考对情态动词的考查命题热点主要集中在以下几个方面： 1．注重在语言环境中根据说话人的语气来使用情态动词。 2．情态动词表示推测或判断的用法考查。 3．设置场景考查学生熟练使用表示责备等的情态动词加完成时的用法等。 4．虚拟语气是历年高考的选考考点，考点常集中在含蓄条件句以及宾语从句中的虚拟语气 上。所设选项常通过谓语动词的特殊形式来表示， 而且都是结合具体语境来考查对考点的 运用能力。 今后高考对虚拟语气的命题重点仍会是在特定语境中考查虚拟语气中的含蓄虚拟 条件句、宾语从句中的谓语动词等。
情态动词 1.（四川卷 13）—I don’t care what people think. —Well, you _______ A. could B. would C. should D. might 2. （江苏卷 28） did not regret saying what he did but felt that he He it differently. A. could express B. would express C. could have expressed D. must have expressed 3.（全国卷 I 25）What do you mean, there are only ten tickets? There be twelve. A. should B. would C. will D. shall 4. 湖南卷 30） It’s the office! So you （ — know eating is not allowed here. — Oh, sorry. A. must B. will C. may D. need 5.（辽宁卷 29）The traffic is heavy these days. I arrive a bit late, so could you save me a place? A can B must C need D might 6.（全国卷 II 20）I can’t leave. She told me that I _____ stay here until she comes back. A. can B. must C. will D. may 7.（浙江卷 13）The doctor recommended that you swim after eating a large meal. A wouldn’t B couldn’t C needn’t D shouldn’t 8.（重庆卷 32）—Hi, Tom . Any idea where Jane is? — She _____in the classroom . I saw her there just now. A. shall be B. should have been C. must be D. might have been 9. 北京卷 25） （ One of the few things you ___ say about English people with certainty is that they talk a lot about the weather. A. need B. must C. should D. can 10.（天津卷 15）This printer is of good quality. If it _______ break down within the first year, we would repair it at our expense. A. would B. should C. could D. might
专题训练 (15) 11. Last summer I took a course ___________________________(有关如何应对) poisonous gases if any. (deal) 12. _______________________ (无论他处于多么困难的境地), he never lost confidence and was always optimistic about the future life. (difficult) 13. _____________________ (毫无疑问) the competition is fierce and challenging. (doubt). 14. The earthquake destroyed most houses in the village. How are they going to ________ (度 过)the winter? (get)
15. In 1769, James Cook ______________________________ (占据) New Zealand and since then great changes have taken place there. (possession ) 16. The sports meeting has to ______________________ (取消) because of the heavy rain. (call ) 17. The Chinese nation has ____________________________ (产生) many national heroes and revolutionary leaders. (birth) 18. Born in England, he ___________________ (有优势) her in spoken English. (advantage) 19. The other day I was walking along the beach when ______________________(突然) I heard someone calling for help.(sudden) 20． Whenever he was absorbed in reading books, nothing can ________________________ (吸引 他的注意力) . (draw)
专题训练 (16) 11. Poverty in this area will _____________________________(消除) sooner or later .( wipe) 12. _____________________(由…决定) you whether we should leave at once or not. (up ) 13. __________________________(行动) before it’s too late, or we’ll lose the battle . ( action) 14. Rather than go for a walk, he _______________________________(宁愿呆在家). ( prefer) 15. To our surprise, this is _______________________(跟我丢失的项链一模一样) last week. (same) 16. _________________________(难怪) that he falls far behind others. (wonder) 17. Harry Potter ________________________________(熟知) both children and adult.(familiar) 18. Those _________________________(赞成) this proposal ,please put up your hand. (favour) 19. He has formed a habit of ___________________________(储蓄) 10 yuan each week since he was 11 years old. (lay) 20. _____________________(是在一个十一月份的夜晚) I finished writing this novel. (be, night) (15)参考答案 11. on how to deal with 12. Whatever difficult situation he was in 13. There’s no doubt( that) 14. get through 15. took possession of 16.be called off 17. given birth to 18. has an advantage over 19. all of a sudden /suddenly 20. draw his attention (16) 参考答案 11. be wiped out 12. It’s up to
13. Take action 14. prefers to stay at home 15. the same necklace as I lost 16. It’s no wonder 17. is familiar to 18. (who are) in favour of 19. laying aside 20. It was on a November night that 句子翻译训练 Module 2 Unit 3 1. 尽管多数人都认为他的目标不切实际，他确信他可以通过努力达成目标。 (achieve; goal)
2. 由于新一轮抛售的波浪，股市出现了进一步的下跌。 (as a result of, there be, a further fall)
4. 她将会公开露脸，为她最新的小说签名。（appearance, sign）
5. 这个母亲正看护着她熟睡的孩子。(watch over)
Keys: 1. Although most people considered his goal to be unrealistic, he was sure that he c ould achieve it with hard work. 2. As a result of a fresh wave of selling, there was a further fall in the stock market. 3. New problems will inevitably arise as our society and economy develop. 4. She will be making a public appearance, signing copies of her latest novel. 5. The mother is watching over her sleeping child now.
3.环境资源话题作文 例 1：近日你所在的学校开展了“为建设节约型社会献一计”主题活动，同学们提出了 许多建议。请你根据以下要点，用英语写一篇短文向 English Horizons 杂志编辑部投稿： 有人建议 你的建议 1、不浪费粮食和纸张 2、尽量不使用方便筷、塑料袋[来源:学科网] 3、毕业生将书赠给低年级同学循环使用? 注意： 1、不要逐字翻译，可适当增加细节; 2、词数：120 字左右，开头已经为你写好，不计入总词数; 3、参考词汇：方便筷 disposable c hopsticks Recently， there has been an activity of “doing your bit for an energy-saving society” in our school. Our schoolmates are highly concerned about the increasing lack of e nergy an d provide their own suggestions. Some students suggest that we shouldn't waste any food or paper, though they appear very easy to get. Meanwhile, some other students think it advisable to refuse to use disposable chopsticks and plastic bags. Besi des, it is also strongly recommended that those used textbooks as well as reference books of graduates, which are still in good condition, not be thrown but recycled. Actually, there are still quite a lot that we can easily do: say, try to take buses or ride bic ycles instead of driving cars, etc. All of these will definitely help to build an energy-saving society. 例 2：假如你上周末参加了某旅行社组织的所谓生态游，你觉得名不副实。请你根据下 表内容把自己经历的这次生态游和对真正生态游的看 法写出来。 所谓的生态游 欣赏风景，享受新鲜空气 有人摘花、捉鸟、乱扔垃圾 真正的生态游 享受自然，同时也是一种责任 要 保护自然，保护野生动物 带走美好回忆，留下青山绿水 Last weekend I went on an eco-travel with a travel agency. All the way we enjoyed the beautiful scenery and fresh air. But a few of us picked flowers as while going sightseeing.. Some even tried to catch the birds they saw. What was worse, many tourists threw rubb ish here and there. The rubbish may do harm to wildlife there. I don' t think this is a true eco-travel. A true eco-travel is a tour that not only allows us to express our love for nature, but needs our responsibility as well. As we enjoy the beauty of nature, we should try our best to protect it. And we should also try to protect wildlife. A true eco-travel should be like this: take nothing away but your good memory; leave nothing behind b ut all the green trees and the clean water. 4.健康幸福话题作文 例 1： 根据下面提示，写一篇《财富与快乐》的短文。
(1)一些人认为财富能带来快乐。 (2) 另一些人认为钱多了不是一件好事。 (3)提出自己的看法。 注意：单词数 120 个左右。 Wealth and Happiness Some people think wealth can bring happiness to them. It is true that most of them try to acquire wealth by means of honest lab or. They work hard and overcome many difficulties. After doing this, they feel very happy and pleased. Even their spending money is a kind of happiness。 But some people believe wealth can't bring them happiness. For example, when one gets a fortune, the family members will come from different parts of the country and try to share the wealth with him. A nd afterwards, they will quarrel with one another, trying to share more. And som etimes even appear bloody fight and killing. What a terrible result! In my opinion, I think there is no doubt that wealth brings happiness, especially in the modern society. If you have money you c an lead a comfortable and colorful life. But we should take a proper attitude towards wealth. Remember： money is not everything。 例 2： 最近，你班同学展开了一场讨论，主题是：Wealth & Health。请你根据下表提供 的信 息，写一篇 100 词左右的文 章，介绍一下你们讨论的情况。 一些人认为财富更重要 一些人认为健康更重要 1.没有钱万万不行 2. 想办法多挣钱 1. 健康是本钱 2. 要爱惜身体 个人看法：更看重健康。身体不好，钱再多也无济于事。 Wealth & Health Which is more important, wealth or health? Different people have different opinions. Some people prefer wealth, holdin g that money can not bring everything, but withou t it, one can do nothing. In order to accumulate more money they can do anything. However, other people regard health as more important. Once health is lost, it is no use having a lot of money. As far as I am concerned, I love wealth, but I value health more. Everybody wants to live a happy life. So they try their best to earn money which can ensure they lead a comfortable life, but if happiness and comfort are achieved at the cost of their health, how can they be happy? Without health money becomes meaningless. In my opinion, no one agrees th at a wealthy person without good health can be happy. So, just do our best to keep healthy.
71. The world is getting t_____, nothing is more important than starting saving water right now.
72. Helen cut the bread and gave me two p_________. 73. If we don’t take m_________ to save the wild camel, then it will be in far greater danger than the panda. 74. The p_______ and suitcases which were still waiting had to be translated to another plane. 75. Mozart was born m_________. 76. The sun sank lower and lower till it d________ beneath the horizon and left the world to darkness. 77. I have no sense of d_________, and can never tell east from west, north from south. 78. The newly-built overhead bridge adds up to the b_______ of the city. 79. We must help the people in t . 80. Though I am alone, I don’t feel l . 71. thirstier 72. pieces 73. measure 74. passengers 75. musician 76. disappeared 77. direction 78. beauty 79. trouble 80.lonely
必修 2 Unit3 重点单词： 1. calculate v. 计算 2. calculator n. 计算器 3. common adj. 共同的；共有的 4. analytical adj. 分析的 5. simple-minded adj. 简单的；笨的 6. technology n. 工艺；科技；技术 7. technological adj. 科技的 8. revolution n. 革命 9. universal adj. 宇宙的；普遍的；通用的 10. mathematical adj 数学的 11. artificial adj. 人造的；假的 12. intelligence n. 智力；聪明；智能 13. anyway adv. 无论如何；总之 14. totally adv. 完全地；整个地 15. advantage n. 优点；优势；有利条件 16. disadvantage n. 缺点；劣势；不利条件 17. type n. 类型 V． 打字 18. disagree v. 不同意；不一致 19. choice n. 选择；抉择 20. material n. 材料；原料 21. personally adv. 亲自地；就本人而论 22. create v. 创造；创作；造成 23. move n. 步骤；行动；动作 24. arise v. 出现；发生 25. mop n. 拖把 用拖把拖洗
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