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英语语法教学摘要及练习 第9章 非谓语动词


第9章 非谓语动词
编制人:何新武

为了帮助同学们掌握好非谓语动词的用法, 本章先详细讲解一些相关的基本知识,如 非谓语动词和谓语动词的异同,非谓语动 词的多种形式和非谓语动词的逻辑主语等; 接着用实例介绍高考出题的四个层面;然 后对非谓语动词的考点分类讲解;除各部 分设置了相应的针对性练习外,最后还提 供了大量的高考真题作为练习,便于同学 们巩固和提高。

第9章 非谓语动词
9.1 什么是非谓语动词
依据是否充当谓语动词,一个句子中的动词可以分为谓语动词和非
谓语动词。 我们知道谓语动词一定具备两个特征:一有主语,并与主语在人称 和数上保持一致;二有时态和语态的形式。它是一个句子和一个从 句必不可少的部分。例如:He knows me,John came yesterday

afternoon. 非谓语动词(即不定式、-ing形式和过去分词),不仅用作动词,
还起形容词、副词或名词的作用,它无需与主语一致,也不是一个 句子或从句必不可少的。传统上,-ing形式又分为现在分词和动名 词,并把现在分词和-ed形式(过去分词)统称为分词。

9.2 非谓语动词的基本特征
一、非谓语动词虽然没有谓语动词的时态的形式,但非谓语动词 也有它们自己的一些形式。 不定式形式,-ing形式,有一般式、进行式、完成式和完成进行 式之分;还有主动式和被动式之分。 -ed形式比较特殊,它只有一种形式。 列表如下:
种类 形式 一般式 完成式 主动 to do 动词不定式 被动 to be done -ing形式 (现在分词和动名词) 主动 被动 doing being done having been done -ed形式 (过去分词) done

to have done to have been having done done

进行式

to be doing

完 成 进 行 to have been doing 式

?和谓语动词比较: a.两种语态: She abandoned(谓语,主动) her husband. I heard of her abandoning(非谓语,主动) her husband. He was abandoned(谓语,被动) by her. I heard of him being abandoned(非谓语,被动) by her. b.表示时间: 非谓语动词所表示的时间通常都受谓语动词的限制。 在下面3个句子中,非谓语动词playing可以随谓语动词不同而表示3 种不同时间: He is fond of playing music.(现在) He was fond of playing music. (过去) He will be fond of playing music. (将来) 有时谓语动词和非谓语动词表示不同时间,如: I still remember(谓语动词,指现在情况) meeting(动名词) her five years ago on the mountain. (指过去情况) I decide(谓语动词,指现在情况) to go(不定式) next week.( 指将来情况)

?特别注意:

一般说来,-ing的一般式表示动作与谓语动词同时进行,-ing的完成
式表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前。

不定式的一般式与谓语动词同时或之后发生;不定式的进行式与谓 语动词同时发生;不定式的完成式在谓语动词之前发生;不定式的

完成进行式在谓语动词之前发生并延续到说话时(可能刚停,也可
能还会继续)。

过去分词形式表被动和完成,它表示的时间一般在谓语动词之前。

二、非谓语动词也有否定形式,即把否定词not直接置于其前。如:

to do — not to do doing — not doing

to be done — not to be done having done — not having done

三、非谓语动词也有及物不及物之分;如果是及物动词又有单宾、 双宾和复合宾语及物动词之分。因此,非谓语动词后面同样可以有 补足成分。如: 跟补语: to feel thirsty getting cold ( 注意:系动词后的表语也叫主语补
语。)

跟宾语: to do one’s work drinking wine 跟状语: to fly high eating carelessly ?和谓语动词比较: a.都可不跟或跟有宾语和补语: He came(不及物动词,没有宾语及补语). He wants to come. John visited(及物动词) India(宾语). I heard of John visiting India.

Mary gave(双宾动词)him(间接宾语)so much trouble(直接主语). I am sorry for Mary to give him so much trouble. She looks(系动词) happy(补语). She pretended to look happy while swallowing her tears. They found(宾补动词) their relative as poor(宾语补语) as a beggar. Finding their relative as poor as a beggar,they gave him some money. b.可以由副词(1)、副词短语(2)或副词(状语)从句(3)修 饰: He wants to go immediately(1). He is fond of “going” for a picnic(2). He does not know the policy of giving away something when he wants to get more(3). c. 非谓语动词跟宾语或其他修饰语后,就构成了非谓语动词词组 (短语),被分别称为不定式短语,-ing短语和过去分词短语。把 它们看作一个整体,有利于分析和理解句子。

四、非谓语动词词组中的不定式和-ing形式在句子中可以起名词词 组的作用。如: To teach is to learn twice. Drinking will not help you out of the trouble. He was accused of polluting the lake. 以上诸例中的to teach, to learn, drinking, polluting这些结构既有动 词的意义,有起到了名词词组的作用。这样的功能谓语动词形式是 绝对没有的。这也是同学们经常在写作中犯的错误之一。 -ed形式没有这个功能。

拓展
起名词作用的不定式和动词的-ing形式(也叫动名词)虽然都可以 充当主语、宾语、表语等,但用法上有不少差异,这里先列三点。 1)动名词前可用介词,它还可以被名词所有格(或代词)修饰; 不定式前通常不用介词,更不能被名词所有格(或代词)修饰。 After drinking three bottles of beer, he began to have some rice. My wife's speaking ill of my friends made me angry. They insisted on my/me finishing the report before Friday.

2)一般说来,在表示比较抽象的一般行为时多用动名词;在表示 具体的动作,特别是将来的动作时,多用不定式。 ? Smoking is not allowed here. (表习惯、爱好、或抽象的动作、经常做的事情。) ? To smoke so much is not good for you. (表具体的、一次性动作、要做的事情。) ? Their job is building houses. (抽象、经常的动作) ? Their work is to build another bridge across the river. (具体、要做的动作) 3)和不定式一样,作主语的动名词也可以用it代替: ?It is difficult to know oneself. ?It is impossible for one to know everything. ?Living in Shanghai would be too expensive. ? =It would be too expensive living in Shanghai. ?Crying over spilt milk is no use. ? =It is no use crying over spilt milk.

注意 ①下列句型中常用动名词作主语,it作形式主语。 no use / good not any use/ good of little use / good useless

It is / was +

+ doing sth.

It?s no use sitting here waiting. It’s no good eating too much fat. It’s no use your pretending that you didn’t know the rules. 注意② There is no+ doing…相当于"It?s impossible to do…”

There is no climbing up the cliff. = Climbing up the cliff is impossible. There is no denying the fact. =Denying the fact is impossible.

练习 1 指出下列句子的错误并改正。 1. Learn(主语) is important to modern life. Learning is important to modern life. 2. I like learn(宾语) English. I like learning English. 3.What is your opinion about learn(介词宾语)it?. What is your opinion about learning it?. 4. It’s of little use to talk about it. It’s of little use talking about it. 5. It is stupid for you to write down everything the teacher says. It is stupid of you to write down everything the teacher says. 6. It took me two hours finishing the work. It took me two hours to finish the work. 7. It’s important of you to keep fit. It’s important for you to keep fit. 8. Seeing is to believe. Seeing is believing. / To see is to believe.

五、非谓语动词形式可以起形容词的作用。如: drinking water smiling faces a frozen pond

boiled eggs

总之,非谓语动词除了具有谓语动词的某些特点外,还具有谓语动 词没有的特点。如不定式(短语)和-ing形式(短语)可具有名词、 形容词和副词的作用,-ed形式(短语)可具有形容词和副词的作 用。列表如下(打“√”表示在句中可充当的成分): 种类 作用 主语 宾语 表语 定语 状语 补语 动词不定式 √ √ √ √ √ √ -ing形式 -ed形式 (现在分词和动名词) (过去分词) √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √

六、谓语动词可包含will,can,may,must这类情态动词(助动 词),而非谓语动词却不能和它们一起用。不过非谓语动词可以包 含有这类助动词的替代说法. 例如:
?A man going to(= Who will soon) die is always kind-hearted. ?I am aware of a great war being on the point of(代替will) breaking out. ?Being able to(代替can) read Japanese(= As he can read Japanese),he explained the meaning of the letter to me. ?I hear of his being allowed( or permitted) to(代替may) enter our club. ?It is my destiny to be obliged to(代替 should or must)marry this beast of a man. (= It is my destiny that I should marry……) ?I confess having to(代替 must) depend upon my wifefor my business plan.

9.3 逻辑主语和逻辑宾语
逻辑主语和逻辑宾语是老师讲解非谓语动词相关知识经常提及的两 个概念。从语法上讲,只有句子的谓语动词才有资格有自己的语法 上的主语和语法上的宾语,即我们平时所说的主语和宾语。 如果该动词是非谓语动词,那么,它的施动者和受动者只是意义上 的主语和宾语,通常被称为逻辑主语和逻辑宾语。通常我们只讨论 逻辑主语就够了。

9.4 逻辑主语和非谓语动词的关系
1)当逻辑主语是非谓语动词动作的执行者(施动者)时,逻辑主 语和非谓语动词在逻辑上存在着主谓关系。非谓语动词用主动式。 如: The student was glad to give a speech at the meeting. 2)当逻辑主语是非谓语动词动作的承受者(受动者)时,逻辑主 语和非谓语动词在逻辑上存在着动宾关系。宾语做了逻辑主语,非 谓语动词必须使用被动式。如: The student was glad to be given an iphone by his uncle.

9.5 逻辑主语的类型
一、非谓语动词的逻辑主语与句子的主语一致:非谓语动词不带施 动者时,我们通常认定主句中的主语就是非谓语动词的逻辑主语。 ① He admitted taking the money. 他承认(他)拿了那笔钱。
本句中,非谓语动词taking和主要动词admitted都是由句子的主语he执行的,所以 本句中taking的逻辑主语就是句子主语He。

② Finishing his work, he went to bed immediately. 完成工作后他立即 上床睡觉。
本句中,非谓语动词finishing逻辑主语就是句子的主语he。 ?注意:下面两例的逻辑主语包括主语和主语相关的人。

③ I don?t anticipate meeting any opposition. 我不期待(我以及你们)遇 到任何敌对行为。
本句中,非谓语动词meeting逻辑主语既包括句中的主语说话者I也包括上下文中 的听话者。

④ Mother suggests having a picnic party this weekend. 母亲建议周末 举办一次野餐会。
本句中,非谓语动词having的逻辑主语既是句子的主语也包括举办party的有关人 员。

二、非谓语动词的逻辑主语与主语不一致(有以下4种情况):
1)不定式的逻辑主语:多由for + 名词或代词的宾格,如:

① It?s time for us to have a break.
② The box is too heavy for the boy to carry. ③ We made way for the lady to pass.

④ For you to ask Joe would be a big mistake.
⑤ It's very hard for him to study two languages. ? 比较 It is kind of you to help me.(=You are kind to help me.)
of sb句型中的形容词一般为表示性格,品德,心智能力等方面的形容词,如good, kind, nice, honest, right, clever, careless, foolish, silly 。例如: It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。 用for还是of 的另一种辨别方法:用 介词for或of后面的逻辑主语作句子的主语, 用介词前边的形容词作表语,造个句子。如果通顺用of,不通则用for。例如: You are nice. (通顺,所以应用of)。 He is hard. (非所表达的意思,不通,因此用for。)

2)动名词的逻辑主语:所有格 + doing sth. 由于动名词属于名词性质(常作主语和宾语),所以要用名词所有 格或形容词性物主代词充当其逻辑主语,做宾语时也可以用代词的 宾格取代。 ① I am informed of John's getting ill. ② I suggested our fighting to the last man. ③ My wife's speaking ill of my friends made me angry. ④ They insisted on my/me finishing the report before Friday. 请看下列句子,它们的逻辑主语有错误吗? ① They ordering him to do it, he had no choice but to obey them. ② John being my best friend,I cannot refuse his request. 没有错误。这两例中的ordering和being是现在分词,不是动名词; 上述的现在分词短语充当修饰语状语,相当于一个状语从句。动名 词短语是充当句子的基本成分(主语或宾语),相当于名词从句。

?拓展
带有逻辑主语的动名词称为动名词的复合结构,在句中可作主语、 宾语、表语等,分别相当于一个主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句。 如: ⑤Her coming to help encouraged all of us. 他来帮忙鼓舞了我们所有人。 (=That she came to help encouraged all of us.) ⑥Jane’s being careless caused so much trouble. 简的粗心惹来了不少麻烦。 (=That Jane was careless caused so much trouble.) ⑦What?s troubling them is their not having enough food. 烦扰他们的是食物不足(他们没有足够的食物)。 (=What?s troubling them is that they have not enough food. )

3) 分词的逻辑主语:主格 + doing sth. (不要和动名词的逻辑主语相混)

分词的逻辑主语要用名词或代词的主格充当其逻辑主语。(其构成的
短语也叫做独立主格结构,一般相当于状语从句。关于独立主格结构,后面再详 谈。)

① The boy finishing his work, his mother allowed him to play a short while. ② The baby was sleeping soundly, the nurse sitting beside the bed

silently.
③ They ordering him to do it, he had no choice but to obey them. ④ I read newspapers,my wife sitting by my side.

⑤ John being my best friend,I cannot refuse his request.
⑥ There are 60 students,all(being)told. ⑦ This(having been)ended,we dispersed.

⑧ This(having been)done,we went to bed.

4)隐藏的逻辑主语: 有时非谓语动词既不带自己的逻辑主语,也不和句子的主语一致, 我们只能根据语境推测。如:

① Seeing is believing.
动名词seeing和 believing的逻辑主语为一般人。

② It is no use talking about this matter.
动名词talking的逻辑主语为说话人和听话人。

③ Generally speaking, we enjoyed the trip.
非谓语动词的逻辑主语为说话人,用来表明说话者的态度。

④ Considering his abilities, he should have done better.
非谓语动词的逻辑主语为说话人,用来表明说话者的态度。

⑤ To tell the truth, he is not lazy at all.
非谓语动词的逻辑主语为说话人,用来表明说话者的态度。

我们也可把下列句型看作不定式前隐藏了逻辑主语: 主语+ be+形容词 +及物动词的不定式(用主动式,后面不跟宾语,因其 逻辑宾语是句子主语)=it + be+形容词+不定式+变为宾语的主语。常 这样用的形容词有:comfortable, easy, dangerous, difficult, expensive, fit , impossible 等 。 ?The water is good to drink. (=To drink the water is good.=It is good to
drink the water.) 可以看作逻辑主语是一般的人,即The water is good (for people) to drink. ?Your question is impossible to answer. (=To answer your question is impossible.)

?He is hard to work with.
(=It is hard to work with him.)(不及物动词+介词=及物动词短语)

?The room is really comfortable to live in. ?This man is dangerous to depend upon. ?He seems troublesome to make friends with. ?That is a hard question to answer(=That is a question hard to answer). ?The child is hard for his mother to take care of. (此句带了逻辑主语his
mother).

练习2 找出每题中的非谓语动词及其逻辑主语,并判断逻辑主语是 施动者还是受动者。(请按1,2题的示例作答,并试着翻译句子。) 1. He likes helping others .
(非谓语动词)helping,-ing的一般式; 逻辑主语he是施动者,(它与helping构 成逻辑上的主谓关系)故用主动式。

2. Moved by his words , I told him all the news .
(非谓语动词)moved,过去分词;逻辑主语I是受动者,(它与moved构成逻辑 上的动宾关系)故用过去分词表被动。

3. It's kind of you to tell me the news .
to tell, 不定式的一般式;逻辑主语you是施动者,故用主动式。

4. It is impossible for you to finish so much work in so short a time .
to finish, 不定式的一般式;逻辑主语you是施动者,故用主动式。

5. The teacher asked me to answer his question .
to answer, 不定式的一般式;逻辑主语me是施动者,故用主动式。

6. I saw him playing at the river side .
playing, -ing的一般式; 逻辑主语him是施动者, 故用主动式。

7. It?s a waste of time your talking to him. 你和他谈是浪费时间。
talking, -ing的一般式; 逻辑主语your是施动者, 故用主动式。

8. It doesn?t make much difference my being there.
being, -ing的一般式; 逻辑主语my, 接“系动词”, 故用主动式。 我在不在那儿没有什么影响。

9. I look forward to it getting warmer in spring.
getting, -ing的一般式; 逻辑主语it,接“系动词”, 故用主动式。 我盼望春天天气变暖。

10. After having been instructed to drive out of town, I began to acquire confidence. 在接到把车开出城的指令后,我开始信心十足了。
having been instructed , -ing的完成式的被动式;逻辑主语I 是受动者,故用被动式

11.He hates being made a fool of.

他讨厌被别人愚弄。

being made a fool of, -ing的一般式的被动式;逻辑主语He是受动者,故用被动式

12. Jenny?s not having been trained as a dancer is her one regret.
not having been trained ,-ing的完成式的被动式的否定;逻辑主语 Jenny’s是受动者,故用被动式。 杰妮没受过舞蹈的专业训练是她感到遗憾的事。

13.She asked to be given some work to do.
to be given和to do, 分别是不定式的一般式的被动式和主动式;逻辑主语都是 she, 但分别是受动者和施动者,故前者用被动式,后者用主动式。 她要求给她一些工作做。

14.He was the last person to be asked to speak.
to be asked和to speak 同上。 他是最后被邀请发言的人。

15.I should like to have been told the result earlier.
to have been told 是不定式的完成式的被动式,逻辑主语I是受动者,故用被动式。

我本想让人把结果早点告诉我的。

16.I saw him being taken away.
being taken ,-ing形式的一般式的被动式;逻辑主语him是受动者,故用被动式。

我看见有人把他带走了。

17.Being protected by a wall, he felt quite safe.
Being protected ,ing形式的一般式的被动式;逻辑主语him是受动者,故用被动式。

有墙作保护,他感到很安全。

18.Having been invited to speak, I’ll start making preparations tomorrow
Having been invited ,是不定式的完成式的被动式,逻辑主语I是受动者,故用被动式; to speak是不定式的一般式,逻辑主语也是I,是施动者,故用主动式。

因为邀请我去讲话,我明天就得做准备。

9.4 高考在非谓语动词范畴内的四个出题层面
层面一、谓语动词和非谓语动词之辨 这个考点考查的是考生的最基本的能力,即能否根据题干所给的信 息,判断空白处是否是非谓语动词形式的能力。如: 1)___ some of the juice —— perhaps you?ll like it. (2000年春) A. Trying B. Try C. To try D. Have tried
答案:B. 解析:这个题中,题干中的破折号起着至关重要的作用。它表示前后 两个分句之间是并列关系,即谁都不是谁的句子成分。所以如果选择了A, C, D三 个选项,就意味着把前面的分句处理成了一个状语,不成立。只有B选项是动词 原形,这样前面是个祈使句。

2)____ his reply, so I decided to write to him again. A. Not having received B. Having not received C. Because I didn?t receive D. I didn?t receive
答案:D. 解析:这个题目也是考查考生的注意力和对句子结构的基本概念的掌 握。中间有个并列连词so。这就意味着前面必须是个独立的句子,而不是非谓语 动词结构作状语。

19.The subject having been opened,he had to go on with it.
having been opened是-ing形式的完成式的被动式,逻辑主语 The subject是受 动者,故用被动式。 话题已经开始了,他不得不谈下去。

20.This question is far from being settled.
being settled, -ing形式的一般式的被动式,逻辑主语this question是受动者,故 用被动式。 这个问题远没解决。

21.She likes seeing people and being seen.
seeing people和being seen分别是-ing形式一般式的主动式和被动式,逻辑 主语都是she分别是施动者和受动者,故分别用主动式和被动式。 她喜欢看人和被人看。

22. Watched by the passengers,she lowered her head.
watched, 过去分词;逻辑主语she是受动者,故用过去分词表被动。 在乘客们的注视下,她低下了头。

23. Used cars cost cheaper than new ones.
Used, 过去分词,逻辑主语cars是受动者,故用过去分词表被动。 二手车比新车便宜。

练习 3 选择填空 1.If they don?t understand it the first time, _________ over it again until D they do. A. going B. to go C. gone D. go A 2.If he likes to eat it, _________ him some more. A. give B. giving C. given D. to give A 3.If anyone calls, _________ them I?m not at home. A. tell B. telling C. told D. to tell 4.When your mother comes back, _________ her to come to school at A once. A. ask B. asking C. asked D. to ask A 5.While the baby is sleeping, _________ your work as soon as possible. A. finish B. finishing C. finished D. to finish

B 6 ________ask the teacher if you have any questions. A. Doing B. Do C. To do D. Done A 7 ________ hard and you?ll pass the college entrance examinations. A. Study B. Studying C. To study D. Studied B 8._________ down the radio —— the baby?s asleep in the next room. A. Turning B. Turn C. Turned D. To turn A 9.On Saturday afternoon,Mrs Green went to the market,________ some fruit and visited her cousin. A. bought B. buying C. to buy D. buy 10.She set out soon after dark _________ home an hour later. D A. arriving B. to arrive C. having arrived D. and arrived C 11._______ many times,but the boy still couldn?t understand it. A. Having told B. Though he had been told C. He was told D. Having been told

层面二、to do, doing, done之辨 这个出题层就已经进入了非谓语动词知识领域的内部。这三种非谓 语动词的基本形式在具体的使用中有着种种不同,要求考生根据自 己的掌握一一应对。后面再详细阐述。典型例题如下: 1)_____ their service, the workers of the hotel are active in learning English. A. Improving B. To improve C. Improve D. Having improved
答案:B。解析:根据题干的意思表达需要,前面的状语最好处理成目的状语。 而to do, doing, done三者中能作目的状语的只有不定式短语。所以只能选B。

2)The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, _____ it more difficult. (NMET1999) A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. made
答案:B。解析:题干的意思是“新技术的目的是为了使生活更轻松而不是更困 难。”这个题干属于没有连词的不定式的并列结构,这时,不定式符号to不能被 省略。因此,能使题干完整的选项只有B。

层面四、综合层面 以上三个层面清晰可辨。可现实却恰恰不是这样简单。出题人常常 把这三个层次或其中的两个层次混合在一起来考查我们的能力。这 样一来,就增加了非谓语动词题目的难度。如:

1)Most of the artists ____ to the party were from South Africa. (MET1990) A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. had been invited
答案:A。解析:如果考生能看出后面的were是本句话的谓语部分,从而排除谓 语动词D,这是第一层的能力。如果根据时间关系看出B表示的是将来,C表示的 是正在进行动作,排除掉这两个选项,这是第二层的能力;如果看出B还因为没 有被动而不对,这是第三层的能力。

2)While watching television, _________. (全国卷III) A. the door bell rang B. the doorbell rings C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings
分析:答案选C。因为watching没有逻辑主语,它的逻辑主语一定是句子的主语 we,由此可排除选项A和B;又因在hear后作宾语补足语的是省略了to的不定式, 所以选项D中的rings是错误的。

层面三、同一个非谓语动词的不同形式之辨
这个层面与前两个相比更加深入到知识的内部。利用更加细致的题干设计更加具 体地考查考生对三种非谓语动词形式内部的一般式、进行式、完成式和完成进行 式;主动态和被动态的掌握和运用能力。这个层面的考题都要求考生对题干中的 几个动作之间的先后顺序,主语与动词之间,逻辑主语和非谓语动词之间的关系 有比较清醒地认识。如:

1)The boy pretended _____ when his father came in. A. to read B. to be reading C. to have read D. to have been read
答案:B. 解析:一般的学生都知道pretend后面只能跟不定式,不能跟-ing形式。 四个选项均为不定式,但形式不同,要求考生根据对题干的解读来作出正确的选 择。根据题干的意思表达的需要,处理成进行体,表示“正在读书”还是很合适 的。所以,选B项。

2)The boy is said _____ abroad, but I don?t know which country he studied in. A. to be studying B. to have been studying C. to have studied D. to study
答案:C。解析:somebody is said/reported/thought/believed + to do结构也是众所周 知的。A选项表示的是正在发生;B选项表示的是一直在发生;C选项表示的是以 前发生过;D表示一般的现在,即一种固有的习惯。根据题干后面动词studied的 提示,应该选完成式C.

9.5考点分类解析
在9.1-9.3,我们明白了非谓语动词的一些基 本概念,在9.4中,我们知道了高考出题的 四个层面,但还不够。因为与非谓语动词相 关的考点很多,为便于同学们掌握,这里我 们分类讲解并进行对比。希望同学们在理解 的基础上记忆相关考点知识。

9.51不定式作宾语与动词的-ing形式作宾语的问题
1)经常跟不定式作宾语的动词: 跟不定式作宾语的动词
wait, expect/hope/wish, want, happen, manage(设法完成);

助记口诀

等待望想碰巧成
假装求助不在意 拒绝承诺提妙计

pretend, ask/beg, help, care (在意;希望或喜欢);

refuse, promise, offer, plan;

agree,choose, afford (提供;买得起) ;

同意选择买得起
决心努力去学习

decide/determine, strive (努力;奋斗; 抗争) , learn;

2)只接动名词作宾语的动词或动词词组:

跟动名词宾语的动词
consider, suggest/advise, look forward to, excuse/pardon admit, delay/put off, fancy(想象,设想) avoid, miss, keep/keep on, practice deny, finish, enjoy/appreciate; forbid, imagine, risk;

助记口诀 考虑建议盼原谅
承认推迟没得想 避免错过继续练 否认完成就欣赏 禁止想象才冒险

can’t help, mind, allow/permit, escape

不禁介意准逃亡

下列短语也跟动名词作宾语 go back to(回去,返回;追溯到), have a good/wonderful time (in), spend time (in),lead to, have difficulty/trouble (in), have a hard time (in), can?t stand/resist(不能容忍), feel like, give up, object to(对…反对), get down to (开始认真考虑;着手处理) , set about(着手;开始做),pay attention to,devote to, stick to(坚持;粘住), insist on, be used to(习惯于),thank you for, be busy (in)
刚进高三的时候,好想go back to 高一高二,那两年真的have a good /wonderful time(in), 我spend time (in)打球和上网。结果lead to 高三have difficulty / trouble (in) learning ,尤其是 have a hard time (in) having English lessons. 我简直can’t stand/resist 背诵英语文章,我feel like giving up learning English.

Do you remember them?

但老师和同学都object to doing so,英语老师要我 get down to此事,并set about planning a time table,他要我上课pay attention to listening to teachers, 同时把 课外时间devote to 复习和预习。一定要stick to, 再insist on, 不久就 be used to了。 imagine/fancy 三个月的努力, I can’t help saying to my teachers and classmates, “Thank you for helping me.” Now I enjoy learning English as well as other subjects and I am busy (in ) practicing remembering English phrases. I am looking forward to entering an ideal university next year.

Let me help you !

Let’s retell it again. Please pay attention to the phrases in red.
刚进高三的时候,好想go back to 高一高二,那两年真的have a good /wonderful time(in), 我spend time (in)打球和上网。结果lead to 高三 have difficulty / trouble (in) learning ,尤其是 have a hard time (in) having English lessons. 我简直can?t stand/resist 背诵英语文章,我feel like giving up learning English. 但老师和同学都object to doing so,英语老师要我 get down to此事, 并set about planning a time table,他要我上课pay attention to listening to teachers, 同时把课外时间devote to 复习和预习。一定要stick to, 再 insist on, 不久就 be used to了。 imagine/fancy 三个月的努力,I can’t help saying to my teachers and classmates, “Thank you for helping me.” Now I enjoy learning English as well as other subjects and I am busy (in ) practicing remembering English phrases. I am looking forward to entering an ideal university next year.

?注意:
①consider只有在作“考虑”解时才以-ing形式作宾语。如: ?Tom is considering borrowing some money from the bank. (考虑)

?Tom is considered to be the best driver in the team.
? Sorry, I can’t help laughing when I heard the news.

(认为)

②can’t help只有作“禁不住”解时才以-ing形式作宾语。如:
(禁不住)

? Sorry, I?m busy preparing for the exam and can’t help clean the room
(不能帮忙)

③be used to只有作“习惯于” 解时才以-ing形式作宾语。如:
? The students are used to getting up early in the morning. ? The knife is used to cut off the skin of the trees
(习惯于)

(被用来做)

练习4 用括号里的动词的适当形式填空
1.The boys admitted having broken (break) my car window while playing football. to see 2.She walked up to the desk and asked (see) the manager. 3.I really appreciate your replying (reply) so soon. 4.If you would not care to leave (leave)your name, we’ll get in touch as soon as possible. 5.You’d better avoid seeing (see) your boss today. He is like a bull in a china shop. 6.He applied to be transferred (transfer). 他申请调动工作。 7.Can you imagine living (live)alone on the moon? 8.Jill couldn’t resist making (make)jokes about my baldness. 9.Are you really used to drinking (drink)wines three meals a day? 10.There have been fewer problems for travelers who chose to fly (fly) 11.After much discussion they decided to accept (accept) our offer.

12.We are looking forward to seeing (see) you in New York. 13.When the weather turns fine, I have get down to repairing (repair) my house. 14.I wanted to speak (speak)to the manager but I got his secretary instead. 15.They set about treating(treat)the baby immediately they arrived. 16.We do not allow / permit smoking (smoke) in the kitchen. 17.If I fail to appear(appear)by 7 o’clock, I will not be coming at all. 18.I appreciate being given (give)this opportunity. 19.He suggested taking (take)the children to the zoo. 20.She’s a funny girl, but yet you can’t help liking (like)her. 21.The medicine can't help (to) get (get)rid of your cold. 22.Have you considered how to get (get) there? 23.She doesn’t understand how to look (look )after him. 24.We discussed what to do (do) and where we should go.
?有些动词(如consider, understand, discuss)则可接“疑问词+不定式”作宾语

3)下列动词或词组既可以跟动名词作宾语,也可以跟不定式作宾语。 但意义上有区别: 第一类 remember,forget,regret: 后接不定式表示动作尚未发生,后接动名词(可用一般式或完成式)

表示动作已经发生。
比较: ? Remember to post the letters. 记得把这些信寄掉。 ? I remember posting (having posted) the letters. 我记得这些信是寄掉了的 ? I forgot to tell him the news. 我忘记告诉他这消息了。

? I forgot telling (having told) her the news. 我忘了曾告诉过她这个消息。
? I regret to tell you that he can?t come. 很抱歉他不能来。 ? She never regretted doing (having done) this. 她从没后悔这样做过。

第二类 stop, go on: 后接不定式表示由一事到另一事, 后接动名词表示停止或接着做同

样的事。
如: ? He is trying to stop smoking. 他在设法戒烟。 ? He stopped (walking)to speak to Martin. 他停下来和马丁讲话。 ? Go on to do the other exercises after you have finished this one.
做完这个练习后, 请接着做其它的练习。

?You oughtn?t to go on living this way. 你不应该再这样生活下去了。 ?注:go on后接的doing也可视为现在分词而非动名词。

第三类 mean: 后接不定式表示打算做某事,后接动名词表示意味着做某事。如: ?To raise wages means increasing purchasing power.
提高工资意味着增加购买力。

?I?m sorry I didn?t mean to be rude to you.
对不起,我并不想对你粗鲁无礼。

?To mean to do something and to actually do something are two different things.
打算做一件事和实际上做一件事完全是两回事。

第四类 try: 其后接不定式表示设法去做某事,接动名词表示做某事试试(看有 何效果)。如: ? Try to limit your talk to 10 minutes. 请尽量把话在10分钟内讲完。 ? Let?s try knocking at the back door. 咱们敲敲后门试试。

4)有的动词既可后接不定式作宾语,也可后接动名词作宾语,两者 意思基本相同,有时甚至可以互换。 这类动词主要有:like 喜欢 love 喜欢 hate 憎恨 prefer 宁可 begin 开始 start 开始 continue 继续 can’t bear 不能忍受 bother 麻烦 intend 打算 attempt 试图 cease 停止 例如: They continued to meet [meeting] daily.
他们继续每天都见面。

I like keeping [to keep] everything tidy.
我喜欢将每件东西都保持整洁。

She never ceased complaining [to complain] about prices.
她没完没了地抱怨物价。

?注意 【1】当 like, love, hate, prefer 与 would, should 连用时,其后习惯 上只能接不定式,不能接动名词。 I’d like to surf the Internet.

【2】在like ,hate, prefer 等动词之后,如果表示一般倾向,多用动 名词作宾语;如指特定的或某次行动,则用不定式更多一些。 ?I like reading books of this kind, but I don’t like to read that book. ?She prefer walking to cycling. ?I prefer to stay at home today. 【3】在begin, start, cease后,如果表示有意识地开始(停止)做某 事,多用动名词;如果动作自动或突然开始(停止),则多用不定 式。 ?He began talking about his plan for summer holiday. ?Suddenly it began to rain. ?We started working on the program in 2001. ?The factory has ceased making motorcycles. ?After that she ceased to worry about her daughter.

练习5 用括号里的动词的适当形式填空
1.Remember to come (come) on time. 记住准时来。 2.I forgot telling / having told (tell) her the news. 我忘了曾告诉过她这个消息。 3.Missing the train means (mean) waiting for an hour. 4.We regret to say (say) that we can’t accept your kind offer.

5.Try to come (come) early. 请设法早点来。 6.I regret not coming / having come (not come) earlier. 我后悔没有来早点。 7.Try phoning (phone) his home number. 给他家里打个电话试试。 8.I didn’t mean to make (make) you angry. 9.They were tired, so they stopped to have (have) a rest. 10.She sold her house and couldn’t help regretting (regret) it. 11.The medicine can’t help to get (get) rid of your cold. 12.She stopped talking (talk) about her illness and went on to tell (tell) us about all her other problems. 她停止谈她的病,接着给我们谈她的其他一些问题。 13.Don’t forget to give (give) my regards to them. 别忘了代我向他们问好。 14.I remember seeing /having seen (see) her somewhere.

sb. to do sth. (a) 9.52 allow, permit , advise, forbid

doing sth.

(b)

这是一个学生出错率挺高的考点。因为,大家都知道如allow sb. to do sth. 这样 的结构,并且烂熟于心。所以在见到allow等后面直接跟宾语的时候,大家的第 一反应就是选择to do,这样就中了出题人的陷阱。例如:

My parents don?t allow me to go there by plane for the sake of safety. (a) They don?t allow smoking in this area of the campus. (b) Jill?s teacher advised him to take the job in the less famous company. (a) Jill?s teacher advised taking the job in the less famous company. (b) The manager forbids anyone to enter his office without permission. (a) Smoking is forbidden in this office. (b)

思考:People are not allowed (to smoke/smoking) in the lecture hall. 分析:选择to smoke. 此句是上述结构(a)的被动语态。又是另一陷阱。

练习6 选择填空

walking 1. a. We don?t permit _________ on the grass. to walk b. We don?t permit people _________ on the grass. c. People are not permitted _________ on tto walkhe grass. to walk A. walk B. to walk C. walking D. walked leaving 2. a. He advised _________ early. b. He advised us _________ early. to leave to leave c. We were advised _________ early. A. leaving B. leave C. to leave D. left making 3. a. We forbid __________ a noise. to make b. We forbid people __________ a noise. c. People are forbidden __________ a noise. to make A. make B. to make C. made D. making to go 4. a. He forbids me _________ with them. going b. He forbids my _________ with them. A. to go B. going C. go D. went
注:4 b选择going, 是因为动名词前可用所有格或物主代词作逻辑主语

9.53 几个主动形式表被动意义的特例
1)need(require, want)+doing = need(require, want)+ to be done Your desk needs cleaning. = Your desk needs to be cleaned. The flowers requires watering every day. = The flowers requires to be watered every day. He wants reminding of the meeting tomorrow. He is always forgetful. =He wants to be reminded of the meeting tomorrow. He is always forgetful. 2)be worth +doing (n.) = be worthy + to be done = be worthy + of being done The play is worth seeing a second time The play is worthy of being seen a second time. The play is worthy to be seen a second time.

拓展:deserve后接不定式还是动名词?
deserve的意思是“值得”“应该” 1.接不定式。如: They didn?t deserve to win. 他们不该赢。 They did not deserve to get such a high score. 他们不该得那么高的分数。 2.和need等一样,可接动名词的主动形式或不定式的被动式,表示被 动意义。如: The man deserves punishing [to be punished]. 他这个人是罪有应得。 He deserved sending [to be sent] to prison. 他应当被送进监牢。 3.接名词。如: If you do wrong, you deserve severe punishment.
如果你做错事,就应受严厉的处罚.

They deserve our praise and thanks.
他们值得我们的表扬和感谢。

9.54 非谓语动词作宾语补语的问题
为掌握非谓语动词作宾语补语的用法,我们必须清楚下列几点: 1)弄清逻辑主语。宾语补语的逻辑主语就是宾语。

2)确定使用主动还是被动。当逻辑主语(宾语)是施动者时,宾补用主动形式;

当逻辑主语(宾语)是受动者时,宾补则用被动形式。过去分词就一种形式, 通常只表被动。不定式和-ing形式既有主动式又有被动式。 3)分清非谓语动词不同形式所指的不同意义。 一般说来,-ing的一般式(doing)表示动作与谓语动词同时进行,-ing的完 成式(having done) 表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前。

不定式的一般式(to do)与谓语动词同时或之后发生;不定式的进行式(to be doing)与谓语动词同时发生;不定式的完成式(to have done)在谓语动词之前发 生;不定式的完成进行式(to have been doing)在谓语动词之前发生并延续到说话 时(可能刚停,也可能还会继续)。
过去分词形式表被动和完成,它表示的时间一般在谓语动词之前。

根据以上三点我们试着完成下面的句子,并说明理由: 1.我看到他被汤姆打了。 I saw him beaten (beat) by Tom.
(逻辑主语him,是beat的受动者,宾补用过去分词beaten表被动和完成。)

2.我们看到他在与她谈话。 We saw him talking (talk) to her.
(逻辑主语him, 是talk的施动者,宾补用-ing主动形式talking, 其动作与谓语动词 saw同时进行。)

3.他叫我们第二天来早点。 He asked us to come (come) here early the next day.
(逻辑主语us, 是come的施动者,宾补用不定式的主动形式to come, 表谓语动词 之 后要发生的动作,即还未发生的动作。)

4. 我注意到那辆小车在树下修理。 I noticed the car being repaired (repair)under the tree.
(逻辑主语car, 是动词repair的受动者,宾补用-ing形式being repaired,表动作与谓 语动词notice同时进行。)

关于非谓语动词作宾语补语,除了掌握上述三点外,我们还必须熟 悉一些动词接宾语补语有不同的特点。
9.541 带to的不定式( to do ) 作宾补的动词: ask sb. to do sth 常见的有:ask, invite, tell, want, encourage, wish, expect, beg, request, require, advise, order, force, cause, allow, permit, forbid, warn, remind, teach, send, call on, wait for, would like / love / prefer等表示劝请、要 求类动词后,用带to的不定式作宾补

练一练
1.My advisor encouraged ________ a summer course to improve my writing skills. D (北京卷) A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me to take D. me to take 2.The teacher asked us ________ so much noise. (北京卷) D A. don?t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make A 3. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ________. (全国卷)A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not do 4.The patient was warned ________ oily food after the operation. (全国卷) C A. to eat not B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eating

9.542 在使役动词后作宾补的不定式不带to: make/let/have sb. do sth. 但在其被动式后作主语补足语时,要加上to。 练一练 1.We can’t let this happen ( happen ) again.

2. I will have the children

go

( go) to the cinema.

cry 3.Though he had often made his little sister ________ (cry), today he to cry was made ________ (cry) by his little sister. 4.Paul doesn?t have to be made ________ ( learn). He always works to learn hard.

9.543 在感官动词后作宾补的非谓语动词形式 先比较下列句子:
?I often hear the girl sing in the next room. (表示“听到姑娘唱歌的整个过程”) ?Listen, can you hear the girl singing in the next room? (表示“听到姑娘正在唱歌”)

?I heard the girl scolded in the next room last night.
(表示“姑娘被批评”) ?I heard the girl being scolded in the next room just now. (表示“听到姑娘正在被批评”)

感官动词一“感”二“听”五“看”(feel, listen to, hear, see, look at, watch, notice,observe )等后面的宾语,再接作宾补的非谓语动词 分三种情况: 1.用不带to的不定式(在被动式后作主语补语时要加to) 表示全过程; 2.用-ing形式表示正在发生(其逻辑主语是受动者时,要用被动式); 3.用过去分词表被动和完成。 练一练 1.They knew her very well. They had seen her ________ up from A childhood. (全国卷) A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow A 2.The missing boy were last seen ________ near the river. (全国卷) A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play 3.The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ________ A the next year. (全国卷) A. carried out B. carrying out C. carry out D. to carry out

9.544 want, get, have等动词的宾语后面也可接动词不定式,-ing形 式或过去分词作宾补。 现分述如下:
①want sb. to do要某人做某事; want sb. doing希望某人做某事(多用于否定);I don?t want you arriving late. 我希 望你不要迟到。(主动、否定句) want sth. done=want sth. to be done(被动)。 I want the letter (to be) opened now. 我现在就想把这封信拆开。(被动)

②get sb. to do sth. 使某人做某事(主动、将来);如:I?ll try to get her to see the doctor。 get…doing使…开始做某事; get…done=have sth. done请人做 / 遭受(被动)。 ③have sb. do sth. 使某人做某事(见使役动词); have sth. done=get sth. done请人做某事; have sb / sth. doing sth. 使某人 / 某物一直做某事或者处于某种状态; have sth. to do有事要做(见非谓语动词作定语部分)。

练一练 1.The teacher had his students clean (clean) his office every week.
(表示“让某人做某事”,强调使役性)

2.The teacher had the naughty students standing (stand) outside the classroom.
(表示“让某人/某物出处于某种延续的状态之中)

3.The teacher had his leg broken (break) last week in an accident.
(表示“遭遇”。)

fixed 4. I?ll have my bike _________ (fixed, fixing修理) while you are cooking. 5. I don?t want any bad words _________ (said, saying) about him said behind his back. done 6. Please get the work __________ (done, doing) as soon as possible. cut 7. She won?t have her long and beautiful hair __________ (cut, cutting) short.

9.545 Leave,keep, find等后可用现在分词(主动)或过去分词(被动) 作宾语补语,一般不用to do。在catch(撞见), smell(闻到), 等后通常 只接现在分词作宾语补语,不用不定式或过去分词 练一练 1. It was so cold that they kept the fire ________ all night. (全国卷) C A. to burn B. burnt C. burning D. burned B 2. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found ________ in the kitchen. (全国卷) A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoked 3. He looked around and caught a man ________ his hand into the D pocket of a passenger. (安徽卷) A. put B. to be putting C. to put D. putting D 4. The salesman scolded the girl caught ________ and let her off. (全国卷) A. to have stolen B. to be stealing C. to steal D. stealing B 5.Don?t leave the water ________ while you brush your teeth. (天津卷) A. run B. running C. being run D. to run。

9.546 make oneself 后常用understood等过去分词作宾补: make oneself understood / heard / seen / known
让别人明白自己的意思 / 让自己讲的话被别人听到 / 让自己被别人看到 / 让自己 被别人认识。

D 1.The speaker raised his voice but still couldn?t make himself ________. A. hear B. to hear C. hearing D. heard D 2.Helen had to shout ________ above the sound of the music. (广西卷) A. making herself hear B. to make herself hear C. making herself heard D. to make herself heard 9.547 可用to be或to have done作补语的9个动词 在表示“认为”的think, consider, believe, suppose, prove, find, understand, judge, imagine等动词后,可跟to be作补语(认为…是…), 一般不跟to do;但在think, consider, believe等之后可跟to have done 作补语(认为…做了…)。 A Charles Babage is generally considered ________ the first computer. A. to have invented B. inventing C. to invent D. having invented

9.548 在be said / reported 等后用不定式 在be said, be reported, be believed, be supposed, be thought等后面,要 求接不定式。

1. He is reported to have broken the world record.
据报道他打破了世界纪录。

=It is reported that he has broken the world record. 2. The flu is believed ____ by viruses that like to reproduce in the cells C inside the human nose and throat. (上海卷) A. cause B. being caused C. to be caused D. to have caused A 3. Robert is said ________ abroad, but I don?t know what country he studied in. (全国卷) A. to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying

练习7 选择填空
1. Mother asked me ______ my birthday party. D A. don’t worry about B. doesn't worry about C. not worry for D. not to worry about 2. You have ______ your hair cut every other week. B A. had B. to have C. to be D. got 3. I hope _____ a book. C A. you to give me B. you give me C. to be given D. for giving me 4. The mother felt herself ____ cold and her hands trembled as she A read the letter from the battlefield. A. grow B. grown C. to grow D. to have grown 5. Though I have often heard this song ____. I have never heard you C ____ it. A. being sung; sang B. sang; singing C. sung; sing D. to be sung; to sing

D 6. The taxi driver often reminds passengers to ______ their belongings
when they leave the car. A. keep B. catch C. hold D. take

7. Now that we've discussed our problem,are people happy with the
decisions ______? C A.taking A.being run A.to have A. picked up B.take B.run B.having B. picks up C.taken C.to run C.have C. pick up D.to take D.running D.had D. picking up

8.They use computers to keep the traffic ______ smoothly. D
9.He told us whether ______ a picnic was still under discussion. A 10.The director had her assistant ___ some hot dogs for the meeting. C

A 11.We were pleased to see the old ____ at the nursing home. A. being well cared for B. cared well for C. been well cared for D. caring for well 12.To learn English well, we should find opportunities to hear English C ______ as much as we can. A. speak. B. speaking C. spoken D. to speak 13. Due to the heavy rain and flooding , ten million people have been forced ________their homes B A. leaving B. to leave C. to be left D. being left B 14. If we have illegal immigrants ________ in , many local workers will lose their jobs A. came B. coming C. to come D. having come A 15.After a knock at the door, the child heard his mother?s voice ______ him. A. calling B. called C. being called D. to call

16.Jenny hopes that Mr. Smith will suggest a good way to have her written English A in a short period. A. improved B. improving C. to improve D. improve A 17.Who did the boss ____ his car this time? A. make wash B. make to wash C. make washing D. making to wash A 18.I smell something ___ in the kitchen. Can I call you back in a minute? A. burning B. burnt C. being burnt D. to be burnt 19.She wants her paintings D in the gallery, but we don' t think they would be very popular. A.display B.to display C.displaying D.displayed 20.Energy drinks are not allowed _____ in Australia but are brought in B from New Zealand. A. to make B. to be made C. to have been made D. to be making

9.55“疑问词+不定式”的用法
一、基本用法说明 疑问词what, which, who, when, where, how及连接副词whether与不定式连用而形成 一个短语,这个短语相当于一个名词,可在句中做句子的主语、宾语或表语等。 1. 作主语。如: What to do is not decided yet. 该做什么还没有确定。 How to begin is more difficult than where to stop. 如何开始比到哪里停止还困难。 2. 作宾语。如: Do you know when to start? 你知道什么时候开始吗? I showed her which button to press. 我告诉她应该按哪一个按钮。 有时还可用于介词后作宾语。如: I found a book on how to avoid having a heart attack.
我找到一本书谈如何避免心脏病复发。

She was worried about how to fill her leisure time. 她为如何打发她的闲暇时间而发愁。 3. 作表语。如: The question is how to carry out the plan. 问题是怎样执行这个计划。 The difficulty was how to cross the river. 困难在于如何过河。

二、四个注意 注意一:疑问词why后要接动词原形,不能跟带to的不定式。 误:I don?t know why to leave at once. 正:Why pay more at other shops? We have the best value. You?re looking tired. Why not take a holiday?

注意二:“疑问词+不定式”结构,通常不用于动词think的现在式 和过去式之后,但可以用于think的其他形式之后(如进行式和含 有情态动词的形式)。如: I?m thinking what to do next. 我在想接下来要做什么。 She couldn?t think what to say. 她想不出该说什么。
注意三:有些动词通常不直接跟不定式作宾语,但可以接“疑问词 +不定式”作宾语。 误:I know to make a cake. 正:I know how to make a cake. 误:Can you explain to make a cake? 正:Can you explain how to make a cake?

这类动词主要有consider (考虑), discover (发现), discuss (讨论), explain (说明), find (out) (查到), know (知道), observe (观察), suggest (提议), wonder (怀疑), understand (了解)等。如: Have you considered how to get there? 你是否考虑过如何到那儿去? Our teacher explained how to use the machine. We discussed what to do and where we should go. 注意四:which to do 的两种用法 1)which是疑问词。如: I can?t decide which to choose. 我不能决定选哪个好。 Did you ask her which to buy? 你问没问她该买哪一个? 2)which是关系代词,此时主要用于介词后作宾语。如: She must have time in which to grow calm. 她必须有冷静下来的时间。 Allow me one minute in which to change my costumes. 给我一点时间来卸装。 这两句中的which to…也可改为定语从句: She must have time in which she can grow calm. Allow me one minute in which I can change my costumes.

9.56 关于不定式带不带to的问题 A.下列情况不用to: 1)情态动词 ( 除ought 外) 后。 You can do it. 2)使役动词 let, have, make后;感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等的宾补表过程时。注意:被动语态中不能省去to。例如: I saw him dance. 我看见他跳舞。 (=He was seen to dance.) The boss made them work the whole night. 老板让他们整夜干活。 (=They were made to work the whole night.) 3)would rather, would sooner,would just as soon, might(just) as well用不带to不定式。例如: I?d rather/sooner(宁愿) stop now. I?d rather not wait. I?d just as soon (宁可) come at five o?clock. We might just as well (还是…的好) walk. 4) Why… / why not…句型后。

B. 下列视情况而定 1)help 后可带to,也可不带to, help sb (to) do sth.例如: I?m afraid I can?t help you (to) clean the house today. Can you help (to) carry these books to my office? 2)在介词except/but (除了)后面,是否带to,要看介词前面有没有do 的任何形式或can?t。如果有,不带to;如果没有,带to。例如: In that case, we had nothing to do except wait for help. In that case, we couldn?t choose but wait for help. In that case, we had no other choice but to wait for help. 3)由and, or和than连接的两个不定式,第二个to 可以省去: I intend to sit in the garden and write letters. Do you want to go shopping or watch TV? 4) rather than置于句首时,其后用不带to不定式。在其他位置时,其 后的不定式可以带to,也可以不带to。例如: Rather than have a car of his own, he prefers to rent a car. Mary decided to write a letter rather than (to) make a call.

C.不定式符号的单独使用
为了避免重复,可以省略不定式符号之后的主动词及其补足成分。 这种现象常见于口语当中。例如: ?— Would your friends like to see our new house? — They would love to .
(省略了see our/ your house.)

?Michael said he would divorce his wife but I doubt he really wanted to.
(省略了divorce his wife.)

但是,如果不定式是be或have,通常保留be或have。例如: ?—Are you a teacher? —No. But I used to be. ?—He hasn?t finished yet. —Well, he ought to have.
( have代表的是完成式,如省略就是一般式了。随之意义发生变化:由对过去的 推测“他应该完成了。”变成表示一种义务“他应该完成。”)

9.6 不定式、现在分词的被动式和过去分词作定语的区别问题 不定式、现在分词的被动式和过去分词均可以作定语修饰名词性成 分,但三者的意思不同。不定式表示的是将来,现在分词表示的是 正在进行,而过去分词表示的则是已经完成。例如: ?Have you read the novel written by Jack London? (已完成) ?The novel being talked about in the conference was written by Jack London. (正在被讨论) ?The novel to be published was written by Jack London. (将要被出版) 因此,在具体作题时,我们需要根据题目所提供的已知因素推断这 种时间关系,才能最后做出正确的选择。例如: The bridge _______ costs more than 100 million dollars and it will be completed next month. A. being built B. built C. to be built D. having been built
答案:A。解析:题干中告诉我们大桥将于下个月竣工,据此,我们可以得出结 论,大桥肯定正在建设中。所以,选A。另外,值得说明的是,本题中的D选项 ,即现在分词的完成式形式,无论有无被动,都不作定语使用。

9.61 不定式的主动式和被动式作定语的区别问题
1)不定式作定语时,尽管被修饰的词是受动者,不定式一般仍用主动形式,这 是因为我们把句子的主语看做不定式的逻辑主语(施动者)。例如: ?I have a lot of work to do. (I 作逻辑主语) ?I have letters to write.我有信要写。 ?Does he get enough to eat?他吃得饱吗? ?Have you anything to say?你有话要说吗? 不定式+介词结构也可以这样使用: ?They only had a small cold house to live in. (这个末尾介词不能被省略)

?They are lucky enough to have such a person to depend on. 看看下列类似短语 someone to talk to 可与交谈的人 a case to keep my records in 放我的磁带的盒子 cushions to sit on 坐垫 a glass to drink out of 喝水杯 a tool to open it with 用来打开这东西的工具 a table to write on 写字台

2)但是,如果把被修饰的词看作逻辑主语,我们得用不定式的被 动式。这时意思发生了变化。例如: ?Do you have anything to do? 你有没有事情做?
(you作逻辑主语,是施动者,you 去做事。)

?Do you have anything to be done? 你有没有事情要我帮你做?
(anything是受动者,作逻辑主语,事情可能由说话者帮你做。)

练一练 1.Mary, stop watching TV. You have a mountain of clothes A . A. to wash B. to be washed C. washing D. washed 2.-Do you have anything more B , sir? -No . You can have a rest or do something else. A . typing B. to be typed C . typed D. to type 3.He can’t go away to have a holiday, because he has lots of flowers . B A . to look B. to look after C. to be looked D. to be looked after

9.62 不定式作定语的两种特定情况
1)用来修饰被序数词、最高级、或the only,no,all,any 等限定的名词 He loves parties; he is always the first to come and the last to leave 他喜欢参加社交聚会,总是第一个来,最后一个走。 She was the only one to survive the crash.她是这次事故中唯一的幸存者。 He is the second man to be killed in this way.他是第二个这样死于非命的人。 He is the best man to do the job. 他是做这项工作的最佳人选。

2)常用的可以直接跟不定式的名词有: ability ,effort, failure ,demand,request,desire ,anxiety,offer ,refusal, decision,determination ,plan ,scheme,willingness, eagerness ,promise , wish。例如: His ability to get on with people is his chief asset. 他与人融洽相处的能力是他的主要资本。 He made an attempt/effort to stand up.他努力要站起来。 Failure to obey the regulations may result in disqualification. 若不遵守规章,就会被取消资格。 Their offer/plan/promise to rebuild the town was not taken seriously. 他们重新修建城镇的提议/计划/保证没有得到重视。 She was annoyed by his unwillingness to do his share of the work. 他不愿干他那一份工作,这使她很不高兴。

9.7 非谓语动词作状语
不定式、现在分词和过去分词都可以作状语,表示时间、原 因、目的、结果等。之所这个知识点经常被考查,是因为这里的 分支考点比较多。 9.71 不定式作状语时,从意义上说,一般表示目的、原因或结果。
He sat down to have a drink. 表目的 To improve his spoken English, he goes to an English Corner every Sunday. To leave a better impression on the employers, he borrowed a suit.

表目的不定式短语还可在前加上in order / so as 起强调作用。so as 不能用于句首。 He sat down (in order / so as) to have a drink. 表目的 (In order ) to improve his spoken English, he goes… (In order ) to leave a better impression on the employers, he borrowed …

练一练:根据第一句,完成下列各句,要求基本意思不变。 1.In order to get to school on time, he got up earlier. 2. To get to school on time, he got up earlier. 3.He got up earlier in order to get to school on time. 4. He got up earlier so as to get to school on time. 5.In order that he could get to school on time, he got up earlier. 6.He got up earlier in order that he could get to school on time. 7.He got up earlier so that he could get to school on time.
某些表示喜、怒、哀、乐的形容词作表语时,常跟不定式表示 原因。
All the experts were very surprised to see me at the conference. 表原因 The king got excited to hear what the two men said. I am too happy to be here with you. 我很高兴和你在一起。
? 注:上面的too…to不是“太…而不能”。 too 前面还可有only, all, but,意为very “非常” 。例如: I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 能帮助你我非常高兴。 He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。

不定式表示结果的常用搭配 He studied so hard as to pass the examination. = He studied hard enough to pass the examination (= He studied so hard that he could pass the examination.) You are too young to learn to drive. = You are not old enough to learn to drive. ( = You are so young that you can’t learn to drive.) We are not such fools as to believe him. 我们不是那样的蠢人, 以致于能够相信他。 (=We are not such fools that we can believe him. ) She had such a fright as to faint. 她如此吃惊以致于吓得昏了过去。 (=She had such a fright that she fainted. )

The case has been such as to prove true. 情况已经如此,以致于证明是真实的。 (=The case has been such that it can prove true. ) Their anxiety was such as for them not to be able to sleep.
他们如此焦虑,以致于难以入睡。

(=Their anxiety was such that they could not sleep.

?注意: 不定式除了用于上述结构表结果 外,还可以放在句子后面表示没 有预料到的或事与愿违的结果。

9.72.不定式作结果状语与现在分词作结果状语的区别问题: 不定式作结果状语时,表示的多是“意想不到的”或“不希望发生 的”结果,有时还在不定式前加only强调;在时间上和谓语动词不 一定同时。例如: I woke up to find my car gone. 我醒来发现小车不见了。 He searched the room only to find nothing. 他搜索了房间,没发 现什么。 现在分词作结果状语,表示的多是“合乎情理的”或者“可以预料 的”结果(有 好有坏);分词前可加 thus / thereby。时间上,多 是和谓语动词同时或几乎同时发生。例如: His father passed away, leaving him lots of debts. The fish can eat a person in a few minutes, leaving only the bones. They quarreled a lot , making the matter worse. A new kind of virus attacked my computer, destroying all my files.

练一练:用动词的正确形式填空: 1.I rushed to the station in a hurry, only to find (find) the train already gone. 2. He was caught in the rain, thus making ______(make ) himself catch cold 3.They lifted a rock only to drop (drop) it on their own feet. 4. I ran to the school, only to be informed (inform) that I wasn't admitted by Beijing University. 5. He survived the crash only to die (die) in the desert. 6.His parents died, leaving (leave) him an orphan. 7.It rained heavily, causing (cause) severe flooding in that country making 8.European football is played in 80 countries, _____ (make) it the most popular sports in the world. to be 9.The news reporters hurried to the airport, only _____told (tell) the _ film stars had left. 10.The glass doors have taken the place of the wooden ones at the letting entrance,_____ (let)in the natural light during the day.

9.73 现在分词和过去分词作状语的句法功能:
和不定式不同,它们两个绝对不可能用来表示目的。一般表示的是时间、原因、 结果、条件、让步、行为方式、伴随状况等。 判断是什么状语,主要是根据上下文意思来确定的,这不像状语从句总是有连接 词作标志, 阅读翻译时,根据需要可加上一个连词。例如: Window-shopping along the street, Mary met an old friend. 沿街浏览商品时,玛丽遇见了一个老朋友。(伴随动作) Having finished his work, Jill went to a bar for a beer. 做完了工作后,吉尔就去酒吧喝啤酒了。(时间) Given more water, the tree will survive. 假如多一些水,那树就会活。(条件) The boy dropped the ancient vase onto the ground, breaking it. 男孩把古花瓶掉到了地上,花瓶破了。(结果) Left behind by the bus, Tony had to walk the fifty miles to the city. 被公汽甩在了后面,汤尼只好走五十英里到城里。(原因) Badly damaged in the accident, the car is worth almost nothing. 那辆车在事故中损坏得很严重,几乎不值。(原因) Designed for high temperatures, the machine doesn?t work in the north in winter. 因为这机器是针对高温设计的,所以在北方的冬天它起不动。(原因)

9.74现在分词的一般式和完成式作状语时的区别问题:
现在分词的一般式表示的动作和主句的谓语动词是同时发生的。例如: Drinking his wine, Mr. Li heard his name called.

现在分词的完成式作状语时,多表示状语的动作先于主句谓语动词发生。例如: Having settled down, I sent my wife a message. Not having received his reply, she decided to write him another letter. Having been separated from the other parts of the world, Australia has many unique animals and plants.
没有先后顺序或不需强调这种先后顺序,选一般式。例如: __________ his telephone number, we had to call his father first. A. Not knowing B. Not having known C. Knowing not D. Having not known
答案:A。 解析:这个题目涉及两个考点:一般式和完成式之辨、not的位置之辨。根据 本章第一节所讲解的内容,not应该前置。因此,C、D两个选项就可以排除了。A、B之间 的区别在于:A不强调know和 had to call之间有什么先后,而B强调有之。根据具体的语 境,“不知道他的电话号码”不是一个可以在“给他父亲打电话”之前就能结束的动作。 它更多地是一种心理状态。所以,没有办法强调二者之间有什么先后顺序。故选A。

9.75作状语的非谓语动词形式的逻辑主语问题

非谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑主语一般和句子的主语一致。 但有两种情况可以不和句子的主语一致。
1)看例句: Generally speaking, Tom is fit for his job. Judging from what you said, Tom is fit for his job. Considering everything, Tom is fit for his job. To tell you the truth, you are wrong. To be frank, I don’t like the colour of this coat. To be honest, she is not the right person for the job. 以上例句中的speaking, judging, considering, to tell 等的逻辑主语明显 不是后面主句的主语;同时又没有带自己的逻辑主语。但可以推测 它们的逻辑主语其实是被隐含了的说话人“我”或“我们”。像这 样的成分,独立于句子之外,叫做独立成分。因为它是表示说话者 的态度、语气等,又被称为评注性状语。

2)还有一种作状语的非谓语动词形式,既不和句子的主

语一致,也不是上面所说的评注性状语,它带有自己独立
的逻辑主语。这样的结构被称为“独立主格”结构。

例如:
Her mother being ill, Mary had to stay in to look after her.

Time permitting, we’ll drop in on our old teacher.
Heart broken, the boy burnt all the girl’s photos.

With everything settled, I went to bed early that night.

9.8 独立主格结构的特点和构成
1)独立主格结构的特点:
① 独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。 ② 名词或代词与后面的分词,不定式,形容词,副词,介词短语等是主谓关系。 ③ 独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。

2) 独立主格结构的构成:
① 名词(代词主格)+现在分词/过去分词/不定式

Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow.
The test finished, we began our holiday. The two boys say “goodbye” to each other, one to go home, the other to go to his

friend’s.
We decide to go on a pleasure trip,John(being)to provide a big car. I now pay you half the sum,the other half(being)to be paid next month.

② 名词(代词主格)+形容词/副词/介词短语/名词;可看成省略了being: The meal(being)over,we went for a drive. He came in,a stick(being)in his hand. He came in,gun(being)in hand. John climbed along,face(being)downward. He appeared,his hair(being)a wreck. Class (being) over, the children rushed out for lunch. He came into the room, his ears red with cold. He came out of the library, a large book under his arm. ③ with的复合结构作独立主格(在①②之前加with即可) 表示伴随情况时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用with的复合结构: with +名词(代词)+ 现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语。例如: He stood there, his hand raised. = He stood there, with his hand raised.他举着手站在那 儿。 典型例题: The murderer was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。 A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied 答案D. with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主 语常常用with来引导。由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系,因此用过去 分词,选D.

?注意:
独立主格结构使用介词in时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分 (如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。 例如: A robber burst into the room, knife in hand.(hand前不能加his)

劫匪冲进房间,手里拿着刀。
但 with 的复合结构不受此限制: A robber burst into the room, with a knife in his hand.

9.81 前面带连词的分词短语(逻辑主语为主句的主语) 1)分词短语表示的状语,前面也可以有一个连词,使意义更明确:
①While(or When)passing(=While it passed)through a forest,the car suddenly
stopped. ②Before leaving(=Before I left)Hong Kong,I said good-bye to all my friends. ③After taking a walk,he took supper. ④Though living near each other,we never met. ⑤He spoke English very well as if having been in England. ⑥We got married when studying at A.B.School.

⑦Whether sleeping or walking,he thought of her.

2)在过去分词前being常被省略
①If(being)caught(=If he was caught),the thief would be punished.

②The thief would escape again,though(being) caught.
③A good book will become a bad one,unless(being)well read. ④As if(being)discovered by someone,the thief began to run away.

3)即使不在过去分词前,being也总是被省略: ①While(being)at home,he worked at his plan. ②Unless(being)ill,he is always present in class. ③Though(being)inside the palace,he lives a miserable life. ④The rat,as though(being)dead,suddenly ran away. 4)但要注意,分词短语的逻辑主语应是句子的主语: ①While picking flowers,a wasp (黄蜂) stung the child.
(错句,因为picking不是主语的动作。)

While picking flowers,the child was stung by a wasp.
(正确,因为pick是主语的动作。)

②If caught,the police will punish the thief.(错句) If caught,the thief will be punished by the police.(正确) ③When ten years old,my parents died.(错句) When ten years old,I lost my parents.(正确)

9.82 独立主格结构和状语从句等的转换
1)带逻辑主语的现在分词: ①John arriving home(=When John arrived home), Mary asked him to dine. ②The sun having risen(=When the sun has risen), we start work. ③The weather being fine(=Because the weather was fine), we went out for a walk. ④The storm having damaged everything(=Because the storm had damaged everything),many became homeless. ⑤There being nothing to do(=Because there was nothing to do), we played games. ⑥We closed our store,there being no customers(=because there were no customers). ⑦Time(or Weather) permitting(=If time or weather permits), I will see you soon.

⑧All being well(=If all is well),we shall prosper next year. ⑨God willing(=If God is willing),we shall stand up again. ⑩Advice failing(=If advice fails),we have to use force. ?注意: ?John strode along,his children following(= and his children followed)close behind.(表示伴随情况) ?I read a novel,my wife sewing(=and my wife sewed)by my side. 2)带逻辑主语的被动分词: ①The table being set(=When the table was set),we began to dine. ②The fish having been fried (=When or After the fish had been fried),we cooked mutton. ③So much money having been spent(=Because so much money has been spent),we wish to see the result. ④So much money having been spent(=Though so much money has been spent),we have not seen any good result.

本章回顾
非谓语动词涉及的内容繁杂,考点颇多。 重要的是要把握一些基本的内容:非谓语动词和谓语动词的异同, 非谓语动词的多种形式以及不同形式表示的不同的意义,不定式和 动词的-ing形式可以起名词、形容词和副词的作用(总的说来可以充 当谓语动词之外的所有成分),过去分词只相当于形容词和副词,不 能起名词的作用。 要特别注意非谓语动词的逻辑主语,要弄清逻辑主语是施动者还是 受动者,因为这决定了后面的非谓语动词是使用主动还是被动的形 式。不要忽略一般规则之外,非谓语动词有很多特例,应牢记那些 特例。 还要注意非谓语动词除了相当于名词、形容词和副词的作用外,它 所形成的非谓语动词短语,很多情况下相当于一个从句并且可以和 定语从句、名词从句和状语从句等互换。只是非谓语动词短语可以 不带连词,而状语从句必须要有连词。

接下来我们以高考真题为练习,感知高考,一显身手!

1.【2011全国卷,27】The next thing he saw was smoke A.rose B.rising C. to rise D.risen

from behind the house.

【答案】B 。句意为“接下来我们看到的是烟雾从房子的后面冒出来。”rise升起来和see 看到这两个动作是同时发生的。

2.【2011全国卷II,15】The island, to the mainland by a bridge, is easy to go to. A. joining B. to join C. joined D. having joined
【答案】C。句意为“因为有一座桥与大陆连接,那个岛屿很容易去。” join是及物动 词,但空格后没有宾语,故使用join的过去分词形式,充当表示状态或性质的形容词用, 选项A、B、D都是主动式,需要后接宾语,因此排除。选C。

3.【2011全国卷II,18】Sarah pretended to be cheerful, argument. A. says B. said C. to say D. saying

nothing about the

【答案】D。句意为“Sarah假装开心,对那次争论什么也没说。”A和B项是谓语动词形 式,句中没有连词,故排除;C项是作目的状语,而句中是伴随状态,故选D。

4.【2011北京卷,25】It?s important for the figures regularly. A. to be updated B. to have been updated C. to update D. to have updated
【答案】A。句意为“经常更新这些数值很重要。”B和D项表示发生过的某件具体的事, 但句尾的regularly表示经常发生的事,故用一般现在时。for引出的逻辑主语the figures与 update存在着被动关系,故选A。

5.【2011北京卷,33】Sit down, Emma. You will only make yourself more tired, you feet. A. to keep B. keeping C. having kept D. to have kept

on

【答案】B。句意为“Emma,你坐下吧。老这么站着你会累的。”A项to keep表示将来。 C项having kept和D项to have kept表示动作先发生。make yourself more tired与keeping on you feet同时进行,故选B。

6.【2011天津卷,7】Passeagers are permitted only one piece of hand luggage onto the plane. A.to carry B. carrying C. to be carried D. being carried
【答案】A。句意为“旅客只可以随身携带一件行李登机。”permit sb. to do sth.允许某人 做某事,句中是被动语态,Passeagers是carry的逻辑主语,用主动式,故选A。

7.【2011天津卷,12】 into English, the sentence was found to have an entirely different word order. A. Translating B. Translated C. To translate D. Having translated
【答案】B。句意为“翻译成英语后,发现这个句子的词序全变了。”the sentence与 translate之间存在着被动关系,故用过去分词,答案B。

8.【2011上海春招,34】Mike found his missing car in the street outside his house, newly cleaned and polished. A. looked B. to look C. looking D. to be looking
【答案】C。句意为“Mike在他屋子外的大街上发现了他丢失的汽车,看上去刚擦得干干 净净,还打过腊。”A项looked是谓语形式,但句中没有连词;B项不定式to look和D项to be looking如果都表结果,那只能由Mike执行这个动作,与题意不符;C项looking,逻辑主 语his missing car, 而looking短语类似系表结构,表明车子的特性,作伴随状语,故选C。

9.【2011上海春招,36】 in 1955, Disneyland in California is regarded by many as the original fun park. A. Opened B. Having opened C. Opening D. Being opened
【答案】A。句意为“很多人认为1955年开业的加利福尼亚迪斯尼乐园非常有趣。”open 开业,与Disneyland之间存在着被动关系;D项Being opened表正在进行,但开业的事实已 经发生,故选A。

10.【2011上海春招,40】Harrison Ford is thought to be one of the few movie stars as a carpenter before. A. to work B. to be working C. to have worked D. to have been working
【答案】C。 意为“Harrison Ford被认为是为数不多的曾经做过木匠的电影明星之一。” “做过木匠”这事发生在过去,不定式应当用完成式,表示发生过,排除A、B项。因为 现在是明星,排除D项,选C。

11.【2011山东卷,27】Look over there—there?s a very long, winding path the house. A. leading B. leads C. led D. to lead
【答案】A。句意为“看那儿,有一条长长的蜿蜒小路向上延伸到那座房子。” leading作为path的后置定语,相当于which leads。选A。

up to

12.【2011江苏卷,31】Recently a survey prices of the same goods in two different supermarkets has caused heated debate among citizens. A.compared B.comparing C.compares D.being compared
【答案】B。句意为“最近一项调查引起了市民们的激烈讨论,该调查是比较在两个不同 超市里的相同商品的价格。”句子的主语是a survey,谓语动词是has caused,宾语是 heated debate。由此排除C作谓语动词的选项。 prices作compare的宾语,是主动形式。

13.【2011福建卷,23】Tsinghua University, outstanding figures. A. found B. founding C. founded

in 1911, is home to a great number of

D. to be founded

【答案】C。句意为“建于1911年的清华大学培养了一大批杰出的人士。”Tsinghua University与found之间存在着被动关系,to be founded不定式表将来。founded过去分词表 被动,也表动作已完成,故选C。

14.【2011福建卷,27】The difference in thickness and weight from the earlier version makes the iPad 2 more comfortable . A. held B. holding C. be held D. to hold
【答案】D。句意为“iPad 2与早期的型号在厚度和重量上不同,拿在手里很舒服。”在 用easy, difficult, hard, comfortable等形容词构成的复合宾语时,用不定式作状语。hold与前 面的the iPad 2有逻辑上的动宾关系,故用主动式。因此,选D。

15.【2011安徽卷, 30】Tom asked the candy makers if they could make the chocolate easier into small pieces. A. break B. breaking C. broken D. to break
【答案】D。句意为“Tom问糖果制造商能否把巧克力做得更容易扳成小块。”理由同上 题。

16.【2011浙江卷,3】Bats are surprsingly long-lived creatures, some around 20 years. A.having B had C. have D. to have

a life span of

【答案】A。考查独立主格结构。句意为“令人惊讶的是,蝙蝠是长寿的动物,有些能活 20年左右。”had和have是谓语动词形式,题中没有连词,无法并存两个句子。to have表 将来;having表伴随。

17.【2011浙江卷,14】Even the best writers sometimes find themselves A. lose B. lost C. to lose D. having lost

for words.

【答案】B。句意为“甚至最优秀的作家有时也会发现他们难以用文字表达自己。”lose 是及物动词,A、C、D项都是主动式,空格后没有lose的宾语,故用过去分词lost当形容词 用,作find themselves的宾语补足语。选B。

18.【2011浙江卷,19】If they win the final tonight, the team are going to tour around the city by their enthusiastic supporters. A. being cheered B. be cheered C. to be cheered D. were cheered
【答案】C。句意为“如果他们赢了今晚的决赛,队员们将会巡游全城,接受热心支持者 的欢呼。”A项being cheered正在进行;B项be cheeresd是谓语原形;D项were cheered也是 谓语,但句中已有谓语are going to;C项to be cheered表示将来,同时也表示被动。

19.【2011四川卷,2】Ladex doesn?t feel like A. study B. studying C. studied

abroad. Her parents are old. D. to study

【答案】B。句意为“Ladex不愿意去国外留学,因为她的父母年纪大了。”feel like doing sth.想要做某事,习惯表达法。

20.【2011四川卷,11】Simon made a big bamboo box the little sick bird till it could fly. A.keep B.kept C.keeping D.to keep
【答案】D。句意为“Simon制作了一个大竹盒来养这只生病的小鸟,直到它能飞起 来。“make a big bamboo box的目的是为了keep the little sick bird,因此选D表示目的状语 。A项构成使役用法,大竹盒无生命力,不能执行这个动作;B项是谓语词,与句中made 冲突;C项是伴随状语,表示made与keep同时进行。根据句意选D。

21.【2011四川卷,16】 an important role in a new movie, Andy has a chance to become famous. A.Offer B.Offering C.Offered D.To offer
【答案】C。句意为“Andy在一部新影片中扮演重要角色,这就有了成名的机会。”offer sb. sth.(主动)提供某人某物。句中Andy与offer之间存在着被动关系,故选C。

22.【2011重庆卷,29】More TV programs, according to government officials, will be produced people?s concern over food safety. A.to raise B.raising C.to have raised D. having raised
【答案】A。句意为“据政府官员说,为了唤起人们对食品安全的关注,将制作更多的电 视节目。”raising表示伴随;to have raised表示动作已发生;having raised表示动作先发生 ;to raise表示目的状语,事情还没有发生,是前面“将制作更多的电视节目”的目的。

23.【2011重庆卷,33】Michael put up a picture of Yao Ming beside the bed to keep himself of his own dreams. A. reminding B. to remind C. reminded D. remind
【答案】C。句意 “Michael在他的床头贴了姚明的照片提醒自己不要忘了自己的梦想。” 空格前的himself与动词remind之间存在着被动关系。故选C。

24.【2011陕西卷,14】Claire had her luggage an hour before her plane left. A.check B.checking C.to check D.checked
【答案】D。句意为“Claire在登机前一小时她携带的行李接受了检查。”have sth. done“ 让…被做”。逻辑主语是her luggage,和check的关系是被动关系,所以答案选择D。

25.【2011陕西卷,20】More highways have been built in China, for people to travel form one place to another. A. making B. made C. to make D. having made

it much easier

【答案】A。句意为“中国修建了越来越多的高速公路,人们更加方便从一个地点到另外 一个地点。”空格后面是it,说明是主动关系,排除B;不能选择C的原因是to do做目的状 语,不符合句意;答案选择A,表示结果。

26.【2011湖南卷,21】The ability A expressing B expressed

an idea is as important as the idea itself C to express D to be expressed

【答案】C。考查非谓语动词作定语的用法。句意为“想法重要,提出想法的能力也同样 重要。”express 修饰的是ability, 为主动关系,排除B和D表示被动的选项;ability作为一个 抽象名词,通常使用动词不定式做定语,联系到短语be able to do sth,不难推断。

27.【2011湖南卷,23】The players from the whole country are expected to bring us honor in this summer game . A selecting B to select C selected D having selected
【答案】C。句意为“人们期待着从全国各地挑选出来的运动员能在今年夏季的赛事中给 我们带来荣誉。”select修饰players, 为被动关系,只有C选项表被动。故选C。

28.【2011湖南卷,29】Do you wake up every morning a new day? A. feel B. to feel C. feeling D. felt

energetic and ready to start

【答案】C。句意为“每天早上醒来后,你是否感到精力充沛,并为 新的一天作好了准 备?”wake up作句子的谓语,句中没有连词,排除谓语动词feel。to feel表将来,与wake up组成一先一后的动作关系,felt 作为过去分词表被动,与逻辑主语you 矛盾,故选C, feeling作伴随状语。

29.【2011辽宁卷,30】 around the fire, the tourists danced with the local people. A. Gather B. To gather C. Gathering D. To be gathering
【答案】C。句意为“游客们围绕在火堆旁边,与当地人一起跳舞。”gather的动作由the tourists执行,用主动形式,并与dance同时进行,故选C,表示伴随情况。

30.【2011江西卷32】On receiving a phone call from his wife Gorden immediately rushed home from his office. A. says B.said C.saying D.to say

she had a fall, Mr.

【答案】C 。“在接到妻子的电话说她摔倒后,Gorden先生立刻从办公室冲回家。”非谓 语动词修饰phone call,前后动词的动作在同一时间发生,表主动进行用现在分词的形式。

31.【2011辽宁卷,23】Twenty students want to attend the class that aims to teach to read fast. A. what B. who C. how D. why
【答案】C。考查疑问副词 + to do的用法。句意为“有二十名学生想听旨在提高阅读速度 的课程。”fast提示了方式,how + to read fast等同于名词,作teach的宾语。故选C。

上面我们详析了2011年各省市关于非谓语动词的 高考题,下面我们以2012年关于非谓语动词的高 考题作测试,检测你的得分率。

A 1.【2012全国卷II】Tony lent me the money, ___ that I?d do as much for him. A. hoping B. to hope C. hoped D. having hoped 2.【2012全国卷II】The old man sat in front of the television every evening, happy ___ anything that happened to be on. A A. to watch B. watching C. watched D. to have watched 3.【2012安徽】I remembered B the door before I left the office, but forgot to turn off the lights. 此题容易误选A或C.此句意为“我记住了离开办公室前要关门,但忘了关灯。” A. locking B. to lock C. having locked D. to have locked 4.【2012安徽】When B for his views about his teaching job, Philip said he found it very interesting and rewarding. A. asking B. asked C. having asked D. to be asked A 5.【2012重庆】______to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film. A. Having been asked B. To ask C. Having asked D. To be asked 6. 【2012重庆】We?re having a meeting in half an hour. The decision ______at the A meeting will influence the future of our company. A. to be made B. being made C. made D. having been made 7.【2012全国】The party will be held in the garden, weather A . A. permitting B. to permit C. permitted D. permit 8.【2012全国】Film has a much shorter history, especially when D such art forms as music and painting. A. having compared to B. comparing to C. compare to D. compared to

D 9. 【2012北京】One learns a language by making mistakes and ______ them. A. corrects B. correct C. to correct D. correcting 10.【2012北京】_______ with care, one tin will last for six weeks. C A. Use B. Using C. Used D. To use A 11.【2012北京】______ at the door before you enter my room, please. A. Knock B. Knocking C. Knocked D. To knock 12.【2012福建】China recently tightened its waters controls near the Huangyan Island to prevent Chinese fishing boats from ________ in the South China Sea. C A. attacking B. having attacking C. being attacked D. having been attacked A 13.【2012福建】Pressed from his parents, and ____ that he has wasted too much time, the boy is determined to stop playing video games. A. realizing B. realized C. to realize D. being realized A 14.【2012陕西】_______ in a long queue, we waited for the store to open to buy a New iPad. A. Standing B. To stand C. Stood D. Stand D 15.【2012陕西】If he takes on this work, he will have no choice but _____ an even greater challenge. A. meets B. meeting C. meet D. to meet A 16.【2012山东】George returned after the war, only _______ that his wife had left him. A. to be told B. telling C. being told D. told

17.【2012山东】After completing and signing it, please return the form to us in the B envelope _____. A. providing B. provided C. having provided D. provide 18.【2012湖南】We?ve had a good start, but next, more work needs ____ to achieve C the final success. A. being done B. do C. to be done D. to do B 19.【2012湖南】Time, ______ correctly, is money in the bank. A. to use B. used C. using D. use A 20.【2012湖南】The lecture, _____ at 7:00 pm last night, was followed by an observation of the moon with telescopes. A. starting B. being starting C. to start D. to be started C 21.【2012天津】He got up late and hurried to his office, ____the breakfast untouched. A. left B. to leave C. leaving D. having left C 22.【2012江西】Having finished her project, she was invited by the school _____ to the new students. A. speaking B. having spoken C. to speak D. to have spoken 23. 【2012江西】 John has really got the job because he showed me the official letter B _____ him it. A. offered B. offering C. to offer D. to be offered 24.【2012辽宁】The old couple often take a walk after super in the park with their pet B dog ____. A. to follow B. following C. followed D. follows

D 25.【2012辽宁】This machine is very easy ______. Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes. A. operating B. to be operating C. operated D. to operate 26.【2012四川】Tom took a taxi to the airport, only _____his plane high up in the sky. B A. finding B. to find C. being found D. to have found C 27.【2012四川】I looked up and noticed a snake ______ its way up the tree to catch its breakfast. A. to wind B. wind C. winding D. wound A 28.【2012四川】Before driving into the city, you are required to get your car ____. A. washed B. wash C. washing D. to wash 29.【2012浙江】 No matter how bright a talker you are, there are times when it?s better ____ silent. D A. remain B. be remaining C. having remained D. to remain 30.【2012浙江】 I think Tom, as the head of a big department, should either study regularly or ____ his job. D A. quits B. to quit C. quitting D. quit D 31.【2012浙江】“It?s such a nice place,” Mother said as she sat at the table _____ for customers. A. to be reserved B. having reserved C. reserving D. reserved 32.【2012江苏】______ an important decision more on emotion than on reason, you B will regret it soon or later. A. Based B. Basing C. Base D. To base

部分其他高考试题 (旨在梳理十余个常考点):
1. I send you 100 dollars today, the rest _________ in a year. (湖南卷) A. follows B. followed C. to follow D. being followed
分析:答案选 C。动词不定式表示未来的动作。

2. _________from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world. (湖北卷) A. Being separated B. Having separated C. Having been separated D. To be separated
分析:答案选 C。因为Australia与separate是被动关系,且separate发生在谓语 动词has之 前,所以用现在分词的完成被动式作原因状语。

3. The repairs cost a lot, but it’s money well_________. (湖北卷) A. to spend B. spent C. being spent D. spending
分析:答案选B。因money与spend是被动关系,所以用过去分词。

4. The prize of the game show is$30000 and an all expenses _________ vacation to China. (北京卷) A. paying B. paid C. to be paid D. being paid
分析:答案选B。因all expenses与pay是被动关系,故用过去分词。注意句中的an 不是 修饰 expenses,而是修饰vacation。

5. When ______help, one often says, “Thank you.” Or “It’s kind of you.” (福建卷) A. offering B. to offer C. to be offered D. offered
分析:答案选 D。因一个人说“谢谢”,应当是他被提供了帮助,所以要用过去分词, When offered help… =When he is offered help…

6. The storm left, _________a lot of damage to this area. (全国卷I) A. caused B. to have caused C. to cause D. having caused
分析:答案选D。因The storm与cause是主动关系,排除选项A;不定式作状语通常不用 逗号,排除B和C;因暴风雨给这个地区“造成损失”是在“结束”之前,故用完成式。

7. More and more people are signing up for Yoga classes nowadays, _________ advantage of the health and relaxation benefits. (上海卷) A. taking B. taken C. having taken D. having been taken
分析:答案选 A。因people与take advantage of是主动关系,排除选项B和D;take不会发 生在谓语are signing up之前,不用完成式,排除C。

8. “You can’t catch me!” Janet shouted, _________away. (全国卷III) A. run B. running C. to run D. ran
分析:答案选B。现在分词作伴随状语。

9. He glanced over at her, _________ that though she was tiny, she seemed very well put together. (广东卷) A. noting B. noted C. to note D. having noted
分析:答案选 A。因为he与note是主谓关系,且note与谓语动词glanced的动作同时发 生,所以用现在分词的一般式作伴随状语。

10. Daddy didn’t mind what we were doing, as long as we were together, _________ fun. (重庆卷) A. had B. have C. to have D. having
分析:答案选 D。用现在分词表伴随情况。

11. “Can the project be finished as planned?” “Sure, _________it completed in time, we?ll work two more hours a day.” (福建卷) A. having got B. to get C. getting D. get
分析:答案选 B。作目的状语只能用动词不定式。

12. _________ more about university courses, call (920) 746-3789. (浙江卷) A. To find out B. Finding out C. Find out D. Having found out
分析:答案选 A。作目的状语要用动词不定式。

13. It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just _________a look at the sports stars. (上海卷) A. had B. having C. to have D. have
分析:答案选 C。“看看体育明星”是“在体育馆外等三个小时”的目的,作目的状 语只能用动词不定式。

14. Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, _________a record US $ 57.65 a barrel on April 4. (山东卷) A. have reached B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching
分析:答案选B。伴随着谓语动词的发生而产生的自然结果,用现在分词作结果状语。

15. He hurried to the station only _________ that the train had left. (广东卷) A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found
分析:答案选 A。因为only to do是习语,意为“结果却,不料”,hurried和find是先后 发生的两个动作。

16. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise_________. (北京卷) A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on
分析:答案选A。作with的宾语的补足语要用非谓语动词,排除选项B和C;与谓语动 作同时发生用现在分词作宾语补足语,排除表示将来的不定式选项D。

17. You should understand the traffic rule by now. You’ve had it _________often enough (天津卷) A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained
分析:答案选D。宾语it与explain是被动关系,用过去分词作宾补。

18.While watching television, _________. (全国卷III) A. the door bell rang B. the doorbell rings C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings
分析:答案选C。因为watching的逻辑主语一定是we,排除选项A和B;又因在hear后作 宾语补足语的是省略了to的不定式,所以选项D中的rings是错误的。

19. It’s necessary to be prepared for a job interview; _________the answers ready will be of great help. (北京卷) A. To have had B. Having had C. Have D. Having
分析:答案选D。动名词短语用作主语。

20. _________ in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. (江苏卷) A. Having lost B. Lost C. Being lost D. Losing
分析:答案选 B。因表示“迷路于”是lose oneself in,题中没有oneself, 所以the two students与lose是被动关系,应该用过去分词作状语。

21. _________ in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. (湖南卷) A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed
分析:答案选 A。由dress的宾语一定是人或oneself可知,dress与he是动宾关系,即he与 dress是被动关系,要用过去分词作状语,Dressed in …=As he is dressed in …

22. I don’t want _________ like I’m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair. (天津卷) A. to sound B. to be sounded C. sounding D. to have sounded
分析:答案选 A。表示“想要做某事”want后只能接to do,排除选项C;sound like中sound 是系动词,属不及物动词,不能用于被动语态,排除选项B;sound 发生在want后,故不 用完成式,排除选项D。

23. “Is Bob still performing?” “I’m afraid not. He is said _________ the stage already as he has become an official.” (江苏卷) A. to have left B. to leave C. to have been left D. to be left
分析:答案选 A。因he与leave是主动关系,不用被动式,排除选项C和D;由already 可知,要用完成式。


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