1．引导非限定性定语从句时，只能用 which（不用 that） 。例如（MET91） ： She heard the terrible noise ，____ brought her heart into her mouth． A．it B．which C．this D．that 答案是 B，which 指代前面的先行词 noise，引导非限定性定语从句，并在从 句中作主语。 2．有时引导词 which 可以指前面整个句子的含义。例如（NMET2000） ： Dorothy was always spe aking highly of her role in the play，____ ，of course ， made the others unhappy． A．who B．which C．this D．what（Key：B） 3．除 which 外，还可用 when，where ， who（m）等关系代、副词引导非限 定性定语从句。例如： Finally I decided to stay in Chong qing， where I finished my college study． 4．在限定性定语从句中作宾语时，引导词可以省略，但引导非限定性定语从 句的连词不能省。例如： He was eager to go to the hospital to see his stepmother， whom he loved as his own mother． 5．置于句首时，非限定性定语从句只能用 as 引导，而置于句末时 as 和 which 都可用。例如（上海高考题 94） ： ____ is known to all，China will be an ____ and powerful country in 20 or 30 years'time ． A．That；advancing B．This ；advanced C．As；advanced D．It；advancing 答案是 C。但是当非限定性定语从句是否定意义时，只能用 which 引导。例如 （NM ET94） ： The weather turned out to be very good，was more than we could expect． A．what B．which C．that D．if 答案是 B，句中的 more than 的本意为“超过”，“超过了我的预料”即为“我没有 预料到”。这里不能用 as 代替 which。 二、先行词是表地点或时间的名词时，引导词的选择。例如（NMET96） ： After living in Paris for 50years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child． A．which B．where C．that D．when 答案是 B，因为表地点的先行词 the small town 在从句中作状语；当表地点的 先行词在从句中作主、宾、表语时，则要用 that 或 which 引导定语从句。例如： ①I visited the country which ／that had been bombed by the US-led NATO （美国 为首的北约）a month before ． ②I shall never forget the years ____ I lived in the countryside with the farmers ， ____ has a great effect on my life ． （上海高考题 94） A．that；which B．when；which C．which；that D．when；who（Ke y：B） ③I'll never forget the ye ars that ／which I spent with my cousin in Australia． 先行词 the years 在第②句中作时间状语，在第③句中作 spe nt 的宾语，此时 引导词 that ／which 可省略。
三、“介词＋关系代词（which ／whom）”引导的定语从句。例如（上海高考 题 95） ： In the office I neve r seem to have time until after 5：30 pm ____ ，many people have gone home ． A．whose time B．that C．on which D．by which time 答案是 D， which time 即 by“after 5： by 30”“到五点三十分以后”。 介词的选择， 取决于这个介词与先行词或从句之间的关系。又如： Lei Feng ，from whom we have once learned a lot，is now an example to the soldiers of West Point Military School（西点军校）of America． 关系代词前的介词 from，与从句的谓语动词 le arn 构成习惯表达 le arn from （向……学习） 。 四、语义的重复。例如（上海高考题 98） ： He made another wonderful discovery，____ of great importance to science ． A．which I think is B．which I think it is C．which I think it D．I think is 答案是 A。选项 B 重复了宾语 it，因为关系代词 which 是 think 的逻辑宾语； 此外，引导非限定性定语从句的连词不能省略，故选项 D 也不对。 五、 “介词＋whom”引导的定语从句与 who ／whom 引导的宾语从句作介词宾 语时的区别。试比较： It was a matter of ____ would take the position． （上海高考题 96） A．who B．whoever C．whom D．whomever Kennedy and Johnson，both of were murde red in their terms，once coworked as president and vice -president． A．who B．whoever C．whom D．whomever 答案分别为 A 和 C。前者是宾语从句， who 引导的整个宾语从句作介词 of 的宾语，同时 who 在从句中作主语，所以不能用 whom 引导。后者是定语从句， whom 作介词 of 的宾语（所以不能用 who 引导） ，构成介、宾结构，作 both 的 定语，而 both 才是定语从句的主语。 六、定语从句中的主谓一致问题。试比较： The Oscar is the only one of the film prizes ____ offered to any Chinese actor or actress by far． The Oscar is one of the film prizes ____ offered to any Chinese actor or actress by far． A．which is on B．that have not been C．that has not D．that has not been 答案分别是 D 和 B。前一例的先行词是 the only one，且指代它的引导词在从 句中作主语，故从句的谓语动词必须用单数；又因先行词 one 被 only 修饰，所 以只能用 that 引导。当 one 没有被 the only 或 the very 等修饰时，则介词 of 后面 的 the film prize s 是先行词，从句中的谓语动词就必须用复数，而且引导词既可 用 that 也可用 which（第二例） 。总之，当引导词在句子中作主语时，谓语动词 的单、复数形式应该与该主语保持一致。
二、定语从句与六种易混句型巧区分 定语从句是高中阶段的重点语法项目之一。因此，同学们有必要全面弄清其 用法。定语从句从句型上讲，它与六种句式相似，十分容易混淆。为了帮助同学 们分清定语从句与这六种句型的差异，现将其分类例析如下。 一、定语从句与并列句 1．用一个恰当的词完成下列句子，使之完整与正确。 ①Mr Li has three daughters，none of _____ is an engineer． ②Mr Li has three daughters，but none of _____ is a dancer． ③Mr Li has three daughters； _____ are doctors． 2．定语从句与并列句的主要区别在于：并列句有像 and，but，so 等并列连词 或两个句子用分号连接， 这时就不能再用引导定语从句的关系词了。 从结构上看， ①小题是定语从句，故填 whom；②小题有并列连词 but，是并列句，故填代词 them；③小题是两个并列分句，无需连接词，缺少主语，故填 none 或 they。 二、定语从句与地点状语从句 1．用一个恰当的词完成下列句子，使之完整与正确。 ①Rice doesn't grow well _____ there is not enough water． ②I still remember the farm _____ my parents worked ten years ago． 2． 定语从句与地点状语从句的主要区别在于： 定语从句有表示地点的先行词， 而地点状语从句则没有；定语从句的关系词根据需要可用“介词＋which”来代替 where，而地点状语从句则通常只能由 where 引导。因此，从结构上看，①小题 无表示地点的先行词，故为表示地点的状语从句，填 where；②小题中 the farm 是先行词，是定语从句，故填 where，此处的 where 可用 on which 替换。 三、定语从句与强调句 1．用一个恰当的词完成下列句子，使之完整与正确。 ①It is on the morning of May 1st _____ I met Liang Wei at the airport． ②It is the factory _____ Mr Wang works． 2．定语从句与强调句的主要区别在于：强调句的结构为“It is／was＋被强调 部分＋that＋从句”。被强调部分可以是除谓语以外的任何成分，当被强调部分是 人时，还可用 who 代替 that。这一句型中，一定不能因为被强调部分是表时间或 地点的词就用 when 或 where 代替 that。 从结构上看， ①小题是强调句， 故填 that。 此种情况检测的标准是： 先把强调句中的 It is／was 去掉， 再把被强调部分还原， 在不增加或减少任何单词的情况下，如句子仍然成立则为强调句，否则为定语从 句。将第①小题改为：I met Liang Wei on the morning of May 1st at the airport．显 然，这句话是正确的，故为强调句。②小题则是定语从句，用上述方法转换便知 the factory 前差个介词 in，故填 where。 四、定语从句与结果状语从句 1．用一个恰当的词完成下列句子，使之完整与正确。 ①Ihave the same computer _____ you have． ②She is such a kind and funny girl _____ all of us like to make friends with her． 2． 定语从句与结果状语从句的主要区别在于 （这里只讨论 the same．． ． as／that 和 such．．as／that 两种情况） ． ：在这两种情况下，如果 as／that 既引导从句，同 时又在从句中充当一定的成分， as／that 引导的是定语从句。 the same．． 则 在 ． as
／that 结构中，用 as 指一样的，但不是同一个事物；用 that 指同一物品，故①小 题填 as；如果 as／that 在从句中不作任何成分，只起连接作用，则 as／that 引导 的是结果状语从句，故②小题填 that。 五、定语从句与习惯句型 1．用一个恰当的词完成下列句子，使之完整与正确。 ①It is the first time _____ she has been in Shanghai． ②It was the time _____ Chinese people had a hard life． 2 ． 这 里 ① 小 题 是 一 个 习 惯 句 型 ， 其 结 构 为 ： It is ／ was the first ／ second ．． time ＋that 从句。故①填 that，其意为：这是她第一次在上海。② ． 小题 the time 是先行词，其后是表示时间的定语从句，故填 when。 六、定语从句与单句 1．用一个恰当的词完成下列句子，使之完整与正确。 ①The mother told the lazy boy to work，_____ didn't help． ②The mother told the lazy boy to work．_____ didn't help． 2． 含有定语从句的复合句与两个单句的主要区别在于：前者有主句，有从句， 必须有关系词；而后者则是两个单独的句子，不需要任何关联词。①小题两个句 子用逗号连接且没有并列连词，显然应是主从句关系，因此需用关系词 which， 前面整个句子作先行词；②小题则填 It，代替前面的整个句子。解题时，注意标 点符号的运用。
1. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ________,of course , made the others unhappy. A．who （2000 全国） （B） B．which C．this D．what
2. The result of the experiment was very good, _____ we hadn't expected. （2000 北京春季） C） （ A. when B. that C. which D. what
3. It was an exciting moment for these football fans this year, ________ for the first time in years their team won the World Cup. （2000 北京春季）（D） A. that B. while C. which D. when
4. The film brought the hours back to me_________ I was taken good care of in that far-away village. （01 全国） （C） A. until （01 全国） （B） A. it B. As C. That D. What 6. John said he’d been working in the office for an hour, _______ was true. （01 北京春季）C） （ A．he B．this （02 北京） （C） B. which C. where D. when C．which D．who ______ other B. that C. when D. where
5. _________is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month.
7. We will be shown around the city: schools, museums, and some other places, visitors seldom go. A. what （02 北京春季） （D） A. where B. when C. which （03 北京） （B）
8. The famous basketball star,
tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention.
9. York, __________last year, is a nice old city. A. that I visited — Oh, that’s
B. which I visited C. where I visited （03 北京春季） （A）
D. in which I visited
10. — Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game? .
A．what makes me feel excited C．how I feel about it 11. We are living in an age
B．whatever I feel excited about D．when I feel excited many things are done on computer. （03 北京春季） （D）
A．which （04 浙江）(D) A. when
12. Anyway, that evening, ____ I’ll tell you more about later, I ended up staying at Rachel’s place.
13. ________ is often the case, we have worked out the production plan. （04 江苏）(D) A. Which B. When C. What D. As 14. George Orwell, ______ was Eric Arthur, wrote many political novels and essays. (04 北京） (D) A the real name B what his real name C his real name （04 天津）(D) B that C what D which （04 天津）(D) D before D whose real name
15. Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, ______, of course, made the others envy him. A who
16. It was evening ______ we reached the little town of Winchester. A that B until C since
17. The journey around the world took the old sailor nine months, _____ the sailing time was 226 days. （04 广西） （A） A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which 18. I work in a business ________ almost everyone is waiting for a great chance. （04 湖南） （C） A. how 19. There was A．a; that B. which time B．a; when C. where D. that I hated to go to school. （04 湖北） (B) C．the; that D．the; when stands nearly a hundred feet high. （04 湖北） (D) B．the larger of them D．the larger of which he said it. （04 湖北） (A) C．in the way D．the way which are sold abroad.
20. There are two buildings, A．the larger C．the larger one that
21. What surprised me was not what he said but A．the way （04 辽宁） (A) A．of which （04 上海） (D) A. who （04 全国 I） A for which B. as B．which of B．in the way that
22. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80%
23. American women usually identify their best friend as someone _____ they can talk frequently.
C. about which
D. with whom
24. The English play ______ my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great success. (C) B at which C in which D on wich （04 全国 IV） （C）
25. There are altogether eleven books on the shelf, ______ five are mine. A on which B in which C of which
D from which
26. There were dirty marks on her trousers ______ she had wiped her hands. （04 全国 II） (A) A where B which C when D that
27. Luckily, we’d brought a road map without ______ we would have lost our way. （04 北京春季） （D） A. it B. that C. this D. which
28. --- Why does she always ask you for help? --- There is no one else __________, is there? (05 北京卷) (B) A. who to turn to （05 山东卷） (C) A. from which B. after that C. after which D. from this B. she can turn to C. for whom to turn D. for her to turn
29. He was educated at a local grammar school, ________ he went on to Cambridge.
30. Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes ______ people were eaten by the tiger. (05 广东卷) (A) A. in which B. by which C. which D. that she wanted to be. （05 湖北卷） (D) C．what D．which
31. Her sister has become a lawyer, A．who （05 湖南卷） (B) A. that B. in which B．that
32. Frank's dream was to have his own shop ____ to produce the workings of his own hands.
C. by which
33. The place _______ the bridge is supposed to be built should be________the cross-river traffic is the heaviest. (05 江苏卷) (C) A. which; where C. at which; where are being trained. (05 江西卷) (D) A．in that 35. I have many friends, A．of them B．for that C．in which D．for which some are businessmen. （05 全国卷 1） (D) B．from which C．who of D．of whom B. at which; which D. which; in which
34. The schools themselves admit that not all children will be successful in the jobs ______ they
36. If a shop has chairs ________ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop. （05 上海卷） (D) A. that B. which C. when D. where 37. Jim passed the driving test, _________ surprised everybody in the office. （05 浙江卷） (A) A．which 浙江卷） (C) A．When B．After C．As D．Since B．that C．this D．it 38. _________ I explained on the phone, your request will be considered at the next meeting. （05
39. Mark was a student at this university from 1999 to 2003, ____ he studied very hard and was made Chairman of the Students' Union. （05 重庆卷） (A) A. during which time B. for which time C. during whose time D. by that time
40. Last month, part of Southeast Asia was struck by floods, from _______effects the people are
still suffering. （05 天津卷） (B) A. that 辽宁卷） (C) A．which 春季）（C） A. where B. when C. that D. what B．when C．where D．that （05 北京 B. whose C. those D. what 41. I walked in our garden, _______ Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees. （05
42. Do you still remember the chicken farm ________ we visited three months ago?
1. Is there a bar around _____I can have something to eat? A. that B. what C. which 2. The house, _____ was destroyed in the terrible fire, has been repaired. A. the roof of which B. which roof C. its roof 3. Edison made a lot of inventions, ____ of great importance. A. which I think are C. which I think they B. which I think they are D. I think which are D. where D. the roof
4. I’ll talk about a newly-opened market ______ you may get all _______ you need. A. in which; which C. where; what 5. Can you lend me the novel _____ the other day? A. that you talked C. which you talked with B. you talked about it D. you talked about B. where; that D. which; that
6. ____ is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior high school is increasing. A. Which B. As C. That D. It
7. The fence in our garden, _____ my father built many years ago, has lasted for a long time. A. that B. which C. what D. where
8. When lost in work, _____ he often was, he would forget all about eating and sleeping. A. what B. so C. just like 9. A football fan (球迷) is _____ has a strong interest in football. A. a thing that B. something that C. a person who D. as D. what
10. We travelled together as far as Chicago, _____ we said goodbye to each other. A. which B. when C. why D. where
11. The matter _____ you were arguing about last night has been settled. A. that A. 不填 B. what C. why D. for which
12. Will you please show me the way to the only tall building _______ stands near the post office? B. in which C. that D. where
13. His sister had become a teacher, ______ was what he wanted to be. A. who B. what C. that D. which
14. With the development of agriculture, the people _______village I taught before have lived a happy life. A. who B. whose C. in whose D. in which
15. I hope you will find this valley a beautiful place _____ you may spend your weekend. A. which B. that C. when D. where
16. He must be from Africa, ____ can be seen from his skin. A. that B. as C. it D. what
17. Both the girl and her dog ____ were crossing the street were hit by a coming car. A. which B. who C. they D. that
18. I, ____ your friend, will try my best to help you out. A. which are B. which is C. who is D. who am
19. Is this just the city ____ the foreign guests wish to pay a visit _____. A. which, to B. to which, / C. that, to D. to that, /
20. It’s one of the most interesting stories ___ I have ___ read A. which, never B. that, ever C. that, never D. which, ever
21. On my way home in the street I saw a lady ___ I thought was your aunt. A. who B. whom C. which D. whose
22. I remember that ____ took part in the ball party had a wonderful time. A. all B. all that C. all which D. all what
23. This is the largest clock in the world, ____ the minute hand is six metres long. A. that B. of which C. which D. whose
24. China is the birthplace of kites, _____ kite flying spread to Japan, Korea, Thailand and India. A. from that B. from where C. from there D. from here
25. ____ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. it B. As C. That 26. Who _____ has common sense will do such a thing? A. which B. who C. whom 27. All the apples _____ fell down were eaten by the pigs. A. that B. those C. which 28. They asked him to tell them everything _____ he saw at the front. A. what B. that C. which 29. I’ll tell you _____ he told me last night. A. all which B. all what C. that all 30. A child _____ parents are dead is called an orphan. A. who B. who’s C. whose 31. Is this the museum _____ you visited the other day? A. that B. where C. in which 32. Is this museum _____ some German friends visited last Wednesday? D. What D. that D. what D. where D. all D. which D. the one
A. that B. where C. in which D. the one 33. --- How do you like the book? --- It’s quite different from _____ I read last month. A. that B. which C. the one D. the one what 34. Which sentence is wrong? A. The finger I dipped into the cup was not the one I put it into my mouth. B. Do you know the boy who jumped onto the platform? C. Science and new technology have made it possible for farmers to produce more food on the same amount of land. D. People in ancient times took it for granted that the sun moved round the earth. 35. The train _____ she was traveling was late. A. which B. where C. on which D. in that 36. He has lost the key to the drawer _____ the papers are kept. A. where B. on which C. under which D. which 37. Antarctic _____ we know very little is covered with thick ice all the year round. A. which B. where C. that D. about which 38. It’s the third time _____ late this month. A. that you arrived B. when you arrived C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived 39. He often helps the students _____ he thinks are not quick at their studies. A. whom B. who C. when D. because 40. The Second World War _____ millions of people were killed ended in 1945. A. when B. during that C. in which D. which 41. Mr. Crossett will never forget the day _____ he spent with his various students. A. when B. which C. during which D. on which 42. This is just the place _____ I am longing to visit these years. A. that B. where C. in which D. to where 43. We are going to spend the Spring festival in Guangzhou, _____ live my grandparents and some relatives. A. which B. that C. who D. where 44. The hotel _____ during our holidays stands by the seaside. A. we stayed at B. where we stayed at C. we stayed D. in that we stayed 45. I have bought the same dress _____ she is wearing. A. as B. that C. which D. than 46. He is not _____ a fool _____. A. such / as he is looked B. such / as he looks C. as / as he is looked D. so / as he looks 47. Is that the reason _____ you are in favor of the proposal? A. which B. what C. why D. for that 48. He has two sons, _____ work as chemists. A. two of whom B. both of whom C. both of which D. all of whom 49. The buses, _____ were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd. A. most of that B. which most C. most of which D. that most
50. My glasses, _____ I was like a blind man, fell to the ground and broke. A. which B. with which C. without which D. that 51. _____, the compass was first made in China. A. It is know to all B. It is known that C. We all know D. As is known to all 52. He is a man of great experience, _____ much can be learned. A. who B. that C. from which D. from whom 53. It was such a serious mistake, _____ caused by carelessness. A. which I think was B. which I think it was C. I think which was D. I think which it was 54. The general at last got a chance to visit the village _____ he used to fight, _____ he had been dreaming of for years. A. that / which B. where / that C. in which / what D. where / which 55. I will hire the man _____ they say is a good English speaker. A. who B. that C. which D. whom 56. I gave him a warning, _____ he turned a deaf ear. A. of which B. for which C. to that D. to which 57. My father has made me _____ I am. A. who B. which C. what D. that 58. She is one of the few girls who _____ passed the examination. A. was B. were C. has D. have 59. You may call on me from one to five o’clock, during _____ I am always at home. A. the time B. what time C. that time D. which time 60. China is the birthplace of kites, _____ kiteflying（放风筝） spread to Japan, Korea, Thailand and India. A. from there B. where C. from where D. there
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