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职称英语理工类B级真题2013年


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职称英语理工类 B 级真题 2013 年

第 1 部分:词汇选项 下面每个句子中均由 1 个词或短语划有底横线,请为每处划线部分确定 1 个意 思最接近的选项。 1、 Rumors began to circulate about his financial problems. A. send B. hear C. confirm D. spread 2、 The contract between the two companies will expire soon. A. shorten B. end C. start D. resume 3、 Come out, or I'll bust the door down. A. shut B. break set D. beat 4、 She gets aggressive when she is drunk. A. offensive B. worried sleepy D. anxious

C.

C.

5、 As a politician, he knows how to manipulate public opinion. A. express B. divide C. influence D. voice 6、 She came across three children sleeping under a bridge. A. found by chance B. passed by C. took a notice of D. woke up 7、 I have little information as regards her fitness for the post. A. about B. at C. with D. from 8、 He paused, waiting for her to digest the information. A. withhold B. exchange C. understand D. contact 9、 Make sure the table is securely anchored. A. repaired B. cleared booked D. fixed

C.

10、 There was something peculiar in the way he smiles. A. different B. strange C.

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wrong

D. funny

11、These animals migrate south annually in search of food. A. explore B. inhabit C. prefer D. travel 12、 It seemed incredible that he had been there a week already. A. right B. unbelievable C. obvious D. unclear 13、 The police will need to keep a wary eye on this area of town. A. naked B. blind C. cautious D. private 14、 He was tempted by the high salary offered by the company. A. taught B. kept C. changed D. attracted 15、 The rules are too rigid to allow for human error. A. general B. inflexible C. complex D. direct

第 2 部分:阅读判断 下面的短文后列出了 7 个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断;如果 该句提的是正确信息,请选择 A;如果该句提的是错误信息,请选择 B;如果该 句的信息文中没有提及,请选择 C。 Wide World of Robots Engineers who build and program robots have fascinating jobs. These researchers tinker (修补) with machines in the lab and write computer software to control these devices. "They're the best toys out there, " says Howle Choset at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. Choset is a roboticist, a person who designs, builds or programs robots. When Choset was a kid, he was interested in anything that moved-cars, trains, animals. He put motors on Tinkertoy cars to make them move. Later, in high school, he built mobile robots similar to small cars. Hoping to continue working on robots, he studied computer science in college. But when he got to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Choset's labmates were working on something even cooler than remotely controlled cars: robotic snakes. Some robots can move only forward, backward, left and right. But snakes can twist (扭 曲) in many directions and travel over a lot of different types of terrain (地形) . "Snakes are far more interesting than the cars, "Choset concluded.
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After he started working at Carnegie Mellon, Choset and his colleagues there bagan developing their own snake robots. Choset's team programmed robots to perform the same movements as real snakes, such as sliding and inching forward. The robots also moved in ways that snakes usually don't, such as rolling. Choset's snake robots could crawl (爬行) through the grass, swim in a pond and even climb a flagpole. But Choset wondered if his snakes might be useful for medicine as well. For some heart surgeries, the doctor has to open a patient's chest, cutting through the breastbone. Recovering from these surgeries can be very painful. What if the doctor could perform the operation by instead making a small hole in the body and sending in a thin robotic snake ? Choset teamed up with Marco Zenati, a heart surgeon now at Harvard Medical School, to investigate the idea. Zenati practiced using the robot on a plastic model of the chest and they tested the robot in pigs. A company called Medrobotics in Boston is now adapting the technology to surgeries on people. Even after 15 years of working with his team's creations, "I still don't get bored of watching the motion of my robots, " Choset says. 16、 Choset began to build robots in high school. A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned 17、 Snake robots could move in only four directions. A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned 18、 Choset didn't begin developing his own snake robots until he started working at Carnegie Mellon. A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned 19、 Choset's snake robots could make more movements than the ones others developed. A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned 20、 The application of a thin robotic snake makes heart surgeries less time-consuming. A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned 21、 Zenati tested the robot on people after using it in pigs. A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned 22、 The robotic technology for surgeries on people has brought a handsome Medrobotics. A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

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第 3 部分:概括大意与完成句子 Black Holes 1. Black holes can be best described as a sort of vacuum, sucking up everything in space. Scientists have discovered that black holes come from an explosion of huge stars. Stars that are near death can no longer burn due to loss of fuel, and because its temperature can no longer control the gravitational (重力的) force, hydrogen ends up putting pressure onto the star's surface until it suddenly explodes then collapses. 2. Black holes come from stars that are made of hydrogen, other gases and a few metals. When these explode it can turn into a stellar-mass (恒 星质量) black hole, which can only occur if the star is large enough (should be bigger than the sun ) for the explosion to break it into pieces, and the gravity starts to compact every piece into the tiniest particle. Try to see and compare: if a star that's ten times the size of the sun end up being a black hole that's no longer than 70 kilometers, then the Earth would become black hole that's only a fraction of an inch! 3. Objects that get sucked in a black hole will always remain there, never to break free. But remember that black holes can only gobble up (吞 噬) objects within a specific distance to it. It's possible for a large star near the sun to become a black hole, but the sun will continue to stay in place. Orbits (轨道) do not change because the newly formed black hole contains exactly the same amount of mass as when it was a star, only its mass is totally contracted that it can end up as no bigger than a state. 4. So far, astronomers have figured out that black holes exist because of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity. In the end, through numerous studies, they have discovered that black holes truly exist. Since black holes trap light and do not give off light, it is not possible to detect black holes via a telescope. But astronomers continue to explore galaxies (银河系), space and the solar system to understand how black holes might evolve. It is possible that black holes can exist for millions of years, and later contribute further process in galaxies, which can eventually lead to creation of new entities. Scientists also credit black holes as helpful in learning how galaxies began to form. 23、A. What are black holes made of? B. Is there proof that black holes really exist? C. How were black holes named? D. How are black holes formed? E. What are different types of black holes? F. What happens to the objects around a black hole? 23. Paragraph 1______. 24、 Paragraph 2______.

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25、 Paragraph 3______. 26、 Paragraph 4______. 27、A. a fraction of an inch of new entities C. the same amount of mass E. an explosion of huge stars black holes 27. Black holes are formed after. B. the creation D. the tiniest particle F. the existence of

28、 When a large star explodes, the gravity compacts ever piece into. 29、 A newly formed black hole and the star it comes from are of. 30、 Albert Einstein's theory of relativity helps to prove. 第 4 部分:阅读理解 第一篇 Putting Plants to Work Using the power of the sun is nothing new. People have had solar-powered calculators and buildings with solar panels (太阳能电池板) for decades. But plants are the real experts. They've been using sunlight as an energy source for billions of years. Cells in the green leaves of plants work like tiny factories to convert sunlight, carbon dioxide (二氧化碳), and water into sugars and starches (淀粉), stored energy that the plants can use. This conversion process is called photosynthesis (光合作用). Unfortunately, unless you're a plant, it's difficult and expensive to convert sunlight into storable energy. That's why scientists are taking a closer look at exactly how plants do it. Some scientists are trying to get plants, or biological cells that act like plants, to work as very small photosynthesis power stations. For example, Maria Ghirardi of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden. Colo., is working with green algae (水藻). She's trying to trick them into producing hydrogen instead of sugars when they perform photosynthesis. Once the researchers can get the algae working efficiently, the hydrogen that they produce could be used to power fuel cells in cars or to generate electricity. The algae are grown in narrow-necked glass bottles to produce hydrogen in the lab. During photosynthesis, plants normally make sugars or starches." But under certain conditions, a lot of algae are able to use
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the sunlight energy not to store starch, but to make hydrogen." Ghirardi says. For example, algae will produce hydrogen in an airfree environment. It's the oxygen in the air that prevents algae from making hydrogen most of the time. Working in an airfree environment, however, is difficult. It's not a practical way to produce cheap energy. But Ghirardi and her colleagues have discovered that by removing a chemical called sulfate (硫酸盐) from the environment that the algae grow in, they will make hydrogen instead of sugars, even when air is present. Unfortunately, removing the sulfate also makes the algae's cells work very slowly, and not much hydrogen is produced. Still, the researchers see this as a first step in their goal to produce hydrogen efficiently from algae. With more work, they may be able to speed the cells' activity and produce larger quantities of hydrogen. The researchers hope that algae will one day be an easy-to-use fuel source. The organisms are cheap to get and to feed, Ghirardi says, and they can grow almost anywhere: "You can grow them in a reactor, in a pond. You can grow them in the ocean. There's a lot of flexibility in how you can use these organisms." 31、 How do plants relate to solar energy ? A. They have been using it for billions of years. B. They are the real experts in producing it. C. They have been a source of it. D. They have been used to produce it. 32、 Scientists study how photosynthesis works because they want to A. improve the efficiency of it. B. turn plant sugars to a new form of energy. C. get more sugars and starches from plants. D. make green plants a new source of energy. 33、 Algae are able to use solar energy to produce hydrogen when A. they are grown in narrow-necked bottles. B. there is no oxygen in the air. C. there is enough oxygen in the air. D. enough starches are stored. 34、 Researchers find it difficult to make algae produce hydrogen efficiently because A. it is hard to create an airfree environment. B. it is expensive to remove the sulfate from the environment. C. removing the sulfate slows down hydrogen production. D. the algae's cells work slowly if there is no oxygen in the air.
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35、 What does Ghirardi say about algae ? A. They can be a good energy source. B. They grow faster in a reactor. C. They will be planted everywhere. D. They are cheap to eat. 第二篇 Energy and Public Lands The United States boasts substantial energy resources. Federal lands provide a good deal of US energy production, the US Department of the Interior manages federal energy leasing (租赁) both on land and on the offshore Outer Continental Shelf. Production from these sources amounts to nearly 30 percent of total annual US energy production. In 2000, 32 percent of US oil, 35 percent of natural gas, and 37 percent of coal were produced from federal lands, representing 20,000 producing oil and gas leases and 135 producing coal leases. Federal lands are also estimated to contain approximately 68 percent of all undiscovered US oil reserves and 74 percent of undiscovered natural gas. Revenues from federal oil, gas, and coal leasing provide significant returns to US taxpayers as well as State Government. In 1999, for example, $553 million in oil and gas revenues were paid to the US Treasury, and non-India coal leases accounted for over $304 million in revenues, of which 50 percent were paid to State governments. Public lands also play a critical role in energy delivery. Each year, federal land managers authorize rights of way for transmission lines, rail systems, pipelines, and other facilities related to energy production and use. Alternative energy production from federal lands falls behind conventional energy production, though the amount is still significant. For example, federal geothermal (地热) resources produce about 7.5 billion kilowatt-hours (千瓦时) of electricity per year, 47 percent of all electricity generated from US geothermal energy. There are 2,960 wind turbines on public lands in California alone, producing electricity for about 300,000 people. Federal hydropower facilities produce about 17 percent of all hydropower produced in the United States. Because of the growing US thirst for energy and increasing public unease with influence on foreign oil sources, pressure on public lands to meet US energy demand is becoming more intense. Public lands are available for energy development only after they have been evaluated through the land use planning process. If development of energy resources conflicts with management or use of other resources, development restrictions or impact moderation measures may be enforced, or mineral be banned altogether.
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36、 What is A. Public B. Public C. Public D. Public

the main idea of this passage? lands play an important role in energy production. lands are one of the main sources of revenues. lands should be developed to ease energy shortage. lands store huge energy resources for further development.

37、 Which of the following statements is true of public lands in the U.S.? A. Half of US energy is produced there. B. The majority of undiscovered natural gas is stored there. C. Most of coal was produced from there in 2000. D. Most energy resources are reserved there. 38、 Geothermal resources, wind turbines, and hydropower facilities in Paragraph 4 cited as examples to illustrate that A. alternative energy production is no less than conventional energy production. B. the amount of alternative energy production from public lands is huge. C. they are the most typical conventional energy resources from public lands. D. geothermal resources are more important than the other two. 39、 There is a mounting pressure on public lands to satisfy US energy demands A. many Americans are unhappy with energy development in foreign countries. B. quite a few public lands are banned for energy development. C. the U.S. is demanding more and more energy. D. many Americans think public lands are being abused. 40、 Public lands can be used for energy development when A. energy development restrictions are effective. B. federal land managers grant permissions. C. they go through the land use planning process. D. there is enough federal budget. 第三篇 On the Trail of the Honey Badger On a recent field trip to the Kalahari Desert, a team of researchers learnt a lot more about honey badgers (獾). The team employed a local wildlife expert, Kitso Khama, to help them locate and follow the badgers across the desert. Their main aim was to study the badgers' movements and
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behavior as discreetly (谨慎地) as possible without frightening them away or causing them to change their natural behavior. They also planned to trap a few and study them close up before releasing them in view of the animal's reputation, this was something that even Khama was reluctant to do. "The problem with honey badgers is they are naturally curious animals, especially when they see something new." he says. "That, combined with their unpredictable nature, can be a dangerous mixture. If they sense you have food, for example, they won't be shy about coming right up to you for something to eat. They're actually quite sociable creatures around humans, but as soon as they feel they might be in danger, they can become extremely vicious (凶恶的). Fortunately this is rare, but it does happen." The research confirmed many things that were already known. As expected, honey badgers ate any creatures they could catch and kill. Even poisonous snakes, feared and avoided by most other animals, were not safe from them. The researchers were surprised, however, by the animal's fondness for local melons, probably because of their high water content. Previously researchers thought that the animal got all of its liquid requirements from its prey (猎物). The team also learnt that, contrary to previous research findings, the badgers occasionally formed loose family groups. They were also able to confirm certain results from previous research, including the fact that female badgers never socialised with each other. Following some of the male badgers was a challenge, since they can cover large distances in a short space of time. Some hunting territories cover more than 500 square kilometers. Although they seem happy to share these territories with other males, there are occasional fights over an important food source, and male badgers can be as aggressive towards each other as they are towards other species. As the badgers became accustomed to the presence of people, it gave the team the chance to get up close to them without being the subject of the animals' curiosity-or a sudden aggression. The badgers' eating patterns, which had been disrupted, to normal. It also allowed the team to observe more closely some of the other creatures working associations with the honey badger, as these seemed to badgers' relaxed attitude when near humans. 41、 Why A. To B. To C. To D. To did the wildlife experts visit the Kalahari Desert ? find where honey badgers live. catch some honey badgers for food. observe how honey badgers behave. find out why honey badgers have a bad reputation.

42、 What does Kitso Khama say about honey badgers? A. They are always looking for food.
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B. They do not enjoy human company. C. It is common for them to attack people. D. They show interest in things they are not familiar with. 43、 What did the team find out about honey badgers? A. They may get some of the water they needed from fruit. B. They were some creatures they did not eat. C. They were afraid of poisonous creatures. D. Female badgers did not mix with male badgers. 44、 Which A. They B. They C. They D. They of the following is a typical feature of male badgers? don't run very quickly. defend their territory from other badgers. hunt over a very large area. are more aggressive than females.

45、 What happened when honey badgers got used to humans around them A. They became less aggressive towards other creature. B. They started eating more. C. Other animals started working with them. D. They lost interest in people. 第 5 部分:补全短文 下面的短文有 5 处空白,短文后面有 6 个句子,其中 5 个取自短文,请根据短 文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章面貌。 The Tough Grass That Sweetens Our Lives Sugar cane was once a wild grass that grew in New Guinea and was used by local people for roofing their houses and fencing their gardens. Gradually a different variety evolved which contained sucrose (蔗糖) and was chewed on for its sweet taste. Over time, sugar cane became a highly valuable commercial plant, grown throughout the world. (46) Sugar became a vital ingredient in all kinds of things, from confectionery (糖果电信) to medicine, and, as the demand for sugar grew, the industry became larger and more profitable. (47) Many crops withered (枯萎) and died , despite growers' attempts to save them, and there were fears that the health of the plant would continue to deteriorate. In the 1960s, scientists working in Barbodos looked for ways to make the commercial species stronger and more able to resist disease. They experimented with breeding programmes, mixing genes from the more delicate, commercial type. (48) This sugar cane is not yet ready to be sold commercially, but when this happens, it is expected to be incredible profitable for the industry.
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(49) Brazil, which produces one quarter of the world's sugar, has coordinated an international project under Professor Paulo Arrudo of the Universidade Estaudual de Campinas in Sao Paulo. Teams of experts have worked with him to discover more about which parts of the genetic structure of the plant are important for the production of sugar and its overall health. Despite all the research, however, we still do not fully understand how the genes in sugar cane. (50) This gene is particularly exciting because it makes the plant resistant to rust, a disease which probably originated in India, but is now capable of infecting sugar cane across the world. Scientist believe they will eventually be able to grow a plant which cannot be destroyed by rust. A. Since the 1980s, scientists have been analysing the mysterious of the sugar canes genetic code. B. Unfortunately, however, the plant started to become weaker and more prone to disease. C. The majority of the world's sugar now comes from this particular commercial species. D. One major gene has been identified by Dr. Angellique D'Hont and her team in Montpeller, France. E. Eventually, a commercial plant was developed which was 5 percent sweeter than before, but also much stronger and less likely to die from disease. F. Sugar cane is now much more vigorous and the supply of sugar is therefore more guaranteed. 第 6 部分:完形填空 下面的短文有 15 处空白,请根据短文内容为每处空白确定 1 个最佳答案。 Why India Needs Its Dying Vultures The vultures (秃鹰) in question may look ugly and threatening, but the sudden sharp decline in three species of India's vultures is producing alarm rather than celebration, and it presents the world with a new kind of environmental problem. The dramatic 51 in vulture numbers is causing widespread disruption to people living in the (52) areas as the birds. It is also causing serious public health problems (53) the Indian subcontinent. While their reputation and appearance may he unpleasant to many Indians, vultures have (54) played a very important role in keeping towns and villages all over India (55) . It is because they feed on dead cows. In India, cows are sacred animals and are (56) left in the open when they die in their thousands upon thousands every year. The disappearance of the vultures has (57) an explosion in the numbers of wild dogs feeding on the remains of these (58) animals.
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There are fears that rabies (狂犬症) may increase as a result. And this terrifying disease may ultimately (最终) affect humans in the region, (59) wild dogs are its main carriers. Rabies could also spread to other animal species, (60) an even greater problem in the future. The need for action is (61) , so an emergency project has been launched to find a solution to this serious vulture problem. Scientists are trying to (62) the disease causing the birds' deaths and, if possible, develop a cure. Large-scale vulture (63) were first noticed at the end of the 1980s in India. A population survey at that time showed that the three species of vultures had declined (64) over 90 per cent. All three species are now listed as "critically endangered". As most vultures lay only single eggs and (65) about five years to reach maturity, reversing their population decline will be a long and difficult exercise. 51、 A. increase risk 52、 A. same different 53、 A. above with 54、 A. rarely seldom 55、 A. dangerous clean 56、 A. immediately traditionally B. threat D. decline B. small D. safe B. across D. through B. recently D. long B. smelly D. beautiful B. occasionally D. hardly C. C. C.

C.

C.

C.

57、 A. led to B. acted as from D. slowed down 58、 A. strange endangered 59、 A. when so 60、 A. improving finding B. wild D. dead B. since D. whether B. predicting D. causing C.

C. come

C.

C.

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61、 A. urgent regular 62、 A. prove test 63、 A. deaths arrivals 64、 A. in by 65、 A. waste take

B. frequent D. sudden B. identify D. check B. injuries D. attacks B. on D. along B. consume

C.

C.

C.

C.

C. adopt

D.

答案: 第 1 部分:词汇选项 1、D [解析] 句意为:关于他的财政问题的谣言开始散布开来。circulate“传播,流 传”,四个选项:send“发送”;hear“听见”;confirm“确定,批准”; spread“散布,传播”。 2、B [解析] 句意为:两家公司间的合约即将期满。expire“期满,终止”,四个选 项:shorten“缩短”;end“结束”;start“开始”;resume“恢复,继续”。 3、B [解析] 句意为:出来,否则我就要破门而入了。bust“弄坏,打破,爆裂”, 四个选项:shut“关闭”;break“打破,毁坏”;set“放,竖立”;beat“打, 敲”。 4、A [解析] 句意为:当她喝醉之后,就变得具有攻击性。aggressive“侵略的,好 斗的”, 四个选项: offensive“攻击性的”; worried“担心的, 闷闷不乐的”; sleepy“昏昏欲睡的”;anxious“忧虑的,渴望的”。 5、C [解析] 句意为:作为一名政客,他知道如何操控公共舆论。manipulate“操控, 操纵”,四个选项:express“表达”;divide“区分”;influence“影响”; voice“表达,吐露”。 6、A [解析] 句意为:她偶然发现三个孩子睡在桥下。come across“偶然发现,偶然
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碰到”,四个选项:find by chance“偶然发现”;pass by“经过,走过”; take a notice of“注意到”;wake up“醒来”。 7、A [解析] 句意为:关于她是否适合这个职位,我所知不多。as regards“关于, 至于”,四个选项:about“关于,对于”;at“在?,于?”;with“与?一 起”;from“由?,从?”。 8、C [解析] 句意为:他停顿了一下,等着她领会这些信息。digest“领会,体会”, 四个选项: withhold“暂缓, 保留”; exchange“交换, 兑换”; understand“理 解”;contact“接触,联系”。 9、D [解析] 句意为:确保桌子安全地固定住。anchor“固定,系住”,IN 个选项: repair“修缮”;clear“清理障碍,变干净”;book“预定”;fix“固定”。 10、B [解析] 句意为:他笑的方式有点奇怪。peculiar“奇怪的,古怪的”,四个选 项:different“不同的”;strange“奇怪的”;wrong“错误的”;funny“滑 稽的,有趣的”。 11、D [解析] 句意为:这些动物每年会移栖南方寻找食物。migrate“定期性移栖”, 四个选项:explore“探索”;inhabit“居住于,栖息”;prefer“宁可,更喜 欢”;travel“移动,前往”。 12、B [解析] 句意为:他去那儿已经一个礼拜了,这似乎太难以置信了。 incredible“难以置信”,四个选项:right“正确的”;unbelievable“难以 置信的”;obvious“明显的,明白的”;unclear“不清楚的,含混的”。 13、C [解析] 句意为:警察需要密切留意小镇的这个区域。wary“留神的,密切注意 的”, 四个选项: naked“赤裸的”; blind“盲目的, 不加思考的”; cautious“小 心的,谨慎的”;private“私人的,秘密的”。 14、D [解析] 句意为:他对公司给出的高薪心动了。tempt“吸引,使?心动”,四个 选项: teach“教授”; keep“保持, 遵守”; change“改变”; attract“吸引”。 15、B [解析] 句意为:规则太死板,不允许犯错。rigid“死板的,不通融的”,四个 选项:general“一般的,综合的”;inflexible“不灵活的,死板的”; complex“复杂的,合成的”;direct“直接的”。 第 2 部分:阅读判断 16、A [解析] 根据文章第二段最后一句话可知,Choset 在高中建造了一个类似小汽车 的移动机器人。 17、B [解析] 根据文章第三段倒数第二句话可知,蛇形机器人可以扭曲,朝着多个方 向移动, 可以在多种不同的地形上移动,题目说蛇形机器人只能朝着四个方向移
重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/

重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/

动。 18、A [解析] 根据文章第四段第一句话可知,在他在 Carnegie Mellon 工作之后,他 和同事开始开发蛇形机器人。 19、C [解析] 根据文章第四段最后两句可知,机器人可以以其它方式移动,而蛇一般 不会这样移动,例如滚动。Choset 的蛇形机器人能在草地上爬行,游泳和爬旗 杆。但文章并没有将 Choset 的机器人与其他人的蛇形机器人比较。 20、C [解析] 根据文章第五段可知,使用机器人做心脏手术,就不需要给病人开刀, 可以免除病人的痛苦。 题目说在心脏外科手术中使用细的机器人会减少花费的时 间。 21、C [解析] 根据文章第六段可知,Zenati 他们在猪身上实验,但文中并未提到在该 技术在进行临床测试,题目说 Zenati 在猪身上使用该机器人后,开始在人身上 测试。 22、C [解析] 根据文章第七段可知,在波士顿的一家名为 Medrobotics 的公司正在在 病人身上使用这项技术。 题目说机器人技术应用于病人外科手术,产生了一个帅 气的“医疗机器人”。 第 3 部分:概括大意与完成句子 23、 [解析] 第一段第二句讲到科学家发现黑洞产生于巨大恒星爆炸,后文进行了具 体阐述,所以第一段主要讲了黑洞是如何形成的。 24、 [解析] 第二段讲到黑洞主要来至氢气、其他气体和少数金属构成的恒星,重力 使得恒星爆炸后的碎片变成最小的粒子,所以第二段主要讲了黑洞的构成。 25、 [解析] 第三段讲到黑洞吞噬的物体会永远在那里,永远无法挣脱。太阳附近的 一颗大恒星有可能变成黑洞, 但是太阳永远不会被吞噬。所以第三段主要讲了黑 洞附近的物质会出现什么情况。 26、 [解析] 最后一段讲到天文学家通过爱因斯坦的相对论,证明了黑洞的存在。所 以第四段主要讲了证明黑洞真正存在的证据。 27、 [解析] 根据第二段“Black holes come from stars that are made of hydrogen, other gases and a few metals. When these explode it can turn into a stellar—mass(恒星质量)black hole...”可知,恒星爆炸形成黑洞,所以本题 选 E。 28、 [解析] 根据第二段内容“and the gravity starts to compact every piece into the tiniest particle. ”可知,重力使得恒星爆炸后的碎片变成最小的粒子, 所以本题选 D。
重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/

重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/

29、 [解析] 根据第三段最后一句话“because the newly formed black hole contains exactly the same amount of mass as when it was a star”可知, 新形成的黑洞与它是恒星时的质量完全一样,所以本题选 C。 30、 [解析] 根据第四段第一句话“So far, astronomers have figured out that black holes exist because of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity.” 可知,因为爱因斯坦的相对论,天文学家证明了黑洞的存在,所以本题选 F。 第 4 部分:阅读理解 第一篇 31、A [解析] 根据文章第一段最后一句话“They've been using sunlight as an energy source for billions of years.”可知,数十亿年以来,植物一直利用 太阳光作为能量来源。 32、D [解析] 根据第二段最后两句话“Unfortunately, unless you're a plant, it's difficult and expensive to convert sunlight into storable energy. That's why scientists are taking a closer look at exactly how plants do it. ” 以及第三段第一句“Some scientists are trying to get plants, or biological cells that act like plants, to work as very small photosynthesis power stations. ”可知,因为植物能轻易地将太阳光转换成可贮藏的能量,因此科学 家想观察植物是如何做到的。有些科学家将植物当做小型光合作用发电站。 33、B [解析] 根据第四段最后一句话“It's the oxygen in the air that prevents algae from making hydrogen most of the time. ”可知,空气中的氧气大多 数时候阻碍了海藻产生氢气。因此,只有没有氧气,海藻才能使用太阳能产生氢 气。 34、C [解析] 根据第六段第一句话“Unfortunately, removing the sulfate also makes the algae's cells work very slowly,and not much hydrogen is produced.”可知,消除硫酸盐仍然使得海藻细胞工作的非常缓慢,无法产生足 够的氢气。 35、A [解析] 根据最后一段可知,研究人员希望海藻油田能变成很方便使用的燃料来 源, 因为它们到处都可以生长, 只有 A 选项说“海藻是很好的能源来源”符合题 意,所以本题答案为 A。 第二篇 36、A [解析] 纵观全文可知,美国对公共地区的能源需求越来越大,而且这些能源给 美国带来大量利润。而且公共地区的替代资源的使用量也很巨大。A 选项说“公 共地区在能源生产方面发挥着重要作用”符合原文的中心思想。
重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/

重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/

37、B [解析] 根据第二段最后一句“Federal lands are also estimated to contain approximately 68 percent of all undiscovered US oil reserves and 74 percent of undiscovered natural gas. ”可知,美国还有 74%的天然气未被 发现。因此,B 选项说“大部分天然气都还贮藏着”为正确选项。 38、B [解析] 根据文章第四段可知,作者通过地热资源、风力涡轮发电机和水力发电 举例说明这段话的主题,即第一句话“Alternative energy production from federal lands flails behind conventional energy production, though the amount is still significant. ”。B 选项说“在公共地区生产的替代能源的 总量仍然很巨大”。 39、C [解析] 根据最后一段第一句话“Because of the growing US thirst for energy and increasing public unease with influence on foreign oil sources, pressure on public lands to meet US energy demand is becoming more intense. ”可知,由于美国越来越渴望能源,而公众对外国资源越来越依赖觉 得不舒服,因此,满足美国能源需求的压力越来越大。 40、C [解析] 根据文章最后一段第二句话“Public lands are available for energy development only after they have been evaluated through the land use planning process. ”可知,只有通过地区使用规划过程进行评估,公共地区才 能进行能源开发。 第三篇 41、C [解析] 根据第一段最后两句“Their main aim was to study the badgers' movements and behavior as discreetly(谨慎地) as possible without frightening them away or causing them to change their natural behavior. They also planned to trap a few and study them close up before releasing them in view of the animal's reputation, this was something that even Khama was reluctant to do. ”可知,他们的主要目的是研究獾的活动和行为,还打 算捕获几只近距离研究。 42、D [解析] 根据第二段第一句话“The problem with honey badgers is they are naturally curious animals, especially when they see something new. ” 可知,獾是一种天性很好奇的动物,尤其是在它们看到新鲜事物时。 43、A [解析] 根据第三段可知,獾任何动物都吃,只要它们能捕捉到,即便是蛇这种 动物。研究者发现,它们很喜欢当地的甜瓜,可能是里面含有很多水分。而且雌 性獾彼此从不一起活动。 44、C [解析] 根据第四段“Following some of the male badgers was a challenge, since they can cover large distances in a short space of time. Some hunting territories cover more than 500 square kilometers. ”可知,雄性獾猎食
重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/

重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/

的范围很广,可达 500 平方公里。 45、D [解析] 根据最后一段第一句话“As the badgers became accustomed to the presence of people, it gave the team the chance to get up close to them without being the subject of the animals' curiosity-or a sudden aggression. ”可知,獾与小组成员熟悉之后,就失去了动物所有的好奇,或是 突然攻击人类。因此,D 选项“他们失去了对人类的兴趣”符合题意。 第 5 部分:补全短文 46、 [解析] 空格前讲到甘蔗变成一种高利润的庄稼,在全球广泛种植,空格后讲到 糖是所有东西的一个重要成分,由此可知,空白处应讲甘蔗和糖的关系,只有 C 项“世界上大部分糖来自这种特别的经济作物”符合上下文意。 47、 [解析] 空格前讲到糖是所有东西的一个重要成分,因此对糖的需求在增长,空 格后讲到尽管种植的人试图去救活它们,但很多甘蔗都死了,由此可知,空白处 与前面形成转折关系中,只有 B 项“然而很不幸,甘蔗开始变得越来越弱,很容 易生虫病”符合文意。 48、 [解析] 空格前讲科学家实验培植项目,混合更美味和经济实惠的品种的基因, 空格后将这种甘蔗还不能大量出售。因此,空白处应是科学家培养出了一个新的 品种的甘蔗。在给出的选项中,只有 E 项“最终,科学家培植出了一个经济实惠 的品种,比之前甜上 5%,然是更强壮,不容易病死。”符合文意。 49、 [解析] 空格后讲到这种甘蔗还不能大量出售,但一旦能够出售,将会产生难以 置信的利润。空格后面讲到巴西在 Paulo Arrudo 教授的协调了下,建立了一个 国际项目,研究甘蔗的基因结构,因此,空白处应是讲这种甘蔗的现状和优势, 科学家才研究它的基因。只有 F 项“甘蔗如今更易生长,因此,糖的供应更有保 障”符合文意。 50、 [解析] 空格后讲到这一基因尤其令人兴奋,因此,空白处应是跟基因相关的内 容,在剩下的选项中,只有 D 项“Angellique D' Hont 博士和她的团队发现了 一个重要基因”符合文意。 第 6 部分:完形填空 51、D [解析] 句意为: 秃鹰数目的巨大______导致了人们生活的广泛混乱。四个选项: increase“增加”;threat“威胁”;risk“风险”;decline“减少,下降”。 52、A [解析] 句意为:秃鹰数目的巨大减少导致了在同这些鸟类______地区生活的人 们的广泛混乱。 四个选项: same“同一”; small“小的”; different“不同的”; safe“安全的”。 53、B [解析] 句意为: 这还导致了严重的公共健康问题______印度次大陆。四个选项:
重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/

重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/

above“在?上面”;across“跨越”;with“与?”;through“遍及”。 54、D [解析] 句意为:秃鹰______在维持全印度城镇和村庄方面发挥着非常重要的作 用。 四个选项: rarely“很少”; recently“最近”; seldom“很少”; long“长 久以来”。 55、C [解析] 句意为:秃鹰长久以来发挥着非常重要的作用,维持全印度城镇和村庄 ______。四个选项:dangerous“危险”;smelly“发臭的”;clean“干净”; beautiful“美丽”。 56、C [解析] 句意为:在印度,牛是神圣的动物,在过去的数千年间,它们______在 死后放在空旷处。四个选项:immediately“立即”;occasionally“偶尔”; traditionally“传统上”;hardly“几乎不”。 57、A [解析] 句意为:秃鹰的消失______野狗数量的暴增。四个选项:lead to“导 致”;act as“充当”;come from“来自”;slow down“减速”。 58、D [解析] 句意为: 野狗吃这些______动物的遗体。 四个选项: strange“奇怪的”; wild“野生的”;endangered“濒临灭种危险的”;dead“死去的”。这里代指 死去的牛。 59、B [解析] 句意为:这一可怕的疾病最终会影响该地区的人们,______野狗是主要 的载体。由此可知,前后分句存在因果关系。四个选项:when“当?时候”; since“因为”;so“所以”;whether“是否”。 60、D [解析] 句意为:狂犬病还会传播至其他动物,______甚至是未来一个更大的问 题。四个选项:improve“改善”;predict“预言”;find“找到”;cause“导 致”。 61、A [解析] 句意为:对行动的需要______,因此,成立了一个紧急项目寻找解决办 法。四个选项:urgent“紧急的”;frequent“频繁的”;regular“经常的”; sudden“突然的”。 62、B [解析] 句意为: 科学家正努力______导致鸟类死亡的疾病。 四个选项: prove“证 明”:identify“识别,鉴定”;test“试验,检验”;check“检查,核对”。 63、A [解析] 句意为:大规模的秃鹰______第一次在印度发现是在 20 世纪 80 年代。 四个选项: death“死亡”; injury“伤害, 危害”; arrival“抵达”; attack“攻 击”。 64、C [解析] 句意为:当时的调查显示三种秃鹰数量都已下降______超过 90%。四个 选项:in“在?里面”;on“在?上”;by“以?计,到?程度”;along“沿 着”。 65、D
重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/

重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/

[解析] 句意为:大多数秃鹰每次只产一个蛋,______5 年才能长成熟。四个选 项:waste“浪费”;consume“消耗”;adopt“采纳,吸收”;take“花费(时 间)”。

重庆朗阁 http://cq.edulife.com.cn/school/cqlongre/


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