本讲分别阐述英语中常见的几个情态动词在句中的含义及作用. 有些情态动词在意思上有重叠, 用法上 较类似, 不同的仅是语气的轻重程度. 同学们应通过对例句的分析和习题的揣摩来加深对情态动词的了解. 一、学习指导 情态动词体现说话者的语气和感情, 但不能独立存在, 需与实义动词原形合成句子的谓语部分. 常用 的情态动词有以下几组：shall／should(=ought to)/(be supposed to?), will／would(be going to?), may／ might(be allowed to?), can／could(be able to?), must. need 和 dare 被称作半情态动词, 因其既可用作情态动词, 又可直接作实义动词. 也有人将 used to 也归在情态动词一类. 下面就逐一讲解它们各自的含义及用途. I. shall/should. Should 并非单纯是 shall 的过去式, 而是有其独立含义的一个情态动词. 1. shall 在初中阶段，我们学习的是 shall 作为助动词的用法 在第一人称单复数后表将来的意义 在美式英 在初中阶段， 作为助动词的用法; 在第一人称单复数后表将来的意义,在美式英 我今晚要给她打电话. 语中已统一使用 will. 如： I shall／will call her up tonight. We shall／will study the chapter in the coming week. 下周我们将学习这一章节. 而在高中阶段，shall 更多地是以情态动词的形式出现，其中在句中的含义可归为三类： (1)表示说话人征求对方意见或向对方请示, 多用于第一或第三人称疑问句. 如： Let’s spend the night in the tent, shall we? 让我们在帐篷里过夜, 你说好吗? Shall he come in? (你)要叫他进来吗? (2)表示说话者警告, 命令或威胁的语气, 多用于第二或第三人称. 如： You shan’t leave before six. 你六点前不准走. No one shall stop me! 没人能阻拦我! (3)表示说话者对将来的承诺或预见.如：All these things shall be answered for.这一切都会有报应的. I promise that I shall buy you a nice bicycle on your birthday. 我答应你过生日时送你一辆漂亮的自行车. 2. should 表示应该 等同于 ought to. 如： You should always be on time. 表示应该, 你应该总是准时才对. 较为特殊的用法是: 它可以在某些句型中表达出说话者惊讶或不理解的语气, 译为“居然”. 如： It is strange that she should work in the same department as her boyfriend. 她居然同她男友在同一部门工作真是奇怪. II. will／would ／ 1. 作为助动词 适用于各种人称表将来 would 用于过去将来时 如： 作为助动词, 适用于各种人称表将来, 用于过去将来时. Which place will you visit next? 接下来你要去哪里? Every time he came, he would tell us one or two interesting anecdotes. 每次他来, 势必会说一两桩轶事给我们听. 2. 作为情态动词 will 有“愿意 的意思 而 would 也可用在现在时中, 只是语气比 will 更婉转客气. 如： 作为情态动词, 愿意”的意思 愿意 的意思, Will you be my partner? 你愿意做我的搭档吗? Would you like to eat out with me? 想和我出去吃饭吗? The doctor has told him time and again to stop smoking, but he simply won’t listen. 医生多次劝他戒烟. 但他就是不听. I tugged at the door, but it wouldn’t open. 我用力拉门, 但门就是不开. III. may／might ／ 1. 表允许 有“可以 的意思 其中 might 不仅是 may 的过去式. 用在当下情形时也可 但语气更为婉转 表允许, 可以”的意思 的过去式 用在当下情形时也可. 但语气更为婉转. 可以 的意思, 如： You may sit in the front rows. 你可以坐在前排. —Might I borrow your notebook? 我能借你的笔记本用一下吗? —Of course, you may. 当然可以. (回答是不用 might) —No, you may not. 不可以. may 稍正式些. 但 may 不用于第二人称疑问句和特殊疑问句. 此时只能用 can. 如： May you help me?(×) What may I do for you?(×) Can you help me?(√) What can I do for you?( √) (2)may／might as well 意思近于 had better. 如： It’s getting dark. so we may／might as well go back home. 天快黑了, 我们最好还是同家吧. 2. 在具体情形下 表猜测 有“可能 的意思 此时 might 的语气更不确定些 如： 在具体情形下. 表猜测. 可能”的意思 的语气更不确定些. 可能 的意思. Don’t disturb him. Judging from the look on his face, he might/may flare up. 别打扰他, 从他的表情看, 他可能会发火的. Wolves might／may not eat for up to two weeks. 狼可能两周都不吃东两. Might it be a true story? 这可能是个真实的故事吗?(疑问句表猜测不可用 may) 3. may 表示祝愿 如：May you succeed! 祝你成功! 表示祝愿.
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May all his dreams come true!愿他的梦想成真! IV. can／could ／ 1. 表能力 有“能够 的意思 是 be able to 的同义词 如： 表能力, 能够”的意思 的同义词. 能够 的意思, My cousin can cook French dishes. 我的表弟能做法国菜. Can you hear birds singing in the tree? 你能听见鸟在树上叫吗? 【注意】can 的过去式 could 表示过去一贯具有的能力. 与 was／were able to 一次性得以做成某事, 意思有 所不同. 如：The canoe tipped over, but fortunately we were able to swim across the river. 小船 翻了, 但幸运 的是我们得以游过了河. 此时的 were able to 等同于 managed to, 用 could 则不妥. 2. 表允许 有“可以 能够 的意思与 may 类似 过去式 could 用在当下情形 语气受为婉转 表允许. 可以. 的意思与 类似. 用在当下情形, 语气受为婉转. 可以 能够”的意思 Travelers can take pictures everywhere as long as they don’t shoot with flash. 只要不用闪光灯, 游客可以到处拍照. —Could I sit beside you?我能坐你身边吗? —Yes, you can. 可以. (答句中不用 could) —No, you can’t. 不, 不行. 3. 表猜测 有“可能 的意思 但与 may 不同的是 can／could 表猜测主要用于否定和疑问句 此时 could 表猜测. 可能”的意思 不同的是, 表猜测主要用于否定和疑问句. 可能 的意思. ／ 的语气更不确定. 的语气更不确定 如： Who can it be? 可能是谁? It couldn’t be a true story. 这不可能是个真实的故事. can／could 偶尔也用于肯定句, 但仅用于从理论上分析其可能性. 而非对一具体情形的猜测. 如： A sage can sometimes make mistakes. 就连智者也有可能会犯错. V. must 1. 表义务 有“必须 的意思 语气要重于 should／ought to“应该 如： 表义务. 必须”的意思 应该”. 必须 的意思. ／ 应该 As a soldier, you must obey the orders. 作为一名士兵, 你必须服从命令. You mustn’t spit in public. 公共场所不得吐痰. —Must I wait until they come? 我非得等到他们来吗? —Yes, you must 是的, 你必须等. —No, you needn’t / don’t need to／don’t have to. 不, 你不需要等了. 【注意】如果显然动作是由一客观条件的刺约而产生的. 则多用 have to“不得不”. 例如： I couldn’t get a taxi, so I had to walk home. 因为打不到车. 所以不得不走回家. 2. 表不满 有“偏要 的意思 如： 表不满. 偏要”的意思 偏要 的意思. The bell must ring when I was busy in the kitchen. 当我在厨房里忙的时候, 门铃偏偏响了. Must you talk so loudly? 你说话非得这么响吗? 3. 表猜测 有“必定”的意思 是十分肯定的一种猜测 但注意这层意思仅用在肯定句中 表猜测. 的意思. 必 的意思 是十分肯定的一种猜测. 但注意这层意思仅用在肯定句中. He must be a spy, isn’t he? 他必定是个间谍, 难道不是吗?(此时反意疑问句中用真实时态) Years of hard work must yield fruit. 多年的辛苦劳作必定会结出果实. VI. 半情态动词 need. 意为“需要”, 既可作实义动词, 单独做谓语, 又可做情态动词后接动词原形. 1. 肯定句中 need 只做实义动词 如： 肯定句中, 只做实义动词. I need a new watch. 或 I need to buy a new watch. 我要买块新表. 较为特殊的用法是当主语“需要被; ”时. need 后接动名词主动式或不定式被动式. 如： The flower needs watering. 花儿需要浇水了. 或 The flower needs to be watered. 2. 否定或疑问句中 need 的使用更为灵活 既可做实义又可做情态动词 但应当注意体系的统一性 如： 否定或疑问句中, 的使用更为灵活, 既可做实义又可做情态动词 但应当注意体系的统一性. 做实义又可做情态动词. You needn’t feel embarrassed, need you? (情态动词)你不必感到尴尬, 不是吗? You don’t need to feel embarrassed, do you? (实义动词) VII. 半情态动词 dare, 意为“敢”与 need 的用法类似. 1. 肯定句中 dare 多做实义动词. 如： The little girl dares to speak before a large audience. 那个小女孩敢在大庭广众下发言. 例外是 I dare say; “我敢保证; ”中的 dare, 虽在肯定句中却是情态用法. 2. 否定或疑问句中, dare 可做情态或实义动词, 但需注意语法上的统一性. 如： He dare not walk alone at night. 他不敢一个人走夜路. (情态用法) =He doesn’t dare to walk alone at night. 【注意】有时口语中也会将第二句中的不定式标志 to 省去. 这是 dare 的特殊用法. 又如： Dared he climb the tree? 他过去敢爬树吗?(情态用法)=Did he dare to climb the tree? (此句中的 to 也可省去, 但 dare 仍为实义用法) How dare you…? 你怎敢? (一)情态动词表猜测 一 情态动词表猜测 1. 事实上, 几乎所有的情态动词都可以用来表猜测, 只是各自的语气强弱和所适用的场合不同而已. 最常 见的便是前面提到过的 might／may(表对具体情形的猜测), could／can(多用于疑问和否定句中表猜测)及
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must(仅用于肯定句中, 表十分有把握的猜测). 但也需知道 should 也可表按常理推测所得的结论, 译为“理 应, 应当“. 如：Having been here dozens of times, you should know this place well. 来过这里几十次了, 你理 应对这个地方相当了解. will 则表示按逻辑推理势必会发生的事. 如：All men will die. 所有的人都会死. 也算是一种形式的猜测. 故有人总结按猜测语气由弱至强, 而逐一选用情态动词 might—may—could—can— should(ought to)—would—will—must(=will certainly). 2. 情态动词表猜测时还应注意：对推测时间的表达并非体现在情态动词本身的形式上. 如 might 与 may 表 “可能”时并无时间上的差异, 仅是语气上强弱罢了, might 更不确定些. 一切的时态变化均 体现在情态动 词后的动词形式上. 如： might／may／must 一般式 现在式 完成式 might not／may not, be/do be doing have done(如有具体过去时间，则为对过去的猜测) couldn’t/can’t 如：He can’t have finished his homework, has he? 他不可能已经完成了作业，难道不是吗？ 3. 对于猜测的否定，一是部分否定，“可能不”用 might/may not; 另一种为完全否定，“不可能”用 couldn’t/can’t. (二)情态动词在虚拟语气中的应用 二 情态动词在虚拟语气中的应用 1. 某些情态动词的形式上打上了虚拟语气的烙印, 即使没有前后说明, 也应明应其包含的意思. 如 1. should have done“应该做却没有做”, shouldn’t have done“不应该做却做了”, needn’t have done “不需要做 却做了”(注意其与 didn’t need to do “不需要做也没做”的区别) 2. 众所周知, 虚拟语气的主句中必须用到四个情态动词, 即 might, could, would, should, 它们的意思各不相 同. 如对过去的虚拟, 主句中常用 might have done(本有可能做), could have done(本有能力做), would have done(本来势必会做), should have done (本应该做). 其中 might have done 与情态动词表对过去或完成动作 的猜测时所用的形式一模一样, 难免会造成慨念上的混淆. 又如：couldn’t have done 究竟是过去不可能 做过某事(情态动词表猜测)呢?还是过去本无能力做某事(情态动词 的虚拟用法)? 建议同学们仔细参考 上下文, 再下结论. 试比较下面两例句： If the driver hadn’t stopped the car, he might have knocked the old man down, mightn’t he?如果当初司机不刹车, 他很可能就将那位老人撞倒了, 难道不是吗?(显然, 此处 might have done 表虚拟) She looks unhappy; she might have got into trouble, hasn’t she? 她看上去不高兴，她可能已经遇上麻烦了, 难 道不是吗?(此处 might have done 是对完成式的猜测, 故反意疑问句部分用了 hasn’t she) 1. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly, but everyone_____ get out. (1997 全国高考) A. had to B. would C. could D. was able to 答案为 D. 此处的 was able to 强调在那次事故中得以逃生, 与 could 一贯具有的能力不同, 故选 D. 2. “I stayed at a hotel while in New York.” “Oh, did you? You_____ —with Barbara. ’’ (1998 全国) A. could have stayed B. could stay C. would stay D. must have stayed 答案为 A. 此处是考察情态动词在虚拟语气中的运用. You could have stayed with Barbara. 你本是能够住在 芭芭拉家的, 但事实是你住了旅馆. 故选 A. 3. “Is John coming by train?” “He should, but he_____ not. He likes driving his car. ”(2002 全国) A. must B. can C. need D. may 答案为 D. 根据意思分析, 回答者对约翰的交通方式也只是猜测. 并非十分肯定. 选 may not 表示他可能不 坐火车, 因为他喜欢驾驶自己的汽车旅行. 4. A left-luggage office is i1 place where bags_____ be left for a short time, especially at a railway station. (2003 全国高考) A. should B. can C. must D. will 答案选 B. 行李可以在此处寄放. 本句中的 can 表允许, 是 call 的基本用法之一. 其余选项放人意思均不妥. 5. He_____ have completed his work; otherwise, he wouldn’t be enjoying himself by the seaside. (2005 全国高考) A. should B. must C. could D. need 答案为 B. 从句子的后半段推测他此时正在沙滩休闲, 显然是完成工作了. 选 must have done 表示对已完 成动作的推测最佳. 6. When he was there, he ___go to that coffee shop at the comer after work every day. (1996 上海高考) A. would B. should C. had better D. might 答案选 A. 此处是考察 would 的特殊用法, 表示过去经常会做的事, 多跟在状语从句之后. used to 也有类 似的意思, 但强调现在已停止了该习惯. 7. There was a lot of fun at yesterday’s party. You____ come, but why didn’t you?(1999 上海高考) A. must have B. should C. need have D. ought to have 答案是 D. ought to have done 即 should have done. 表示应该做而未做的事, 句后文中的 but why didn’t you
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相合, 故选 D. 8. It has been announced that candidates ___remain in their seats until all the papers have been collected. (2002 上海高考) A. can B. will C. may D. shall 答案是 D. 此处是 shall 作为情态动词的常用意, 即表示说话者命令的语气. 通知所有考生在交卷前都须 坐在原位. 故选 D. 9. There____ be any difficulty about passing the road test since you have practiced i1 lot in the driving schoo1. (2005 上海高考) A. mustn’t B. shan’t C. shouldn’t D. needn’t 答案为 C. must 表猜测不用于否定, 故 A 错. 本句的意思为“既然你在驾驶学校已充分练习, 通过路考应 该没有什么困难. ”取 should 表猜测一意, “理应”. 10. “Write to me when you get there.” “_____ . ”(2001 北京春考) A. I must B. I should C. I will D. I can 答案是 C. 意为 I will write to you when I get there. 11. Mr. Bush is on time for everything. How _____ it be that he was late for the opening ceremony? (2001 上海 春考) A. can B. should C. may D. must 答案是 A. 因需填的空格在一疑问句中, “他怎么可能出席开幕式时迟到?”, 故用 can 表猜测. 记住： must 与 may 不可在疑问句中表猜测. 12. According to the local regulations, anyone who intends to get a driver license_____ take an eye test. (2005 上 海春考) A. can B. must C. should D. may 答案为 B. 要考驾照必须测视力，这是一规章制度, 故用 must, 加强语气, “一定要”. 三、自测练习 I. Multiple Choice： 1. I'm sorry to have troubled you so much. As a matter of fact you ____ have come in person. A. mustn’t B. needn’t C. may not D. could not 2. Whenever I was in trouble he_____ come to my aid. A. would B. will C. may D. might 3. There was no bus service as it was quite late in the night, so we_____ walk home. A. must B. have to C. ought to D. had to 4. Look at what you’ve done. You_____ more careful. A. maybe B. must be C. should have been D. would have been 5. She_____ be an American because she’s got a French passport A. isn’t able to B. doesn’t need C. mustn’t D. can’t 6. This couple_____, but they don’t anymore. A. used to quarrel B. are used to quarrelling C. were used to quarreling D. would quarrel 7. You_____ do these exercises if you don’t want to. A. shouldn’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. can’t 8. You_____ now, or you’ll miss the train. A. ought to have started B. must have started C. must start D. need start 9. Let’s go out for lunch, _____ we? A. shall B. will C. should D. would 10. Help me to move the table to that corner, _____ you? A. shall B. will C. should D. may 11. Jack is so wet, he _____in the rain. A. must be caught B. must have been caught C. can have caught D. may be caught 12. Don’t believe him; he_____ be serious. A. needn’t B. mustn’t C. shouldn’t D. can’t 13. He’s mad, so you_____ better be careful. A. had B. have C. would D. might 14. Notice in cinema：Exit door _____ be locked during performances. A. must B. has to C. can D. may 15. The car plunged into the river. The driver _____ get out but the passengers were drowned. A. was able to B. could C. might D. would 16. He_____ him yesterday because he was not at home. A. must not have seen B. could not see C. can’t have seen D. should not have seen
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17. He went on foot, but he _____ by bus. A. might go B. could go C. might have gone D. could have gone 18. —Has Jane finished typing those reports? —No, and they_____ an hour ago. A. should have been finished B. should have finished C. should finish D. ought to have finished 19. If you_____ wait a moment, I’ll go and find our manager· A. can B. should C. will D. must 20. —Do you think he will do me a favor? —As far as I know, he is the last one to help others. He__ be prepared to give you a hand, though. A. might B. must C. can D. should 21. Even though I'd hurt my leg. I_____ swim back to the river bank. A. could B. might C. had to D. was able to 22. You_____ go to the party if you don’t finish your homework first. A. won’t B. don’t C. oughtn’t D. shan’t 23. —It is rather cold here. Shall we light a fire? —No, we_____ because things are easy to catch fire. A. won’t B. can’t C. mustn’t D. needn’t 24. I _____ Professor Jones had taught me this question. A. believe B. think C. wish D. suppose 25. The chairman requested that_____. A. the members studied the problem more carefully B. the problems were more carefully studied C. the problems could be studied with more care D. the members study the problem more carefully 26. I_____ it again. A. would like you to read B. would like that you read C. would like you reading D. would like you read 27. If you really want yourself to be in good health, you must_____ always_____ much. A. not; be smoking B. not; have smoked C. not; to smoke D. be not; smoking 28. If I_____ you, I_____ more attention to English idioms and phrases. A. was; shall pay B. am; will pay C. would be; would pay D. were; would pay 29. —Would you have told him the answer had it been possible? —I would have, but I__ so busy then. A. had been B. were C. was D. would be 30. He had an expression of resentment(不高兴), as if Martin _____ a fool of him. A. had made B. makes C. made D. would make 31. _____ the fog, we should have reached our schoo1. A. Because of B. In spite of C. In case of D. But for 32. There was a half smile on his face which suggested that he_____ happy to have given his life for his country. A. was B. should be C. would be D. were 33. We all agreed to her suggestion that we_____ to the Great Wall for sightseeing. A. will go B. go C. shall go D. should have gone 34. You must be a student, _____ you? A. wasn’t B. are C. mustn’t D. aren’t 35. The young man insisted that he_____ nothing wrong and_____ free. A. did; set B. had done; should be set C. do; be set D. had done; must be set 36. Without your help, I_____ the exam last term. A. failed in B. would have failed C. wouldn’t pass D. would fail 37. _____ he come, the problem would be settled. A. Would B. Should C. Shall D. If 38. Very loud noise_____ make people ill or drive them mad. A. should B. can C. need D. must 39. I lost your address, otherwise I_____ you long before. A. had visited B. have visited C. would have visited D. should visit 40. —Where_____? —I got stuck in the heavy traffic, or I _____ here earlier. A. did you go; had arrived B. are you; would come C. were you; would come D. have you been; would have been 41. Will you answer the phone? It_____ be your mother. A. might B. will C. shall D. need 42. _____ she rest in peace! A. May B. Can C. Would D. Might
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43. _____you park your car on the side walk in your country? A. May B. Can C. Would D. Might 44. The boss had one strict rule. He said that all the workers_____ come to work on time. A. must B. could C. might D. would 45. I got lost and _____ ask a policeman the way. A. could B. might C. must D. had to 46. The bus ____ at 9:30, but it didn’t turn up. A. must have arrived B. may have arrived C. needn’t have arrived D. ought to have arrived 47. He didn’t agree with me at first, but I__ persuade him later. A. was able to B. could C. Can D. might 48. —Could I use your phone? — Yes, of course you_____. A. could B. can C. must D. might 49. When I was ten, I_____ watch most TV programs if I asked my parents first. A. might B. could C. should D. had to 50. You were stupid to try climbing up there. You_____ yourself. A. might have killed B. should have killed C. must have killed D. can’t have killed 51. Who_____ it be at the door? A. may B. must C. can D. need 52. I left my bicycle here and now it's gone. Someone_____ it. A. must borrow B. may borrow C. must have borrowed D. should have borrowed 53. You_____ the roses. Look, it’s raining now. A. mustn’t have watered B. needn’t have watered C. could have watered D. might have watered 54.—Must I hand in the exercise now? —No, you_____. A. mustn’t B. can’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t 55. The line was busy; someone_____ the telephone A. must use B. must be using C. must have been using D. should have been using 56. I shall be surprised if he_____ tell them what he knows. A. dares to B. dares not C. dare to D. dare not to 57. John_____ a restless man. He kept moving from country to country. A. must be B. should be C. must have been D. should have been 58. When you go abroad, do you_____ take your passport with you? A. need B. must C. ought D. have to 59. Why_____ do it that way? A. has he to B. must he C. need he to D. ought he 60. We_____ any hospital here, but now we have three. A. used to have B. not used to have C. not use to have D. usedn’t to have 61. Joe_____ have called this sister last night, but he arrived home so late that he was not able to call her. A. must B. should C. shall D. ought 62. _____ you please not read the text until you have listened to the tape? A. Must B. May C. Shall D. Would 63. I was assured by the doctor that my son only had a bad cold, and nothing was serious. I____ about it. A. don’t have to worry B. didn’t need worry C. needn’t have worried D. needed not to worry 64. John_____ the letter, or he_____ worried. A. must have read; wouldn’t B. must be reading; wouldn’t C. must be; can’t be D. can’t be; mustn’t be 65. Spring break starts on the fourteenth. They _____ go to school again until the twenty-third. A. have B. don’t need C. need D. needn’t 66. Suzhou_____ just as well be likened to Pisa, for it has a leaning tower too. A. might B. should C. need D. will 67. Considering the time that has passed, the tired audience think the speaker must _____ most of the points he ought to_____. A. mention; cover B. have mentioned; cover C. mention; have covered D. have mentioned; have covered 68. I was fortunate to meet a man who gave me a lift, otherwise I_____ late. A. might have been B. ought to be C. shall be D. must be 69. I knew that if I wasn’t able to avoid a mistake, chances were that no other doctor_____, either.
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A. should have been B. could have been C. ought to have been D. must have been 70. Go into the people’s homes, look into their cooking pans and eat their bread. If you_____ only do this, you_____ find out why revolution is threatening the country. A. would／may B. would／might C. might／may D. should／might 71. You _____ angry with her, for she is very young. A. need not to be B. don’t need to C. need to be D. need not be 72. —It_____ Mary who is in the office —I’m sure it_____ her. I saw her off at the airport just twenty minutes ago. A. can’t be; can’t be B. must be; mustn’t be C. must be; can’t be D. can’t be; mustn’t be 73. You_____ in your exercises in time so that you can get them back now. A. should hand B. shall hand C. shall have handed D. should have handed 74. I_____ tell her the truth. A. cannot help B. cannot but C. may not help D. could but 75. —Don’t forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow. —______. A. I don’t B. I won’t C. I can’t D. I haven’t 76. I have neither a raincoat nor an umbrella. That is why I _____ wait until the rain stops. A. must B. should C. ought to D. have to 77. _____ you rather sit at the back? A. Won’t B. Wouldn’t C. Don’t D. Will 78. To learn to swim well, _____. A. much practice is needed by one B. one is needed much practice C. much practice is needed D. one needs much practice 79. —Did you blame him for his mistakes? —Yes, but _____it. A. I shouldn’t have done B. I shouldn’t to C. I should have done D. I should do 80. ______ I ask you name, please. A. Will B. Shall C. May D. Must II. Fill in the blanks with the proper modal verb and the proper form of the given verb. 1. Luckily, we retraced our steps and _______ (succeed) in finding our way again. 2. You_______ (know) the results tomorrow. 3. You________ (find) that you have made a mistake. 4. Our visitors_________ (arrive) long before. 5. The work_______ (finish) within a week. 6. Ah! It’s half past eight. That________ (be) the post man at the door, I think. 7. My children loved watching television. They_______ (sit) for hours without saying a word. 8. _____ I_____ (try) this number again? 9. You_____ (not do) everything he tells you, do you? 10. You_____ (tell) John anything. It was none of his business. 11. There was plenty of time. She________ (not hurry). 12. The plant is dead. I _______ (give)it more water. 13. We ________(not wait)for her because she never came. 14. I didn’t hear the phone. I_____ (be) asleep. 15. He_______ (give) you more help, even though he was very busy, either. 16. A computer________ (not think) for itself; it must 17.—Could I borrow your dictionary? —Yes, of course you_____. 18. Tom_____ (not tell) me your secret, but he meant no harm. 19. Peter________ (come) with us tonight, but he isn’t very sure yet. 20. I told Sally how to get here, but perhaps I ________ (write) it out for her. 21. —Shall I tell John about it? —No, you_____ . I’ve told him already.
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22. —There were already five people in the car but they managed to take me as well. —It_____ (be) a comfortable journey. 23. It’s nearly seven o’clock. Jack_____ (be) here at any moment. 24. Johnny, you________(play)with the knife, you______ (hurt)yourself. 25. —Alice, why didn’t you come yesterday? —I _________, but I had an unexpected visitor. 26. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone_____ (get out). 27. —When can I come for the photos? I need them tomorrow afternoon —They_____ (be) ready by 12: 00. 28. —Will you stay for lunch? —Sorry, I_____ . My brother is coming to see me. 29. —Are you coming to Jeff’s party? —I’m not sure. I_____ (go) to the concert instead. 30. There________ (be) many old houses here, but they have all been pulled down. III. Translation： 1. 她不可能有六十岁, 她看上去至多五十岁左右. 2. 你怎么能这样对待她?你一定是疯了. 3. 你学习这么差, 你过去应该学习得更努力些. 4. 处理这种事情你必须非常小心谨慎. 5. 你非立即去那里不可吗?我认为你不必如此匆忙 6. 电子计算机不像过去那么庞大了, 现在可以小得像台打字机. 7. 他们可能已经完成了, 但我不敢确定. 8. 如我们大家所知, 小孩子有时非常顽皮的. 9. 我弄不懂为什么居然这么多人反对提名他当校长 10. 甲：她为什么哭得如此伤心? 乙：医生一定已经告诉她, 她的丈夫患了癌症。
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