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25 及物动词与不及物动词


及物动词与不及物动词 1. definitions: transitive direct, transitive indirect, intransitive Transitive verbs by definition have an object, either a direct object or an indirect object. Intransitive verbs never have objects. A transitive-direct verb acts directly on its object. In the first sentence below, the telephone is the direct object. The verb 'entendre' (to hear) always takes an object; one hears someone or something. 直接及物动词 A transitive-indirect verb acts to or for its object. Tex is the object of the preposition àin the second sentence since Joe-Bob is talking to him. 间接及物动词 Intransitive verbs, on the other hand, have no object at all. The verb dormir (to sleep) in the last example, does not need any object to complete it. In fact, because the verb is intransitive, it cannot take an object. Intransitive verbs (as well as transitive ones) may be modified by adverbs or prepositional phrases: 'Joe-Bob sleeps in the car; he sleeps all the time.' 不及物动词 Tex entend le té phone. lé transitive-direct Tex hears the telephone. Joe-Bob parle àTex. transitive-indirect Job-Bob is talking to Tex. Joe-Bob dort souvent au volant. intransitive Joe-Bob often sleeps at the wheel.

For more examples and discussion, review the remarks on transitive vs intransitive verbs in the introduction. 2. transitive verbs Because transitivity has to do with meaning, most English and French verbs usually maintain the same distinction. Thus, verbs that are transitive in English are also transitive in French, and verbs that are intransitive in French are also intransitive in English. The following examples are transitive in both French and English. Tex mange un croissant et il boit du café . Tex is eating a croissant and drinking some coffee. Il finit son petit dé jeuner He is finishing his breakfast

et il lit le journal. Dring, dring. C'est Joe-Bob au té phone. lé and reading the newspaper. Ring, ring. It's Joe-Bob on the telephone. 3. special cases direct object in French / preposition + object in English There are, however, special cases where the transitivity of French and English verbs contrast. There are several very common verbs which take a direct object in French, while the English equivalent is followed by a preposition (at, to, for) and object. REDCAP is an acronym for the most frequent verbs in this category: Regarder, Ecouter, Demander, Chercher, Attendre, Payer. Joe-Bob explains what happened: Joe-Bob: Je roulais en voiture. Je regardais les filles. Joe-Bob: I was driving along. I was looking at girls. J'é coutais de la musique country àla radio. I was listening to country music on the radio. Et puis, oh, làlà J'ai eu un accident de voiture. La police est arrivé et le flic m'a demandé . e mes papiers. And then, oh, la, la. I had an accident. The police came and the cop asked for my papers. J'ai cherché ma carte d'identité mais je ne l'ai pas trouvé , e. I looked for my ID, but I didn't find it. Pas de chance! Je suis au commissariat et j'attends mon avocat. No luck! I'm at the police station and I'm waiting for my lawyer. Tex, j'espè que tu vas payer la contravention! Tex, I hope that you will pay for the ticket. re preposition + object in French / direct object in English There are also several verbs which have a preposition and object in French, whereas the English equivalent takes a direct object. Joe-Bob té phone àTex. lé Joe-Bob telephones àTex. Here are examples of such verbs. These are discussed more fully with indirect objects and indirect object pronouns. obé à to obey ré ir , pondre à to answer , pardonner à to pardon, to forgive , ré sister à to resist , rendre visite à to visit (someone) , ressembler à to resemble , renoncer à to give up, renounce , té phoner à to telephone lé , 4. stated and implied objects For many transitive verbs, in both French and English, the object is sometimes implied or understood. Do not be concerned about labelling these verbs, since the meaning will be clear from the context; and, like most verbs, they will form their passécomposéwith avoir. transitive verb / implied object transitive verb / stated object

En voiture, Joe-Bob chante toujours. (Joe-Bob always sings in the car.) En voiture, Joe-Bob chante toujours Freebird. (Joe-Bob always sings Freebird in the car.) Il parle fort. (He talks loudly.) Il parle anglais. (He speaks English.) Il rê (He dreams.) ve. Il rê de hamburgers et de filles. (He dreams of hamburgers and ve girls.) Il grignotte tout le temps. (He snacks all the time.) Il grignotte des cacahouettes. (He snacks on peanuts.) 5. intransitive verbs Perhaps you have already seen verbs which use ê to form the passé tre composé These ê verbs (aller, arriver, partir, sortir, etc.) are the . tre most frequent intransitive verbs and they are summarized in the Alamo d'ê Etre verbs are often described as verbs of motion, but it's tre. important to note that there are many other intransitive verbs of motion which use the auxiliary avoir, for example, 'marcher' (to walk) and 'courir' (to run): 'Tex a marchévite. Les enfants de Rita ont couru.' 6. transitive or intransitive Some verbs may be either transitive or intransitive. Contrast the following verbs. Note that the verb sortir uses the auxiliary verb ê tre in the passécomposéas an intransitive verb, but avoir in the passé composéwhen it is used transitively. intransitive / no object transitive / used with an object Le week-end passé Joe-Bob est sorti. (Last weekend Joe-Bob went out.) , Le week-end passé Joe-Bob a sorti son beau camion. (Last weekend Joe-Bob took out his fine truck.) , Au commissariat, la tension de Joe-Bob monte. (At the police station JoeBob's blood pressure goes up.) Joe-Bob monte l'escalier. (Joe-Bob goes up the stairs.) There are several cases where a verb which may be transitive or intransitive in English must be translated by two different verbs in French: 'to return' (retourner, rendre), 'to leave' (partir, laisser, quitter). 7. verbs with direct and indirect objects Many transitive verbs may have both a direct and an indirect object, for example: Tex donne des conseils àJoe-Bob. Tex gives advice to Joe-Bob.

Here is a list of some common bivalent verbs: acheter, to buy expliquer, to explain apporter, to bring montrer, to show apprendre, to learn offrir, to offer (give) demander, to ask prê to lend ter,

donner, to give promettre, to promise écrire, to write rendre, to give back emprunter, to borrow servir, to serve envoyer, to send vendre, to sell 练习 Indicate whether the verb in the sentence is transitive, 't' or intransitive, 'i'. 1. Corey nage beaucoup. 2. Edouard arrive en retard. 3. Tex é un poè crit me. 4. Tex et Tammy partent ensemble. 5. Les parents de Tex sont morts sur l'autoroute. 6. Corey aime l'insecticide. 7. Tammy lit un roman. 8. Fiona é coute la radio. 9. Bette ronronne souvent. 10. Tex prend un café . 11. Tex ré chit souvent. flé 12. Tammy achè une nouvelle robe. te


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