（一）句子成分的定义：构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子成分有主要成分和次要成 分；主要成分有主语和谓语；次要成分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 （二） 主语： 主语是一个句子所叙述的主体，一般位于句首。但在 there be 结构、疑问句（当 主语不疑问词时）和倒装句中，主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、代 词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。例如： During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.（名词） We often speak English in class.（代词） One-third of the students in this class are girls.（数词） To swim in the river is a great pleasure.（不定式） Smoking does harm to the health.（动名词） The rich should help the poor.（名词化的形容词） When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.（主语从句） It is necessary to master a foreign language.（it 作形式主语，真正的主语为后面的不定式） （三）谓语：谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语，一般放在 主语之后。谓语的构成如下： 1、简单谓语：由一个动词或动词短语构成。如：He practices running every morning. 2、复合谓语： （1）由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。如：You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. （2）由系动词加表语构成。如：We are students. （四） 表语： 表语用以说明主语的身份、 特征和状态， 它一般位于系动词 （如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等）之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定式、 动名词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。例如： Our teacher of English is an American.（名词） Is it yours?（代词） The weather has turned cold.（形容词） The speech is exciting.（分词） Three times seven is twenty one?（数词） His job is to teach English.（不定式） His hobby（爱好）is playing football.（动名词） The machine must be out of order.（介词短语） Time is up. The class is over.（副词） The truth is that he has never been abroad.（表语从句） （五）宾语：宾语表示动作的对象或承爱者，一般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如： They went to see an exhibition（展览）yesterday.（名词） The heavy rain prevented me form coming to school on time.（代词） How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.（数词） They helped the old with their housework yesterday.（名词化形容词） He pretended not to see me.（不定式短语） I enjoy listening to popular music.（动名词短语） I think（that）he is fit for his office.（宾语从句）
宾语种类：（1）双宾语（间接宾语+直接宾语），例如：Lend me your dictionary, please. （2）复合宾语（宾语+宾补），例如：They elected him their monitor. （六）宾语补足语：英语中有些及物动词，除有一个直接宾语以外，还要有一个宾语补语， 才能使句子的意义完整。带有宾语补足语的一般句型为：某些及物动词（如 make 等+宾语+ 宾补）。宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。例如： His father named him Dongming.（名词） They painted their boat white.（形容词） Let the fresh air in.（副词） You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.（不定式短语） We saw her entering the room.（现在分词） We found everything in the lab in good order.（介词短语） We will soon make our city what your city is now.（从句） （七）定语：修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。定语可由以下等成分表示： Guilin is a beautiful city.（形容词） China is a developing country; America is a developed country.（分词） There are thirty women teachers is our school.（名词） His rapid progress in English made us surprised.（代词） Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.（不定式短语） The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.（动名词） He is reading an article about how to learn English.（介词短语） （八）状语：修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子，说明动作或状态特征的句子成分，叫做 状语。可由以下形式表示： Light travels most quickly.（副词及副词性词组） He has lived in the city for ten years.（介词短语） He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.（不定式短语） He is in the room making a model plane.（分词短语） Wait a minute.（名词） Once you begin, you must continue.（状语从句） 状语种类如下： How about meeting again at six?（时间状语） Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.（原因状语） I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.（条件状语） Mr Smith lives on the third floor.（地点状语） She put the eggs into the basket with great care.（方式状语） She came in with a dictionary in her hand.（伴随状语） In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.（目的状语） He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.（结果状语） She works very hard though she is old.（让步状语） I am taller than he is.（比较状语）
英语句子看上去纷繁庞杂， 但仔细观察不外乎五个基本句式。 这五个基本句式可以演变出多 种复杂的英语句子。换言之，绝大多数英语句子都是由这五个基本句式生成的。这五个基本 句式如下： S 十 V 主谓结构 S 十 V 十 F 主系表结构 S 十 V 十 O 主谓宾结构 S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 主谓双宾结构 S 十 V 十 O 十 C 主谓宾补结构 说明：S＝主语；V＝谓语；P＝表语；O＝宾语；O1＝间接宾语；O2＝直接宾语；C＝宾 语补足语五个基本句式详细解释如下： 1．S 十 V 句式 在此句式中，V 是不及物动词，又叫自动词(vi．)。例如： He runs quickly．他跑得快。 They listened carefully．他们听得很仔细。 He suffered from cold and hunger．他挨冻受饿。 China belongs to the third world country．中国属于第三世界国家。 The gas has given out．煤气用完了。 My ink has run out．我的钢笔水用完了。 2．S 十 V 十 P 句式 在此句式中，V 是系动词(link v．)，常见的系动词有：look，seem，appear，sound，feel， taste，smell，grow，get，fall ill/asleep，stand/sit still，become，turn 等。例如： He is older than he looks．他比看上去要老。 He seen interested in the book．他似乎对这本书感兴趣。 The story sounds interesting．这个故事听起来有趣。 The desk feels hard．书桌摸起来很硬。 The cake tastes nice．饼尝起来很香。 The flowers smell sweet and nicc．花闻起来香甜。 You have grown taller than before．你长得比以前高了。 He has suddenly fallen ill．他突然病倒了。 He stood quite still．他静静地站看。 He becomes a teacher when he grew up．他长大后当了教师。 注意：有些动词同时也是及物动词，可构成 SVO 句式，例如： He looked me up and down．他上下打量我。 He reached his hand to feel the elephant．他伸出手来摸象。 They are tasting the fish．他们在品尝鱼。 They grow rice in their home town．他们在家乡种水稻。 He's got a chair to sit on．他有椅子坐。 Please turn the sentence into English．请把这个句于泽成英语。 3．S 十 V 十 O 句式 在此句式中，V 是及物动词(vt．)，因此有宾语。例如：
I saw a film yesterday．我昨天看了一部电影。 Have you read the story? 你读过这个故事吗? They found their home easily．他们很容易找到他们的家。 They built a house last year．他们去年建了一所房子。 They've put up a factory in the village．他们在村里建了一座工厂。 They have taken good care of the children．这些孩子他们照看得很好。 You should look after your children well．你应该好好照看你的孩子。 4．S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 句式 在此句式中，V 是带有双宾语的及物动词。常见的须带双宾语的动词有 give，ask，bring， offer，send，pay，lend，show，tell，buy，get；rob，warn 等。例如： He gave me a book/a book to me．他给我一本书。 He brought me a pen/a pen to me．他带给我一枝钢笔。 He offered me his seat/his seat to me．他把座位让给我。 注意下边动词改写后介词的变化： Mother bought me a book/a book for me. 妈妈给我买了一本书。 He got me a chair/a chair for me．他给我弄了一把椅子。 Please do me a favor/a favor for me．请帮我一下。 He asked me a question/a question of me．他问我个问题。 注意，下边动词只有一种说法： They robbed the old man of his money．他们抢了老人的钱。 He's warned me of the danger. 他警告我注意危险。 The doctor has cured him of his disease．医生治好了他的病。 We must rid the house of th erats．我们必须赶走屋里的老鼠。 They deprived him of his right to speak．他们剥夺了他说话的权利。 5．S 十 V 十 O 十 C 句式 在此句式中，V 是有宾语补足语的及物动词。常带宾语补足语的词有形容词、副词、介词短 语、名词、不定式、现在分词、过去分词常见的可接宾语补足语的动词很多，哪些动词可接 哪几种形式作宾补，须根据动词的惯用法而定，不能统而概论。请看下面的例子。 They made the girl angry．他们使这个女孩生气了。 They found her happy that day．他们发现那天她很高兴。 I found him out．我发现他出去了。 I saw him in．我见他在家。 They saw a foot mark in the sand．他们发现沙地上有脚印。 They named the boy Charlie．他们给这个男孩起名为查理。 I saw him come in and go out．我见他进来又出去。 They felt the car moving fast．他们感到汽车行驶得很快。 I heard the glass broken just now．我刚才听到玻璃碎了。 He found the doctor of study closed to him．他发现研究所的大门对他关闭了。
练习 一、指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分： 1. The students got on the school bus. 2. He handed me the newspaper. 3. I shall answer your question after class. 4. What a beautiful Chinese painting! 5. They went hunting together early in the morning. 6. His job is to train swimmers. 7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. 8. There is going to be an American film tonight. 9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. 10. His wish is to become a scientist. 11. He managed to finish the work in time. 12. Tom came to ask me for advice. 13. He found it important to master English. 14. Do you have anything else to say? 15. To be honest, your pronunciation is not so good. 16. Would you please tell me your address? 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper. 18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy. 19. He noticed a man enter the room. 20. The apples tasted sweet. 二、用符号划出下列短文各句中的定语（—）、状语（＝）、补语（～）： Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at harvest time. These parties often make us very happy. We cook meat on an open fire outside. It's great! Americans eat a lot of meat — too much in my opinion. Some of my friends drink beer. I don't, because I have to drive home after the party. In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States. There are five different time areas in the States. In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time. How many different time areas do you have in China? Well, I must stop and get some sleep. Please give my best regards to your parents. 三、选择填空： ( )1. ____ will leave for Beijing. B. The man here now D. The man is here now A. Now there the man C. The man who is here now ( ( ( ( ) 2. The weather ____. B. is wet and cold C. not wet and cold D. were wet and cold B. sweetly B. late B. died C. nicely C. latest C. dyed
A. wet and cold A. sweets A. lately A. dead
) 3. The apple tasted ____. D. sweet D. latter D. deaded ) 4. He got up ____ yesterday morning. )5. The actor ______at the age of 70.
( ( ( A. its ( (
)6. ____ were all very tired, but none of ____ would stop to take a rest. B. Us, we B. crowding B. it ) 9. The dog ____ mad. B. is looked B. when C. is being looked D. was looked C. in which D. where )10.I will never forget the day ______ I joined the army. C. We, our C. crowded C. that D. We, we D. crowdedly D. that is )7. He found the street much ______. ) 8.I think _____necessary to learn English well.
A. We, us A. crowd
A. looks A. that
四、分析下列句子成分 1. Our school is not far from my home. 2. It is a great pleasure to talk with you 3. All of us considered him honest. 5. He broke a piece of glass. 9. They pushed the door open. teaching 13. We need a place twice larger than this one. 14. He asked us to sing an English song. 15. Don't get nervous， help yourself to what you like． 16.We will make our school more beautiful. 17. He didn't come．That is why he didn't know． 18. She showed us her many of her pictures. 19. The old man lives a lonely life. 20. Luckily the 1989 earthquake did not happen in the center of town. 21. The cars made in Japan are better than those in Germany． 22. There are so many people in the hall that it's hard for me to find him． 23. No matter how difficult the task may be, we must fulfil it this month. 24. Go back where you came from. 26. At last he got home, tired and hungry. 28 Mary handed her homework to the teacher. 30. I’ll get my hair cut tomorrow. 五、区分复合句，简单句，并列句。 I hope you are very well. I'm fine, but tired. Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm. August is the hottest month here. It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat. We have a lot of machines on the farm. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him. But he employs more men for the harvest. My brother takes care of the vegetable garden. It doesn't often rain in the summer here. As a result, we have to water the vegetable garden. Every evening we pump water from a well. It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden. Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at harvest time. These parties often make us very happy. We cook meat on an open fire outside. It's great! Americans eat a lot of meat — too much
4. My grandfather bought me a pair of sports shoes. 6. He made it clear that he would leave the city． 10. Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 12.All the students think highly of his
7. ---I love you more than her，child ． 8. Tees turn green when spring comes. 11. He wrote carefully some letters to his friends.
25. We must do whatever the people want us to do. 27. Would you please pass me the cup? 29. Do you know the latest news about him?
in my opinion. Some of my friends drink beer. I don't, because I have to drive home after the party. In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States. There are five different time areas in the States. In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time. How many different time areas do you have in China？Well, I must stop and get some sleep. Please give my best regards to your parents.
练习答案： 一、1、主语，定语；2、间接宾语；3、谓语，状语；4、定语；5、状语，状语；6、定语， 表语；7、宾语，状语；8、谓语，主语；9、谓语；10、主语，表语；11、谓语，宾语；12、 状语；13、形式宾语，真正宾语；14、宾语、定语；15、插入语，状语；16、宾语(间宾+ 直宾)；17、状语，状语；18、形式主语，表语，宾补；19、宾补；20、表语 三、1~5 CBDBB 6~10 ACBAB 1. 主语 ＋ 系动词 ＋ 表语 5. 主语 ＋及物动词 ＋宾语 7. 主语 ＋及物动词 ＋宾语 2. 主语 ＋ 系动词 ＋ 表语 6. 主语 ＋动词 ＋ 形式宾语 it＋ 宾语补足语+宾语 8. 主语 ＋ 系动词 ＋ 表语 3. 主语 ＋动词 ＋ 宾语 ＋ 宾语补足语 4. 主语＋双宾动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语
9. 主语 ＋动词 ＋ 宾语 ＋ 宾语补足语 10. 主语＋双宾动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语 11. 主语＋双宾动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语 12 主语 ＋及物动词 ＋宾语 13. 主语 ＋及物动词 ＋宾语 15. 主语 ＋ 系动词 ＋ 表语 17. 主语 ＋ 系动词 ＋ 表语 19. 主语 ＋ 不及物动词 21. 主语 ＋ 系动词 ＋ 表语 23. 主语 ＋及物动词 ＋宾语 25. 主语 ＋及物动词 ＋宾语 29. 主语 ＋及物动词 ＋宾语 14. 主语 ＋动词 ＋ 宾语 ＋ 宾语补足语 16. 主语 ＋动词 ＋ 宾语 ＋ 宾语补足语 18. 主语＋双宾动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语 20. 主语 ＋ 不及物动词 22. 主语 ＋ 系动词 ＋ 表语 24. 主语 ＋ 不及物动词 26. 主语 ＋ 不及物动词 30. 主语 ＋动词 ＋ 宾语 ＋ 宾语补足语
27. 主语＋双宾动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语 28. 主语＋双宾动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语 I hope you are very well（复合句）. I'm fine, but tired（简单句）. Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm（并列句）. August is the hottest month here（简单 句） . It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. （并列句） Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors（简单句）. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat（并列复合句）. We have a lot of machines on the farm（简单句）. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him （复合句） . But he employs more men for the harvest （简单句） . My brother takes care of the vegetable garden（简单句）. It doesn't often rain in the summer here（简单句）. As a result, we have to water the vegetable garden （简单句） . Every evening we pump water from a well（简单句）. It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden（简单句）. Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at harvest time（简单句）. These parties often make us very happy （简单句） . We cook meat on an open fire outside （简单句） . It's great （ 简单句） ! Americans eat a lot of meat — too much in my opinion（简单句）. Some of my friends drink beer （简单句）. I don't, because I have to drive home after the party（复合句）. In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States（简单句）. There are five different time areas in the States（简单句）. In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time（简单句）. How many different time areas do you have in China（简单句）? Well, I must stop and get some sleep （简单句）. Please give my best regards to your parents（简单句）.
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