9A 上海版牛津英语第三单元知识点和语法点总结 课文知识点总结 learn 短语 learn from sb 向某人学习 learn ??.from?..从?..学习 Learn?.by heart 背诵，记住 learn one’s lesson 吸取教训 Learn of/about 得知 run “举办，管理，经营”及物动词 eg: Her father ran a shoes company in Beijing five years ago. 她爸爸五年前经营了一家鞋厂。 be famous for 以?而著名 famous“著名的，文明的”= well-known time “次数,倍数”可数名词 Eg: She has been to Beijing three times. Don’t worry. There is enough time.不用着急，有足够的时间。 All the time 总是 at the same time 同时 by the time 到?时候 From time to time 偶尔，有时 in time 及时 at times 有时，间或 disappeared 不及物动词“消失”瞬间动词不可与表示时间的时间状语连用。 Eg: 这种植物在很多年前就消失了。 This plant has disappeared for many years.( ) This plant disappeared many years ago. ( ) It has been many years since this plant disappeared. ( ) 5.no longer “不再” He is no longer a student. 辨析：no longer/not??any longer 与 no more /not ?..any more no longer/not?..any longer 指情况或状态的不再存在或延续。 We are no longer a children.= We aren’t a children any more. no more/not ?any more 一般指动作或行为的不再发生或重复。 Eg : The famers no more use animals to do farm work.= The farmers don’t use animals to do farm work any more.农民不再使用牲畜干农活了。 6.look down “俯视” look up 仰视 7.“beyond” “超出，越出”在另一边，在更远处 Eg: The village is beyond the hill. 村庄在山的那一边。 We looked beyond the lake,at some stones.越过湖面，我们看到一些石头。 8.won 是 win 的过去分词，win 作动词“赢，获胜” Win+比赛、战斗、奖品、名声、胜利等 Eg: They won the race easily. She won the Nobel price in the music competition. 注：如果宾语是竞争对手，不能用 win ,而要用 beat., beat 指打败人，战胜人，超越人 Eg: You beat me in the race,but I’ ll beat you at tennis. 赛跑你战胜了我， 但网球我要赢你。 9（1） huge “巨大的，庞大的”表示体积超过一般的标准，用来形容“空间，距离，程度， 容量，声音等” 。 Eg: The population explosion is a huge problem for all the countries. 人口爆炸对所有国家 来讲都是一个极其重要严重的问题。 （2）Big 表示尺寸，体积等“大的”通常用来形容有形的东西，而不能用于抽象的事物， 其反义词是 small /little
This pair of shoes is too big for me. It is a big house. （3）Large “大的，巨大的”形容面积，范围比正常的标准大，还可以表示数和量的“大， 多”比 big 正式。 Eg: There are a large number of students in the zoo. 有许多学生在动物园里。 （4）great “大的，伟大的”用来形容比较抽象的事物，人格，权势。 Eg: I think he is the greatest poet in our country. 10 make jokes that 以??为笑柄 Eg : Don’t make jokes about that girl .不要取笑那个女孩。 11. make sure 确保+that 引导的宾语从句，动词不定时或 of 短语。 Make sure that he is coming here on time. 确保他能准时来。 Make sure to keep the baby away from anything dangerous.确保远离危险的任何东西。 You’d better make sure of that . 你最好搞清楚那件事。 12.except for “除?..之外”指同一类事物间的排除，可用于句首。 Eg: Her article is quite good except for some spelling mistakes.她的文章很好，只是有些拼写 错误。 Except for the bad weather , it was an enjoyable day. 除了天气有点糟糕之外， 这是个愉快的 一天。 Except “除??之外”从整体中除去部分，不能用于句首，排除在外 Everyone was excited except Tom. 除了汤姆之外，每个人都很兴奋。 Besides 除??之外另外还有，着重于另外还有，包含在内 There is another girl besides me in the classroom..教室里除了我之外还有一个女孩。 练习：----We ‘re all here________Lucy, where is she? -----She has gone to the library. A. beside B.besides C except D.of 13 As 引导的时间状语从句表示“当?.的时候” Eg As I got to school,the bell was ringing. 当我到学校的时候，铃响了。 hang up “把?.挂上，悬挂” ，过去式和过去分词都是 hung.当表示绞死之意时，hang 是 规则动词，其过去式和过去分词为 hanged. get rid of “摆脱，除掉” eg: They have got rid of the enimies. He has already read the book. 他已经读过这本书了。 Already 是副词，意为“已经”通常用于完成时态的肯定句中，位于助动词之后，实义动词 之前。 The young man has already gone. 在否定或疑问句中用 yet， 放于句尾。 Eg : I haven’ t finished my homework yet. Have you had lunch? Have you ever visited Shanghai? 你曾经游览过上海吗？ Ever 是副词，通常指“任何时候” ，当与现在完成时连用时，表示“曾经” 。放在助动词之 后，过去分词之前。 Eg:--- Have you ever read Harry Potter? ----No,never. Have you ever+过去分词询问对方是否曾经做某事。 Eg: Have you ever been to Shanghai? 练习：----Have you _____ spoken to a Foreigner?
----Not yet. I have’t got a chance.
5.Since 1996.自 1996 年（开始至今） Since 可用作介词或连词，用于现在完成时态，表示自从某个时间点开始一直到现在。 I have been here since 2003. 我自从 2003 年就在这了。 They have lived here since they moved to city. 表示某一点时间开始到现在用 since，表示谓语动作持续了一段时间到现在则用介词 for，即 “for+一段时间” eg: She has worked on the farm for more than 20 years. 她已经在农场工 作了 20 多天了。 用 how long 提问。 6.Either ?..or?.“或者?..或者” The child must be either tired or hungry. 这个小孩不是累了就是饿了。 Please either come in or go out. Don’t stand there in the doorway.请你或者进来，或者出去， 不要站在门口。 Either 用法： 作形容词时，表示（两者之中）任一的 Eg: You can use either pen. 作代词时，常表示“ （两者之中）的任何一个”常与 of 短语连用或作宾语。 Eg: Either of them will agree with you.他们两个人都会同意你的意见。 （3）either 作副词时，常用在否定句或否定词组后加强语气，表示“也” 。 Eg : My sister doesn’t like noodles.I don’t like either. 练习：---When shall I phone you , morning or afternoon? ----________. I ‘ll be at home all day. A All B Both C Either
7.used to+动词原形“过去常常做某事”表示已经过去的习惯或状态。 Eg: In China,people used to think that Chang’e was on the moon. There used to be a factory here. 拓展：be used to do sth 表示“被用于做某事” eg: A stamp is used to send letters.邮票用来 邮寄信件。 Be used to doing sth 表示“习惯于做某事” eg: I am used to getting up early. 我习惯早 起了。 练习：Mr wang used to _______to bed late.But now he is used to ______to bed early. A go; go B going; going C go;going D going;go 现在完成时 1. 概念：①表示过去发生的或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果. eg: --- Have you had your lunch yet ? 你吃过午饭了吗? --- Yes, I have just had it. 是的, 我刚吃过. ( 说明现在饱了) I have lost my pen. 我把钢笔弄丢了. ( 过去某时丢的, 现在还没有找到 ) I have already watched the TV play. 我已经看过这部电视剧了. --- Have you found your lost pen yet ? 你找到丢失的钢笔了吗? --- No, I haven’t found it yet. 不, 我还没有找到. ②表示动作或状态在过去已经开始, 持续到现在, 也许还要持续下去, 常和 for, since, 连用, 表示持续的动作或状态多为延续性动词. eg: We have lived here since 2000. 自从 2000 年以来我们一直住在这里. ( 说明一直住 在这里, 也许还会住下去. )
2. 结构: ①主语 + have / has + done + ? Done 的形式： 规则：1. 一般情况下在动动词原形后加 ed. 如: work, jump, look, ? 2. 以 e 结尾的动词, 直接加-d. 如: live, 3. 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的动词, 先将 y 变 i 再加-ed. 如: carry, study, try? 4. 以重读闭音节结尾且末尾只有一个辅音字母的 , 双写此辅音字母后再加 -ed. 如 : stop, plan,? 不规则：keep-----kept sweep-----swept sleep-----slept Sell----sold tell----told Lend---lent spend----spent send-----sent Say-----said pay-----paid Burn----burnt learn-----learnt mean----meant Break----broken speak----spoken steal----stolen Wear-----worn bear----born tear----torn Grow----grown blow---blown know----known throw----thrown Sink-----sunk swim---swum drink----drunk ring-----rung sing----sung began----begun Drive---driven rise----risen 3. 时间状语：常与 already, yet, ever, never, for + 段时间, since, just, before, so far, by now, these days, ?等连用. 注意: already, yet, 常和现在完成时连用, already 用于肯定句, 可放在助动词之后、过去分词 之前，也可放在句末. yet 用在疑问句中意为”已经”, 用在否定句中表示”还”, 常放在句末. eg: He has just come here since 2000. 他从北京回来. Have you ever been to Shanghai ? 你去过上海吗? I have never traveled by plane before. 我以前从来没有乘飞机旅行过. I haven’t heard of it before. 我以前从来没有听说过这件事. I have been in Beijing for two years. 我在北京已经两年了. 4. 句型: ⑴肯定句: ①主语 + have / has + done + ? eg： She has been to Shanghai. 她去过上海. I have finished doing my homework. 我已经完成我的作业了. ⑵否定句: ①主语 + have / has + not +done + ? eg： I haven’t seen this film. 我没有看过这部电影. eg： She hasn’t finished doing his homework. 她还没有完成她的作业. ⑶一般疑问句：① Have / Has + 主语 + done + ? eg: Have you seen this film ? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t . 你看过这部电影吗? 是的, 看过. / 不, 没有. eg： Has she finished doing his homework ? Yes, she has . / No, she hasn’t. 她完成她的作业了吗? 是的, 完成了. / 不, 没有. ⑷特殊疑问句：①特殊疑问词 + have / has + 主语 + done + ? eg: When has you seen this film ? 你什么时候看的这部电影? eg: Who has finished doing his homework ? 谁完成了作业? 5. 当与一段时间连用时, 经常用 for 加一段时间, 这时候谓语动词一定要用延续性的. 非延续性动词----延续性动词
come ---- be here start / begin --- be on
go --- be away / off leave --- be away
borrow --- keep die --- be dead
buy --- have
eg: He came here three days ago. 他三天前来的这. (一般过去时) He has been here for three days. 他来这已经三天了. (现在完成时与一段时间连用, 非延续性动词变延续性动词. ) He went to Dalian last week. 他上周去的大连. ( 一般过去时 ) He has been away for a week. 他已经离开有一周了. ( 现在完成时 ) I borrowed the book last month. 我去年借的这本书. (一般过去时) I have kept the book for a week. 我保管这本书有一周了.(现在完成时) 6. 词义辨析 have been to 去过? (在本地) eg: I have been to Canada. 我去过加加拿大. have gone to 去了? (不在本地) eg: He has gone to Dalian. 他去了大连. --- Hello! Can I speak to Alice ? --- Sorry, she isn’t here right now. She ______ to the shop. A. goes B. will go C. has gone D. was going 2. --- When did you become a volunter ? --- Two years ago. I _______ this group since then. A. have joined in B. have joined to C. have been in D. have been to 3. ---______ you ______ to the National Grand Theater ? ---No, not yet. A. Did, go B. Do, go C. Have, gone D. Have, been 4.---So far the government _______ a lot for the Olympic Games. --- So it has. We’re all looking forward to this event. A. does B. is doing C. has done D. will do 5. John’s car is not here. I think he _______ somewhere. A. goes B. went C. has gone D. will go 6. David ________ Chinese since 20 years ago, and now he speaks it quite well. A. learns B. learned C. has learned D. will learn 7. ---Where’s Mr White ? ---He ________ the wash room. A. has been to B. has gone to C. is going to D. goes to 8. ---What do you think of the new film ? ---It’s wonderful. I _______ it twice. --- A. saw B. have seen C. will see D. see 9. ---_________ you ________ him around the museum yet ? ---Yes, we had a great time there. A. Do; show B.Did; show C. Have; shown She_______as an animal trainer since 2003. A has worked B works C will work D worked 2---_____have you stayed in New York? ---For about two weeks. A How soon B How often C How long D How far 3.---Linda, when shall we take a walk? ----After I finish ______the dishes. A wash B washed C to wash D washing 4.—How long have you prepared for the art festival? ——________. A Since April B In April C On April D Last April 5 ---Have you ______visited Hong Kong?
---No,_______. A ever ; already
C never ; yet
D ever; never
6、Both his parents look sad . Maybe they ______what's happened to him . A. knew B. have known C. must know D. will know 7、He has _______ been to Shanghai , has he ? A. already B.never C.ever D. still 8、Have you met Mr Li ______？ A. just B. ago C.before D. a moment ago 9、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year . A. is writing B.was writing C.wrote D.has written 10、—Our country ______ a lot so far . —Yes . I hope it will be even ______ . A.has changed ; well B.changed ; good C.has changed ; better D.changed ; better 6、 Zhao 6、6、11. Li Lan ______already ______in this school for two years . A. was ; studying B. will ; study C. has ; studied D. are ; studying 12、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl . A. know B. had known C. have known 13、Harry Potter is a very nice film .I______ it twice . A.will see B.have seen C.saw D.see 14、—These farmers have been to the United States . —Really ? When _____ there ? A. will they go B. did they go C. do they go D. have they gone 15、—______ you ___ your homework yet ? —Yes . I _____ it a moment ago . A.Did ; do ; finished B.Have ; done ; finished C.Have ; done ; have finished D.will ; do ; finish 16、 His father ______ the Party since 1978 . A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in 17、—Do you know him well ? — Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago . A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made 18、—How long have you ____ here ? —About two months . A. been B. gone C. come D. arrived 19、Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes . A. has begun B. had begun C. has been on D. began 20、 It _____ ten years since he left the army . A. is B. has C. will D. was 21、 Miss Green isn't in the office . she_______ to the library . A.has gone B. went C.will go D. has been 22、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years . A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been 23、The students have cleaned the classroom,_____ ? A. so they B. don’t they C. have they D. haven’t they 24、_______ has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he ______ to China? D. knew
A. How soon, comes
B. How often, got C. How long, came
D. How far, arrived
25、 His uncle _______ for more than 9 years. A. has come here B. has started to work C. has lived there D. has left the university 二、句型转换。 1、He has never surfed, __________ ?（改成反意疑问句） 2、They have been here _since 2000 (对划线部分提问) ____________ have they been here? 3、The old man _______ last year. He_______ _______ _______ for a year. (die) （动词填空） 4、This factory opened twenty years ago.(同义句转换) This factory_______ _______ ________ for twenty years. 5、Miss Gao left an hour ago. (同义句转换) Miss Gao _____ ____ _____ an hour ago. 6、Her mother has been a Party member for three years .（同义句） Her mother _______ the Party three years ________ . 7、The Green Family moved to France two years ago. (同义句转换) _______ two years ________ the Green family moved to France. 8、The bus has arrived here. It arrived ten minutes ago. (把两个句子合并成一个句子) ___________________________________________ 三、汉译英。 1、吉姆已做完作业，他现在有空了。 2、他昨天收到一封信。 3、我父亲以前到过长城。 4、她还没有看过那部新电影。 5、她去过上海。 6、他这些天上哪儿去了？
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