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it用法完全归纳


it 用法完全归纳
一、it 作人称代词的用法
1. 指事物 作为人称代词,it 可以除人以外的一切事物或动物。 如: I dropped my watch and it broke. 我把手表掉在地上摔坏了。 It’s hard work, but I enjoy it. 工作很辛苦,可是我乐意干。 “Where is the dog?” “It’s in the bedroom. ” “狗在哪?”“在卧室里”。 2. 指人 it 指人主要用于指不性别不明的婴儿或用于确认某人的身份。 如: Is it a boy or a girl? 是男孩还是女孩? There is a knock on the door. It must be the postman. 有人在敲门,一定是邮递员。 【说明】在答语中,常用来指本人,如说 It’s me。 3. 代 替 某 些 代 词 代 词 it 还 可 用 于 代 替 指 示 代 词 this, that 以 及 复 合 不 定 代 词 something, anything, nothing 等。 如: “What’s this?” “It’s a new machine. ” “这是什么?”“是一种新机器”。 Nothing is wrong, is it? 没出什么问题,是吗? 二、it 作非人称代词的用法 1. 基本用法 it 作非人称代词的用法,主要用于指时间、距离、价值、天气、气候及温度 等自然现象。 如: It’s too late to go there now. 现在去那儿已经太迟了。 It rained all day yesterday. 昨天下了一天的雨。 It can get very hot here. 这里有时会很热。 2. 用于某些句型 It’s time for sth. 该做某事了。 It’s time to do sth. 该做某事的时候了。 It’s time for sb to do sth. 某人该干某事了。 It’ s (about / high) time + that-从句. 某人该做某事了。 (从句谓语用过去式, 有时也用 “should+ 动词原形”) It’s first (second) time + that-从句. 某人第几次干某事。(从句谓语用现在完成 时) It’s + 时间段 + since-从句. 自从??有一段时间了。 It’s + 时间段 + before-从句. 过多长的时间才?? 三、it 用作形式主语 1. 基本用法 当不定式、动名词、从句等复杂成分用作句子主语时,为保持句子平衡,通 常把真正的主语放在句末,而在句首使用形式主语 it。 如: It’s very important to remember this. 记住这一点很重要。 It’s hard work climbing mountains. 爬山是费劲的事。 It’s unknown when he will come. 他什么时候来还不知道。 2. 用作形式主语的的重要句型 (1) It + be + adj. for (of) sb to do sth 某人做某事?? It is hard for him to make up his mind. 他很难下定决心。 It was foolish of her to say such a thing. 她说那样的话,真是太蠢了。 【说明】介词 of 与 for 的区别是:of 用于指某人的性格、属性、特征等,介词 for 表示对

象,意为“对??来说” (2) It takes sb + 时间段 + to do sth. 某人做某事花了??时间 It takes years to master a new language. 要花多年的时间才能掌握一门新的语言。 【说明】此句型可以有以下多变种变体:It took me an hour to write the letter. =The letter took me an hour (to write). =I took an hour to write the letter. 我写这封信花了一个小时。 (3) It is up to sb to do sth. 该由某人做某事 It’s up to you to to make the choice. 得由你来作选择。 (4) it look (seem, appear, happen, occur) that [as if]? 似乎?? It seemed as though he didn’t recognize me. 他似乎没认出我来。 It happened that I was out when he called. 他打电话时我碰巧不在家。 (5)It is (was) 被强调部分+ that (who) + 句子其他部分. 此结构强调的成分仅限于主语,宾语和状语. It is from the sun that we get light and heat. It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs. 典型例题 1) It was last night ___ I saw the comet(彗星). A.the time B.when C.that D.which 答案 C.强调句的结构是: It +be +强调部分 + that (who) + 主谓句.强调句的连词只有两个,that 和 who.当强调的部分是人,且为句子的主语时,才用 "who",其余用 that. 原句:My father did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening. 强调主语:It was my father who did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening. 强调宾语:It was the experiment that my father did in the lab yesterday evening. 强调时间:It was yesterday evening that my father did the experiment in the lab.(注意不用 when) 强调地点:It was in the lab that my father did the experiment yesterday evening. 四、it 用作形式宾语 1. 基本用法 当不定式、动名词、从句等复杂成分用作宾语且其后跟有宾语补足语时,通常会在宾语 补足语前使用形式宾语,而将真正的宾语移至句末。其基本结构为“动词 +it+宾语补足语+ 不定式(动名词或从句)”。 如: I find it difficult to do the job well. 我发现做好这件事不容易。 I think it best that you should stay here. 我认为你最好住这儿。 We think it no use complaining. 我们认为抱怨是没有用的。 2. 用作形式宾语的几个特殊结构 (1) 动词+ it + that-从句。 如: I like it that you came. 你来了,我很高兴。 I take it (that) he will come on time. 我认为他会准时来的。 You can put it that it was arranged before. 你可以说这是以前安排的。 【 说 明 】 能 用 于 此 结 构 的 动 词 不 多 , 常 见 的 有 take it for granted, bring it to sb ’ s attention, owe it to sb 等。 It 的用法练习 一.单项选择。 1.Was it during the Second World War _____he died? A.that B.while C.in which D.then 2.Is ____ necessary to take off our shoes when we enter the lab?

A. everyone B.this C.her D.it 3. Is ____ possible to fly to the moon in a spaceship? A.now B.that C.it D.man 4. I don’t think ___ possible to master a foreign language without much memory work. A.this B.that C.its D.it 5.She heard of a terrible noise, ___ brought her heart into her mouth. A.it B.which C.this D.that 6.Alice received an invitation from her boss, ____ came as a surprise. A.it B.that C.which D.he 7.Does ____ matter if he can’t finish the job on time? A.this B.that C.he D.it (补充定语从句中 which 还有一种特殊用法,它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句,代替主 句所表示的整体概念或部分概念。 在这种从句中, which 可以作主语, 也可以作宾语或表语, 多数情况下意思是与 and this 相似, 例如: He succeeded in the competition, which made his parents very happy. ) 8.Tom’s mother kept telling him that he should work harder, but ____ didn’t help. A.he B.which C.she D.it 9.The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect. A.what B.which C.that D.it 10.____is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. A.There B.This C.That D.It 12.It was about 600 years ago___the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made. A.that B.until C.before D.when 13.I hate ____ when people talk with their mouths full. A.it B.that C.these D.them 14.It was only when I reread his poems recently____ I began to appreciate their beauty. A.until B.that C.then D.so 15.It is the ability to do the job ____ matters not where you come from or what you are. A.one B.that C.what D.it 16.It ____ you that ____ to blame. A.is;is B.is; are C.are;are D.are;is 17.Was_____that I saw last night at the concert? A.it you B.not you C.you D.that you 18.____ electricity plays such an important part in our life? A.Why is it that B.Why is it C.Why it is that D.Why is that 19.It was ____ he said _____ disappointed me. A.what;what B.that;that C.what;that D.that;what 20.It was in the lab ___ was taken charge of by Professor Harris ___ they did the experiment. A.which; that B.that; what C.whom; that D.which; where 1-5ADCDB 6-10CDDBD 11-15DAABB 16-20BAACA


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