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初中英语语法--名词专题(含练习)


名词(一) 一、 名词的概念: 在我们身边存在着形形色色的人和事物, 它们都有自己的称呼, 我们用来称呼它们的词就是名词,概括来说表示人、事物、地方、现象等的名称 的词都叫名词。 二、名词的分类: 1.专有名词:它的第一个字母通常大写。 a. 人名、地名、国名等 例如:Lucy, Shanghai, China b.组织、团体、机构等 c.语言、星期、月份等 注意:国家与人的对应 China----- Chinese Canada---- Canadian(s) America---- American(s) Japan---- Japanese Australia---- Australian(s) Germany---- German(s) 例如: the United Nations 例如:English, Friday, March (注意介词 in/on/at 的用法)

France----Frenchman(Frenchmen) 2. 普通名词:

GB----Englishman(Englishmen)

(1) 不可数名词: 不可以直接以数字计算的名词。 例如: snow, air, water, rice, paper, work, news(新闻),food, rain, weather, juice, milk, meat, money ,English, fruit , information … 不可数名词要表示具体数量,必须借助 of 短语。如不能说 one bread,但是可以 说 one piece of bread 和 two pieces of bread。 只能用来修饰不可数名词的表示数量的一些词或短语: little 很少的(表示否定) a little 一些(表示肯定) ; ,much(许多) ,how much (多少) a bit of(一些) , 既能用来修饰可数名词又能用来修饰不可数名词的表示数量的一些词或短语: some(一些, 用于肯定句), any (一些, 用于否定和疑问句) lot of (许多), lots of(许 a 多) ★ 不可数名词量的表示方法:计量词+of a cup of tea two cups of tea a piece of bread two pieces of bread

例如:a piece of news two pieces of news 注意: a bag of apples

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(2)可数名词:可以直接以数字计算的名词。如 one book、two pens。可数名词 有数的变化, 即每个名词都有单数和复数两种形式。 可数名词可以用两种方式表 示具体数量:1、直接在其前加数词;2、在其前加 of 短语(of+可以用作计量的 名词) 。如:one egg, two eggs; one basket of eggs, two baskets of eggs ★名词复数的构成: a. 一般情况下, 直接在词尾加 s; 例如: book---books girl---girls desk---desks bus---buses

b. 以 s, x, sh, ch 结 尾 的 , 在 词 尾 加 es ; 例 如 : box---boxes watch---watches fish---fishes

c. 以辅音字母+y 结尾的,变 y 为 i 加 es; 例如:city---cities

family---families day---days

以元音字母(a, e, i, o, u)+y 结尾的,直接加 s; 例如:boy---boys key---keys d. 以 f 或 fe 结尾的,变 f 或 fe 为 v 加 es; 例如:knife---knives wife---wives half---halves 但 roof, scarf 后直接加 s

life---lives

e. 以 o 结尾的,有生命的(或以辅音字母加 o 结尾的)加 es, 没生命的(或以元音 字母加 o 结尾的)加 s; 例如:radio---radios tomato---tomatoes potato---potatoes Negro---Negroes piano---pianos photo---

zoo---zoos

photos 但 hippo 后直接加 s 以下名词特别容易出错,请注意:stomach 胃—stomachs, roof 屋顶—roofs, reef 暗礁—reefs, belief 信仰—beliefs,handkerchief 手帕—handkerchiefs/handkerchieves ★ Man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, goose-geese, child-children, fish-fish/fishes, sheep-sheep, ox-oxen ( 公 牛 ) , deer-deer, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese, mouse-mice policeman-policemen 等 注:German(德国人)–Germans 只能用来修饰可数名词的表示数量的一些词或短语: few 很少的(表示否定) few 一些(表示肯定) ,a ,many(许多) ,how many(多 少) number of(许多的), several 几个 ,a

课堂练习:
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一、写出下列名词的复数形式: 1. egg _____________ 2. watch _____________ 3. story ______________ 4. knife _____________ 5. radio ___________ 6. tomato _____________ 7. desk _____________ 8. glass _____________ 9. child _______________ 10. sheep ____________ 11. Chinese __________ 12.pencil-box ___________ 13. wife ___________ 14. family________ 15. city____________ 16. dress ___________ 17.Englishman ___________18. match ___________ 19. exam___________ 20. German __________ 21. potato__________ 22. .juice__________ 23.water________ 24.holiday________ 25.paper_______ 26.factory______ 27. thief_________ 28.bus________ 31. wife 29.class________ 32. baby 33. policeman 30.glass______ 34.brush

二、单项选择 1. Please pass me _____. A. two glass of water glass water 2. They got much ____ from those new books. A. ideas B. photos C.information D. stories B. two glasses of waters C. two glasses of water D. two

3. He had something to write down and asked me for ______. A.a paper B.some papers C.some pieces of papers D.a piece of paper

4. Some ______ are flying kites near the river. A.child B.boy C.boys D.childs

5. I’d like some water, but he wants _______. A. two bottle orange bottles of oranges 6. Look at the _______. You can see______ ________ and ________. A. photos; potatoes, tomatoes, radioes C. photos; potatoes, tomatoes, radios 7. Cut the apple into ________. B. photoes; potatoes, tomatoes, radios D. photos; potatos, tomatos, radioes B.halves C. half B. two bottles of orange C. two bottles of oranges D. two

A. halfs

8. Mr. Lin often gives us __________ by e-mail. A. some good information B. some good informations C. good informations good information
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D. a

9. There are _____ in the fields. They’re eating grass. A. a horse B. much horses C. many horse D. many horses

10. I am thirsty. Would you bring me _______, please? A.some bread B.some water C.some cakes D.some eggs

11. ---How great Dalian Radio and TV center looks!---Yes. That’s one of the greatest ________ in Dalian. A. building B. build C. buildings D. builds 12. How many ______ has the old farmer got? A. field B. sheep C. mutton D. cow

13. The guide has some new _______. She can show them to us. A.rice B.food C.jacket D.pictures

14. ---What would you like to drink, girls? ---__________, please. A.Two cup of coffee of coffees 15. The _______ are going to fly to Beijing. A.Germen B.Germany C.Germanys D.Germans B.Two cups of coffees C.Two cups of coffee D.Two cup

16. The _______ has two ___________. A.boys, watches B.boy, watch C.boy, watches D.boys,watch

17. The boy always stays there for __________. A.one and half hour half hours 18. ---They are thirsty. Will you please give them _________? ---Certainly. A.some bottles of waters B.some bottles of water C.some bottle of water D.some bottle of waters 19. Don’t you think Dalian is one of the most beautiful ________ in China? A.cities B.city C.place D.towns up B.one and a half hour C.one and half hours D.one and a

20. ---What can I do for you? ---I’m looking for __________. A.a pair of shoes B.a pair of T-shirt C.two pairs of hat D.two pair of trousers

21. Twelve _______ were hurt, but no _________ were lost in that accident. A.person; life B.people; lives C.peoples; lives
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D.persons; life

22. There are ________ on the table. A.a glass of water orange 23. There are few _______ in the fridge. Let’s go and buy some peas, carrots and cabbages. A.vegetables B.fruit C.meat D.eggs B.a glass of milk C.two glasses of water D.a glass of

24. Mr. Smith always has ________ to tell us. A.some good pieces of news C.some good piece of news B.some pieces of good news D.some piece of good news

25. There is a lot of ________ in the box. A.cake B.bags of cakes C.milk D.bags of milk

课后作业:
一、英汉互译 1.一片面包 3.一箱苹果 5.一条消息 7.五包糖果 9.十一名美国人 2. 一瓶牛奶 4. 一碗汤 6. 四杯桔子汁 8. 两公斤牛肉 10. 六名女学生

二、用所给名词的正确形式填空。 1. I have two 2. There are many 3. I got a lot of Christmas 4. There is a pair of 5. There are a few 6. How many 7. Mike has seven 8. A few (knife). (box) here. (card). (glass) on the table. (people) in the playground. (ship) can you see in the picture? (friend).

(boy) are drawing on the wall.

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9. He has some interesting 10. The

(book).

(child) are playing football now.

三、单项选择 1. He is hungry. Give him ___ to eat. A. two breads B. two piece of bread C. two pieces of bread D. two pieces of breads

2. I would like to have_______. A. two glasses of milk of milks 3. Can you give me ____? A. a tea B. some cup of tea C. a cup tea D . a cup of tea B. two glass of milk C. two glasses of milks D. two glass

4. Please give me ________ paper. A. one B. a piece C. a D. a piece of

5. John bought_________for himself yesterday. A. two pairs of shoes B. two pair of shoe C. two pair of shoes D. two pairs shoes

6. Children should make____ for old people in a bus. A. room B. a room C. rooms D. the room

7. There are sixty-seven___ in our school. A. women's teacher B. women teachers C. woman teachers D. women teacher

8. We need some more____. Can you go and get some, please? A. potato B. potatos C. potatoes D. Potatos

9.A group of ____ are talking with two ___ over there. A. Frenchmen; Germans B. Frenchmen; Germen C. German; Frenchmen D. Germans; Frenchmans 11.Lucy and I go to school _____ every day. A. on feet B. on foot C. by foots D. by buses

12. –Are those _____? -No, they aren’t. They’re _____. A. sheep; cows B. sheep; cow C. sheeps; cow 13.She is the tallest of in the family.
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D. sheeps; cows

A. any sister

B. all the sisters

C. all her sisters today.

D. any other sisters

14. They don’t have to do A. much homework homeworks 15. The Chinese people enjoy happy A. life B. lifes

B. many homeworks

C. many homework

D.much

now. D. lives

C. a life

名词(二) 重点:名词所有格
在英语中,有些名词的词尾可以加上’s, 用来表示所属关系,这种结构称为名词 的所有格。 1. 单数名词变所有格,只需在词尾加’s. Eg. the boy’s schoolbag the worker’s shoes

2. 复数名词的词尾已有 s, 只需加’即可。 Eg. the teachers’ office 3. 若复数名词词尾无 s, 则应加’s. Eg. Women’s Day the People’s Park the students’ pens

4. 无生命的词的所有格一般可用 of 加名词这一结构来表示。 Eg. the name of the museum the center of the city

5. 表示几个人共有一样东西,只需在最后一个人的名词前加’s,若表示各自所 有, 则每个名词后都要加’s. Eg. Jim and Tom’s bedroom (吉姆和汤姆的卧室)(两人共有) Jim’s and Tom’s bedrooms (吉姆和汤姆的卧室) (两人各自所有)

课堂练习:
一、用’s 或 of 填空。 1. my mother 3. the door 5. the teachers bag our room desk 2. Tom 4. postmen 6. a book
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friend bags my father’s

二、汉译英 1. 露西的书 3. 李明的猫 5. 这个公园的花 2. 学生们的鞋子 4. 母亲的裙子 6. 我们教室的墙

三、用所给名词的正确形式填空。 1. This is 2. My (May) book. (brothers) toy cars are very beautiful. (mother). (Ken and Bill) new bedroom.

3. He is a friend of my 4. That’s

5. ---Whose are these lunchbox? ---They are 6. (Ben). (Bob)is very pretty, too.

(Pat) bag is very pretty. (friend).

7. These books are my 8. Tomorrow is June 1st. It’s 四、单项选择 1. This is not your radio, but A. yours brother 2. September 10th is A. Teacher 3. Jane is A. Mary and Jack C. Mary’s and Jack 4. I will give you A. two week’s time C. two weeks’ time 5. Miss Smith is a friend of A. Mary’s mother’s C. Mary mother’s 6. March 8th is B. Teachers sister.

(children) Day.

. C. you brother’s D. yours brothers

B. your brother’s Day.

C. Teachers’

D. Teachers’s

B. Mary’s and Jack’s D. Mary and Jack’s to finish it. B. two week time D. two weeks time . B. Mary’s mother D. mother’s of Mary Day.
8

A. Woman 7. Mary went to

B. Women

C. Women’s last night.

D. Woman’s

A. the house of her father C. the house’s her father 8. There are A. a lot 9. It’s about A. three minutes’ B. lot

B. hers father’s house D. her father’s house

sheep in this place. C. much D. many

walk from this shop to the nearest bus stop. B. three minute C. three minute’s D. three minutes’s mistakes in the exam. D. a few

10. The doctor was very happy. He made A. a little B. little C. few

课后练习:
一、用’s 或 of 填空。 1. the desks 3. windows 5. the drivers 7. Linda 二、汉译英。 1. 六个月的假期 3. 老师们的包 5. 孩子们的牛奶 7. 她姐姐的照片 三、将下面的句子填写完整。 1. 2. 3.That big bed is 4. 5. 6. 7. (李明的父母)work in a big hospital. (小女孩的狗) is under the tree. (Mike 和 Jack 的). (母亲的鞋子) are all black. (教室的窗户) are not big. (Peter 和 Sue 各自的老师) are not in the office. (他的猫的名字) is Miao. 2. Lily 和 Lucy 的单车 4. 女孩们的裙子 6. 林涛的衣服 8. 这些男士的夹克 our classroom the office cars blouse 2. my btother 4. the students 6. today 8. the doctors computer Grade four

newspaper coats

9

8. This is 9. 10. Is this 四、用 be 动词的适当形式填空。 1. There

(我妹妹的英语书). (王平和王明的父亲) is a hotel manager. (你的好朋友的笔)?

a desk and three chairs here. lost yesterday. very difficult. so much water here!

2. Half of the information 3. He thinks maths 4. Look, there 5.

there any people in the room last night? very small. the capital of France. a bit expensive. teachers. Mr Brown’s. too big for me. my sister’s.

6. Tom and Mike’s bedroom 7. All the students know Paris 8. The books of his uncle’s 9. Tom’s grandparents 10. The trousers on the chair 11. This pair of glasses 12. That beautiful clothes

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