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中考分话题阅读理解训练12 科普知识与现代技术


Topic Twelve Popular Science and Modern Technology 科普知识与现代技术 话说中考 此类话题涉及科普知识和最尖端的现代化技术,是中考中难度最大的一部分,专业术语 较多,词汇量大,多以说明文呈现在试卷中。这就要求学生在平时多了解科普知识,关注尖 端技术,热爱现代化,培养爱国主义精神。 解题思路:整体把握文章大意,关注出题趋势,熟悉解题方法。 走进中考(兰州· 走进中考(兰州·2010) There have been many great inventions or things that changed the way we live.The first great invention was the one that is still very important today — the wheel. This made it easier to carry heavy things and to travel long distance. For hundreds of years after that there were few inventions that as much effect as the wheel.Then in the early 1800s the world started to change.There was little unknown land left in the world.People didn't have to explore much any more.They began to work instead to make life better. In the second half of the 19th century many great inventions were made.Among them were the camera,the light and the radio.These all play a big part in our daily life today. The first part of the 20th century saw more great inventions.The helicopter in 1909,movies with sound in 1926,the computer in 1928,jet planes in 1930.This was also a time when a new material was first made.Nylon came out in 1935.It changed the kind of clothes people wore. The middle part of the 20th century brought new ways to help people get over diseases.They worked very well.They made people healthier and allowed them to live longer.By the 1960s most people could expect to live to be at least 60. By this time most people in developed countries had a very good life.Of course new inventions continued to be made.But man now had a desire(渴望) to explore again.The earth was known to man but the stars were not.Man began looking for ways to go into space.Russia made the first step.Then United States took a step.Since then other countries,including China and Japan,have made their own steps into space. In 1969 man took his biggest step away from the earth.Americans first walked on the moon.This is certainly just a beginning,though.New inventions will some day allow us to do things we have never yet dreamed of. 阅读短文,根据短文内容选择最佳答案。 ( ) 1.This passage talks mainly about _______. A.why cars were very important B.when light was invented C.how inventions affect people's daily life D.which country made the first step into space ( ) 2.According to the passage man didn't have a desire to explore a lot _______. A.at the beginning of 1800s B.in the 1960s C.since the 1900s D.from the 1800s to 1960s ( ) 3.In the 1800s,people began to work in order to make _______.

A.explorations B.their life better C.discoveries D.a trip to space ( ) 4.Nylon came out of five years later than _______. A.radio B.camera C.jet planes D.movies ( ) 5.People can live longer lives because _______ that help cure diseases have worked very well. A.doctors B.new ways C.medicines D.new hospitals 解析 1.C 根据整篇文章的内容和“There have been many great inventions or things that changed the way we live. ”可知文章主要讲述发明是怎样影响人们日常生活的,故正确答 案为 C。 2.A 根据“Then in the early 1800s... explore much any more. ”可以判断出正确 答案为 A。 3.B 根据第“They began to work instead to make life better. ”可知正确答案为 B。 4.C 根据“...jet planes in 1930.This was also a time... Nylon came out in 1935. ” 可知尼龙的发明要比喷气式飞机晚 5 年,故正确答案为 C。 5.B 根据“The middle part of the 20th century brought new ways to help people get over diseases. ”可知正确答案为 B。 话题专练 一 Robots are coming into people's lives these days . Robots help people a lot.Japanese housekeeping robots can move chairs,sweep the floor,take away dirty dishes and put dirty clothes in washing machines.Intel,the famous computer maker, has developed a self-controlled robot called Herb.Herb can do simple things that people tell it to do,such as cleaning up waste. Recently a large robot named "Probo" has been helping children to feel less worried in hospital.Probo has a touch screen on its stomach.The screen teaches children how to use Probo.The green robot's face can make expressions to show how medical operations will make the child feel."The main aim of this project is to make emotional communication(情感交流) with children," said Jelle Saldien,one of the researchers. Probo was invented by Ivan Hermans,president of the Anty Foundation.He had the idea after seeing the film I,Robot.Probo's green head and short nose are fully automated(使自动化).Its touch screen can show different emotions,such as pleasure and sadness,and can also "see" the expressions on human faces and make eye contact.

根据短文内容,选择最佳答案。 ( ) 1.Herb that the famous computer maker developed is _______. A.a man-controlled robot B.a self-controlled robot C.a Japanese baby D.a very large robot ( ) 2.Probe was invented in order to _______. A.look after children in hospital B.teach children how to use it C.show expressions to children D.make emotional communication with children ( ) 3._______ made Ivan Hermans have the idea about inventing "Probo". A.Herb B.Children in hospital C.Film I,Robot D.I don't know ( ) 4.The author implies(暗示) that _______. A.the Japanese robot can help children to do their homework B.Herb can help people to do housework C.robots will take the place of people in the future D.Ivan is an inventor and the president of his country ( ) 5.It can be learned from the passage that _______. A.people are not allowed to touch Probe's stomach B.Probe has two kinds of feeling:happiness and sadness C.when a boy is happy,Probe can know how he feels D.Probo is one of the robots in the film I,Robot 答案: 1.B 根据短文第一段中“has developed a self-controlled robot called Herb. ” 可知,Herb 是一种自控机器人。 2.D 根据短文第二段最后一句 make emotional communication with children 可知, 创造“抱抱”机器人的主要目的是同孩子进行情感交流。 3.C 根据短文最后一段内容可知,Ivan Hermans 是在看了 I,Robot 这部影片后,得 到的创造“抱抱”机器人的灵感。 4.B 从整篇文章来看“机器人可以为人们做家务” ,所以确定选 B。 5.C 根据短文可知,机器人 Probo 可以触摸; “抱抱”机器人不仅只有两种表情:它 不同于 I,Robot 影片中的机器人。根据短文可知, “抱抱”机器人可以根据人的面部表情判 断人的喜怒哀乐,故选 C。 二 Kobian,a Japanese robot,which can express seven human emotions,has been made by researchers at a university of Japan. The robot can express seven different feelings,including happiness,surprise, sadness and dislike.In order to use different poses to match the mood,Kobian uses motors in its face to move its lips,eyelids and eyebrows into different positions. To express happiness,for example,the robot puts its hands over its head and

opens its mouth and eyes wide. To show sadness,Kobian hangs its head and holds a hand up to its face in a gesture of sadness. Kobian can also walk around,check its environment and do some work.It is hoped it will be a good helper for humans. 根据短文内容,选择最佳答案。 ( ) 1.Kobian can express _______ human emotions. A.5 B.6 C.7 D.8 ( ) 2.Kobian can use _______ to match the mood. A.face B.eyelids and eyebrows C.lips D.motors in different positions ( ) 3.How does Kobian express sadness? A.It can put its hands over its head and cry. B.It can hang its head and hold a hand up to its face in a gesture of sadness. C.It can fall down its tears. D.It can open its mouth and eyes wide. ( ) 4.The last paragraph mainly tells us _______. A.Kobian can walk around B.Kobian can check its environment C.Kobian can do some work D.Kobian will be a good helper for humans. ( ) 5.Which of the following is NOT right? A.Kobian is made in Japan. B.Kobian does some housework for human beings. C.Kobian can use expressions to its heart. D.Kobian can express seven human emotions,but it won't take the place of human beings. 答案: 1.C 短文中一、二两段都提到了这一点,可以表达七种人类情感。 2.D 根据短文第二段最后一句内容可以确定本题答案。 3.B 根据短文第四段的内容可以确定答案。 4.D 根据最后一段内容可以看出,机器人能帮人类做很多事情,希望将来成为人类的 好帮手。 5.C 通读全文可以看出,机器人虽然能在很多方面代替人类工作,但是它没有思想, 只是人类的工具。 三 Have you ever wished to have an umbrella that makes your hands free? Alan Kaufman has come up with the "Nubrella".which means "new"+"umbrella".It is the first truly hands-free umbrella in the world.The inventor says that it stops rain,wind and snow and can keep your head,face and hair dry. "I never planned to invent a product.I just noticed a problem and came up with a solution," said the inventor.The idea for the invention began on one rainy

day.Mr.Kaufman was standing in one of his stores.He began to look at people's umbrellas.He found that they had to try very hard to keep their umbrellas in the right place.At that moment an idea came into his mind.He ran to his desk and drew a picture.In this way,the Nubrella was born. One cool feature of the Nubrella is that you don't hold it like a normal umbrella; you wear it.The shoulder straps(肩带) of the Nubrella allow people to be fully hands-free,so when walking in the rain with the Nubrella,you are able to use your cell phone or drink a hot cup of coffee.Also,the Nubrella will never be inverted(颠 倒) in the wind.The new umbrella is far safer than traditional ones,because it has no sharp points. 根据短文内容,选择最佳答案。 ( ) 1."Nubrella" is a kind of _______ umbrella. A.normal B.hands-free C.traditional D.paper ( ) 2.How can you use the "Nubrella"? A.You can wear the shoulder straps of the Nubrella. B.You can put the Nubrella on your head. C.You can use your hands to control it. D.You can put it on your bike. ( ) 3.Which of the following is NOT right? A."Nubrella" means "new"+"umbrella". B.The idea of the new umbrella came from the rainy day. C.When you are walking in the rain,you'd better take the Nubrella. D.If you go out with the Nubrella in the rain,you'd drink a hot cup of coffee. ( ) 4.It can be learned from the passage that _______. A.Alan Kaufman often uses umbrellas in everyday life B.the new kind of umbrella was invented by an umbrella store owner C.the inventor thought for a long time before inventing the Nubrella D.you can do other things with your hands when using the Nubrella ( ) 5.In writing this passage,the author mainly intends(意图) to _______. A.introduce this new kind of umbrella to people who are selling umbrellas B.tell the readers about a great inventor named Alan Kaufman C.tell the readers about a new invention that is very useful D.tell the readers that the inventor didn't want to invent anything 答案: 1.B 根据短文第一段中“It is the first truly hands-free umbrella in the world. ” 可知,这种伞是—种可以不用手打的伞。 2.A 根据短文最后一段内容可知,这种伞带有肩带,用时可以戴在肩膀上,不需要用 手。 3.D 根据短文最后一段内容可知,使用这种伞时,手可以同时做其他事情,不一定都 要喝热咖啡。 4.D 通读全文,可以从中了解到“使用这种伞时,手可以同时做其他事情” ,所以很容

易确定答案。 5.C 作者写这篇文章的意图是向人们介绍这种新伞的好处。 四 News One Recently a cloned dog named Ruppy became the world's first transgenic(转基因 的) dog.She and four other dogs all gave off red light under certain conditions. A team led by Byeong-Chun Lee in Korea created the dogs.Lee and researcher Woo Suk Hwang were also part of the team that created the first cloned dog,Snuppy, in 2005. "This new experiment should open the door for transgenic dogs to be models of human illness," said one of the team members,Che Myong Ko."The next step for us is to make a true illness model." News Two A company in Japan has said they will soon sell a new kind of T-shirt.The T —shirt can protect people from knives.It is more than three times stronger than cotton because it is made of a special kind of material.This material is thick enough to protect you,but it is not too heavy to make you look like you are wearing protective clothing.This material is like the one that is used in body armor,but it is lighter and can be washed by a washing machine. These T-shirts are created because of the increased knife accidents that happen to children. 根据短文内容,选择最佳答案。 ( ) 1.Ruppy can give off _______ light under certain conditions. A.white B.red C.yellow D.green ( ) 2.News One mainly tells us that _______. A.Ruppy can give off red light all the time B.Snuppy has the ability to cure people's illness C.Byeong-Chun Lee is not a member of the Snuppy study team D.a transgenic dog will be used to study people's illness ( ) 3.The special T-shirt is made of _______. A.a special kind of cotton B.a special kind of silk C.a special kind of material D.a usual kind of cotton ( ) 4.The underlined phrase "body armor" in News Two means "_______" in Chinese. A.身手 B.衣服 C.太空服 D.防弹衣 ( ) 5.The second piece of news shows that _______. A.the special T-shirt is made of a special kind of cotton B.you might break the T-shirt if you put it in a washing machine C.the number of knife accidents is increasing these days D.the T-shirt will be as cheap as everyday T-shirts 答案: 1.B 根据 News One 中第一段“...gave off red light under certain conditions” 可知,是红色的光。

2.D 根据 News One 可知,克隆技术的发现对人体疾病的治疗起着重要的作用。 3.C 根据 News Two 的第一段内容可知这种类型的 T 恤是用一种特殊的材料做成的。 4.D 根据 News Two 的第一段中上下句的关系可以确定是一种保护身体的衣服,即常 说的防弹衣。 5.C 从第二则新闻最后一句可以确定发明这种防弹衣是由于日本常发生持刀事件。 五 Imagine this:a television screen has the size and thickness of a piece of paper.You carry it around in your pocket and take it out when you want to watch a show.Imagine a guitar so tiny that you can't see it with the human eye,but you can hear sound when its strings are pulled. Nanotechnology(纳米技术) is the science that deals with things in a very small way,and it is being studied and developed all over the world.Many scientists say nanotechnology will produce the next industrial revolution(工业革命). Perhaps nanotechnology will have the biggest influence on medical science. Imagine nanobots(纳米机器人) in medicine. Thousands or even millions of tiny machines can be sent into the human body with specific tasks.For example,they can be designed to find and destroy cancer cells or viruses(病毒).Other machines may stay in the human body forever to help organs(器官) that are not working properly. When could all of these happen? Scientists predict that most of these are possible in the next years.Thousands of scientists around the world are working on these micro-machines.Nanotechnology is just around the corner. 根据短文内容,选择最佳答案。 ( ) 1.The two examples in Paragraph 1 are used to _______. A.introduce the smallest television B.introduce a new kind of guitar C.introduce the topic of the passage D.show how small the world is ( ) 2.Nanotechnology _______. A.will cause an industrial revolution B.deals with things in old ways C.has studied the whole world D.was developed many years ago ( ) 3.The underlined word "they" in the third paragraph refers to _______. A.scientists B.human bodies C.specific tasks D.tiny machines ( ) 4.The tiny machines _______. A.are too small to be repaired B.can be put in a human body to kill viruses C.may not work well in human organs D.can take the place of human organs ( ) 5.The underlined phrase "around the corner" in the last sentence means "_______".

A.far away B.at present C.in the near future D.impossible 答案: 1.C 短文第一段通过设想纳米技术给人们日常生活带来的便利,目的在于引出主题— —纳米技术。 2.A 第二段介绍了纳米技术的研发将引起世界性的工业革命。 3.D 第三段提到纳米机器人可能被植入人体内为人类服务,所以选 D。 4.B 根据文中“they can be designed to find and destroy cancer cells or viruses. ” 可以确定答案。 5.C 根据全文可知纳米技术不久会被广泛使用。 六 Soon computers and other machines will be able to remember you by looking at your eyes! The program works because everyone's eyes are different.So in the future you won't have to remember a number when you want to use a machine or take money out of a bank.You'll just have to look at the machine and it will be able to tell who you are. The eye-recognition(眼睛识别) program is already being tested in shops and banks in the U.S.A.,Britain,Spain,Italy and Turkey.Soon this technology will take the place of all other ways of finding out who people are. However,scientists are working on other systems.Machines will soon be able to know you from the shape of your face or hand or even your smell! We already have machines that can tell who you are from your voice or from the mark made by your finger. Eye-recognition is better than other kinds because your eyes don't change as you get older,or get dirty like hands or fingers.And even twins have different eyes, so the program can be up to 94% correct,depending on how good the technology is.Some programs may only be 51%.In Britain,it was found that 91% of people who had tried it said that they liked the idea of recognizing(认出) you by your eyes.So smile! 根据短文内容,选择最佳答案。 ( ) 1.What will the program for remembering eyes be used for? A.Banks and computers. B.Banks and shops. C.Schools and computers. D.Schools and shops. ( ) 2.How does the eye-recognition program work? A.You look at the machine and type the number. B.You need to speak and then look. C.The machine looks at your face. D.You look at the machine. ( ) 3.Which recognition program is already in use? A.Remembering eyes and smell. B.Remembering fingers or voices. C.Remembering faces and voices.

D.Remembering hands and faces. ( ) 4.What problems could there be with the eye-recognition program? A.Some eyes are the same. B.Eyes can change. C.It is not always correct. D.Eyes can get dirty. ( ) 5.What's the advantage of using eye-recognition programs in this passage? A.You needn't remember a number. B.You needn't take money with you. C.You don't need to speak. D.People think they are interesting. 答案: 1.B 眼睛识别技术将会用于银行和商店。 2.D 利用眼睛识别身份时,只需看着测试机器就行了。 3.B 目前,识别身份的方法主要是指纹和声音识别。 4.C 眼睛识别技术准确率高,但仍会出错。 5.A 眼睛识别技术的优势在于它不像密码识别,不需要记住一串数字。 七 Recently in a class in Tokyo,a robot teacher called Saya called out the names of students,and smiled at them.Her funny face made the students laugh.However, the inventor says she is not going to take the place of human teachers. Unlike other robots without feelings,Saya has six feelings — surprise,fear, dislike,anger,happiness and sadness.She can also say simple phrases such as "Thank you" and "Sorry". "Robots that look like humans have an important influence on children and older people," Hiroshi Kobayashi,Saya's developer,said. Saya was first invented as a receptionist(接待员) robot in 2004.Later,she was tested in a real Tokyo classroom with many fifth and sixth grade students."Although she still can't do much more than call out names and shout 'Be quiet',the children had great fun," Kobayashi says."They were very happy when Saya called out their names." Ronald C. Arkin, scientist, a says people should do more study on the interaction(互 动) between humans and robots before people depend on robots too much. Kobayashi says,"Saya is just meant to help people,and we should not have too high hope for her ability.She has no thought and no ability to learn.She is just a tool." 根据短文内容,选择最佳答案。 ( ) 1.Saya is _______. A.a Japanese woman teacher B.a Japanese girl C.a robot teacher D.a scientist ( ) 2.Saya's first job is _______. A.a teacher

B.a receptionist C.a student D.a robot ( ) 3.Saya can say _______ in lives. A.Thank you B.Sorry C.Be quiet D.all of the above ( ) 4.Ronald C.Arkin mainly tells us that _______. A.people will do better than robots on the interaction B.robots will do better than humans on the interaction C.robots have an important influence on humans D.Saya will be the best teacher ( ) 5.Which of the following is NOT right? A.Saya is not going to take the place of human teachers. B.Saya has seven feelings. C.Robots that look like humans have an important influence on children and older people. D.Saya is just a tool,and just helps humans. 答案: 1.C 根据短文第一段的内容可以确定,Saya 是一位机器人教师。 2.B 根据短文第四段的第一句内容可以确定,Saya 在 2004 年被作为一位接待员而创 造。 3.D 根据短文内容可以确定,Saya 可以说简单的话如“谢谢” “对不起”和“安静”等。 4.A 根据倒数第二段的内容可以推测出人类在师生互动方面将比机器人做得更好。 5.B 通读全文可以确定,Saya 只是一个工具,永远也代替不了人类,她对孩子和老人 有重大影响,用排除法即选 B。 八 China's first Mars probe,Yinghuo1,is expected to be sent up in the second half of this year,an official said. Yinghuo1 will be sent up by a Russian carrier rocket,accompanied by a Russian aerocraft(飞行器). Yinghuo1 will go into Mars orbit( 轨 道 ) in 2010 after a 10-month , 380-million-kilometer journey.But unlike the Russian craft,Yinghuo1 won't land but will only observe. The Chinese probe is 75cm long,75cm wide and 60cm high.It weighs 115 kilograms and is designed for a two-year life. Yinghuo1 is expected to discover why water disappeared from Mars and to explain other environmental changes of the planet. 任务一:根据短文内容,完成下列各题。 1.China will _______ the first Mars probe in 2009. 2.Yinghuo1 will be sent up by _______. 3.Yinghuo1 will go into _______ in 2010. 任务二:把画线部分译成汉语。

4._________________________________________ 任务三:根据短文内容,选择最佳答案。 5.Why does China launch Yinghuo1? A.Because China wants to discover why water disappeared from Mars. B.Because China wants to explain other environmental changes of the planet. C.It can show China is a developed country. D.A and B. 答案: 1. send up 根据短文第一段的内容可以确定, 中国将在 2009 年发射第一枚火星探测器, 所以答案是 send up。 2. Russian carrier rocket 根据短文中第二段 a “Yinghuo1 will be sent up by a Russian carrier rocket, ”可以确定答案是 a Russian carrier rocket。 3.Mars orbit 根据短文第三段首句可知将于 2010 年才把火星探测器送入轨道,答案 是 Mars orbit。 4.中国火星探测器 75cm 长,75cm 宽,60cm 高。注意 long,wide,high。 5.D 根据短文最后一段内容可知,A 和 B 均正确,即选 D。 九 Charles Richard Drew,an African-American,started blood banks.He was born on June 3,1904,in Washington D.C.His father was a lawyer and his mother was a teacher.Drew was the eldest of their five children.3 The boy tried to get good grades when he was at school.Drew was good at sports and he won four medals in swimming when he was eight years old.During his high school years,Drew was a great member of the football,basketball and baseball teams. After high school,Drew attended Amherst College.4 The young man didn't have enough money to go to medical school,so he worked and saved his money.Finally, in 1928,he went to a medical school in Canada.Then he studied at Columbia University Medical School. Drew's interest was blood,specifically "blood transfusions(输血)".He wanted to learn all he could about the subject.He studied the idea of a "blood bank" which is a way to collect and store blood for transfusions.Through his experiments,Drew found out that blood plasma( 血 浆) could be successfully used instead of whole blood.Plasma can be stored for longer than whole blood.In 1940,Drew wrote about the results of his experiments in a report. Drew is considered to have created the "blood bank" for the following two reasons: He found that blood can be separated into different parts,and that plasma can be kept until it is needed for a blood transfusion. 任务一:根据短文内容,完成下列各题。 1.The interest of Charles Richard Drew is _______. 2.A "blood bank" is _______. 任务二:把下列句子译成汉语。 3._______________________________________________ 4._______________________________________________ 任务三:根据短文,选择最佳答案。 5.Why is Drew believed to have created the "blood bank"?

A.He found that blood can be separated into different parts. B.He found that plasma can be kept until it is needed for a blood transfusion. C.He found out that blood plasma(血浆) could be successfully used instead of whole blood. D.A and B. 答案: 1.blood,specifically "blood transfusions" 根据短文中第三段的首句内容可知, Drew 血液感兴趣,特别是输血。 2.a way to collect and store blood for transfusions 根据短文中第三段中内容 可知。 3.上学时,男孩努力取得好成绩。 4.这位年轻人,没有足够的钱去上医科学校,只得去工作攒钱。 5.D 根据短文最后一段内容可知。


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