英语语法之名词专项练习 二. 知识归纳、分析与总结 1. 名词的定义 名词是表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称。 例如： worker 工人 desk 桌子 hospital 医院 time 时间 honesty 诚实 2. 名词的分类 名词分为专有名词和普通名词 普通名词：表示某些人,某类事物,某种物质或抽象概念的名称。例如： teacher 老师 tea 茶 reform 改革
专有名词： 表示具体的人,事物,地点或机构的专有名称。 China 中国 Asia 亚洲 Beijing 北京 名词又可分为可数名词（Countable Nouns）和不可数名词（Uncountable Nouns） 。 可数名词有单,复数之分,表示一个或多个。 a book 一本书 two books 两本书 不可数名词：不分单,复数；抽象名词, 物质名词和专有名词一般是不可数名词。 sand 沙 sugar 糖 有少数名词既可作可数名词,也可作不可数名词,但含义不同。 glass 玻璃 glass 玻璃杯 paper 纸 paper 报纸,文件 3. 名词的功能 名词在句中作主语, 宾语,介词宾语,宾语补助语,表语以及名词短语作状语。 The bag is in the desk. bag 作主语。 书包在桌子里边。 I washed my clothes yesterday. clothes 作宾语。 昨天我洗了我的衣服。 This is a good book. book 作表语。 这是一本好书。 We elected him our monitor. monitor 作宾语补助语。 我们选他为我们的班长。 Mary lives with her parents. parents 作介词宾语。 玛丽和她的父母亲住在一起。 He is a Party member. Party 作定语. 他是一名党员。 They study hard day and night. day and night 作状语。 他们不分白天黑夜地学习。 4. 名词的数 英语可数名词有单数和复数两种形式, 表示一个人或事物用单数形式, 表示一个以上的人或事物用复数形式。 a book 一本书 two books 两本书 a bag 一个包 three bags 三个包 名词的单数形式就是词典上所出现的形式,没有变化, 如： a pen, a bed, a room, an English book。 名词的复数形式,多数名词的复数形式在其单数形式后面加 —s 或 —es 构成,名词复数形式变化如下。
1. 在清辅音后读/s/. 2. 在浊辅音、元音后读/z/.
1.maps /s/ desks /s/ 2.days/z/ dogs/z/ class—classes/siz/ box—boxes/siz/ brush—brushes/iz/ watch—watches/tiz/ houses/ziz/ horses/ziz/ bookshelves/vz/ wives/vz/ knives/vz/ cities/iz/ babies/iz/ factories/iz/ heroes/z/ potatoes/z/ tomatoes/z/
以 s,x,sh,ch 结尾的名词后 面加—es
以 e 结尾的名词后面加—s
以 —f 或 —fe 结尾的名 词 , 把 —f 或 —fe 变 成 —ves 以辅音+y 结尾的名词,变 y 为 i ,再加 es 以辅音 + o 结尾的名词, 加 —es,
注： 极少数名词虽然 以 —o 或 者 —f 结 尾, 变成复数则只加 —s, 为 数 不 多 , 如 radios, pianos, photos,
roofs 等。 英语中有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,需要一一记忆，常见的有，man — men, woman — women, foot — feet, tooth — teeth, mouse — mice, ox — oxen, sheep — sheep, dear — dear, fish – fish 英语中有些名词总是以复数形式出现。 scissors 剪刀 goods 货物 trousers 裤子 clothes 衣服 glasses 玻璃杯 people 人 police 警察 stockings 长 裤 socks 短袜 boots 靴子 5. 名词的格 在英语中,名词的格有三个,主格,宾格和所有格。它们的形式及其变化表示与其他词的关系。实际上, 主格和宾 格通过它在句中的作用和位置来确定。 The bird is in the tree. 鸟在树上。 bird 作主语, 是主格。 I saw a film yesterday. 昨天我看了一场电影。 film 作宾语,是宾格。 名词的所有格： 名词中表示所有关系的形式叫做名词所有格。 Lu Xun’s book is worth reading. 鲁迅的书值得一读。 This is my father’s room. 这是我父亲的房间。 以—s 或 —es 结尾的复数名词的所有格只在名词后加 “ ’ ”。 There are many students’ exercise books here. 这儿有许多学生的练习本。 复合名词的所有格 “’s” 加在后面的名词之后。 This is my son—in—law’s bike. 这是我女婿的自行车。 如果一样东西为两人共有,则只在后一个名词后加 " ’s "。
We visited Xiao Li and Xiao Zhang’s room. 我们参观了小李和小张的房间。 名词所有格所修饰的词,有时可以省略。如前文已经提到,或者指地点。 The book is not mine, but Li Hua’s. 这本书不是我的，是李华的。 I had my hair cut in the barber’s. 我在理发店理发了。 表示无生命东西的名词所有格,一般与 of 构成短语表示前者属于后者。 It’s a map of China. 它是一幅中国地图。 Beijing is the capital of China. 北京是中国的首都。 典型例题】 【典型例题】 1. We need some more____. Can you go and get some, please? A. potato B. potatos C. potatoes D. potatoe 答案： 答案：C 句意： 句意：我们需要更多的土豆。你能带过来一些吗？ 解析： potato 土豆是可数名词。 因为有 some 修饰所以 potato 要用复数形式。 以辅音+o 结尾的名词后面要+es。 解析： 所以 C. potatoes 是正确答案。 2. What big____ the tiger has! A. tooth B. teeth C. tooths D. toothes 答案： 答案：B 句意： 句意：老虎长着多么大、多么锋利的牙齿呀！ 解析： 解析：牙齿 tooth 的复数形式是 teeth 3. Please remember to give the horse some tree___. A. leafs B. leaves C. leaf D. leave 答案： 答案：B 句意： 句意：请记得喂马一些树叶。 解析： 解析：树叶 leaf 是以 f 结尾的，所以它的复数形式是变 f 为 v，再加 es 4. —Can we have some ___? —Yes, please. A. banana B. oranges C. apple D. pear 答案： 答案：B 句意： 句意：—能给我们一些橘子吗？—好的。 解析： 解析：some 修饰名词复数。四个选项中只有 B. oranges 是复数。 5. On the table there are five____. A. tomatos B. piece of tomatoes C. tomatoes D. tomato 答案： 答案：C 句意： 句意：桌子上有五个西红柿。 解析： 解析：tomato ,辅音+o 结尾的名词变复数后面要加 es 模拟试题】 （答题时间：60 分钟） 【模拟试题】 一. 单项选择 1. They got much ___ from those new books. A. ideas B. photos C. information D. stories 2. He gave us____ on how to keep fit. A. some advices B. some advice
C. an advice D. a advice 3. When we saw his face, we knew___ was bad. A. some news B. a news C. the news D. news 4. What___ lovely weather it is! A. / B. the C. an D. a 5. —Would you like___ tea? —No, thanks. I have drunk two____. A. any, bottles of orange B. some, bottles of orange C. many, bottles of oranges D. few, bottle of oranges 6. He is hungry. Give him ___ to eat. A. two breads B. two piece of bread C. two pieces of bread D. two pieces of breads 7. It really took him：___ to draw the nice horse. A. sometimes B. hour C. long time D. some time 8. I would like to have___. A. two glasses of milk B. two glass of milk C. two glasses of milks D. two glass of milks 9. Can you give me ____? A. a tea B. some cup of tea C. a cup tea D. a cup of tea 10. Please give me ___ paper. A. one B. a piece C. a D. a piece of 11. John bought___ for himself yesterday. A. two pairs of shoes B. two pair of shoe C. two pair of shoes D. two pairs shoes 12. —How many ____ have you got on your farm? —I’ve got five. A. sheeps B. sheep C. pig D. chicken 13. Some ___ came to our school for a visit that day. A. Germans B. Germen C. Germany D. Germanies 14. In the picture there are many____ and two____. A. sheep; foxes C. sheeps; foxes B. sheeps; fox D. sheep; foxs 15. A group of______ will visit the museum tomorrow. A. Hungarian B. Australian C. Japanese D. American 16. This table is made of___. A. many glass B. glasses C. some glasses D. glass 17. —What would you like to have for lunch, sir? —I’d like____. A. chicken B. a chicken C. chickens D. the chicken 18. Children should make____ for old people in a bus. A. room B. a room C. rooms D. the room 19. Tables are made of___. A. wood B. some woods C. wooden D. woods 20. I wonder why ______ are so interested in action (武打片) films. A. people B. peoples C. the people D. the peoples 21.I have read____ of the young writer. A. works B. work C. this works D. the works
22. Let’s meet at 7： 30 outside the gate of___? A. the People’s Park B. the Peoples’ Park C. the People Park D. People’s Park 23.___ Chinese people are ___ hard working people. A. /; a B. We; the C. The; the D. The; a 24.How many ____ were there in the street when the accident happened? A. policeman B. polices C. police D. peoples 25. If these trousers are too big, buy a smaller____. A. set B. one C. piece D. pair 26. Last week I bought a TV____. A. pair B. set C. piece D. block 27. There is a ____of wood left on the ground. A. cup B. piece C. box D. pair 28. There are sixty—seven___ in our school. A. women’s teacher B. women teachers C. woman teachers D. women teacher 29. There are five___ in our factory. A. woman driver B. women driver C. woman drivers D. women drivers 30. These ____ were sent to the villages to help the farmers. A. women doctor B. women doctors C. woman doctors D. woman doctor 31. They write most of their.___ in English. A. business letter B. business letters C. businesses D. businesses letters 32. We came to a ___ at last and went in. A. watch shop B. watches shop C. watching shop D. watchs shop 33. This shop sells apples, bananas and things like these. It’s a___ A. food shop B. book shop C. fruit shop D. vegetable shop 34. She broke a___ while she was washing up. A. glass of wine B. glass for wine C. glass wine D. wine glass 35.I’ve forgotten both of the____. A. room numbers B. rooms number C. rooms numbers D. room number 36. September 10th is____ in China. A. Teacher’s Day B. Teachers’ Day C. Teacher Day D. Teachers Day 37. —Is the broom under ____ desk? —No, it’s under____,. A. the teacher’s; my B. teacher’s; mine C. teacher’s; me D. the teacher’s; mine 38. Excuse me, where is the___? A. men’s room B. mens’ room C. men’s rooms D. men rooms 39. The football under the bed is____. A. Lily and Lucy B. Lily’s and Lucy’s C. Lily’s and Lucy D. Lily and Lucy’s
40 This is my____ dictionary. A. sister Mary B. sister’s C. sister Mary’s D. sister’s Mary’s 41. He went to ___ shop to buy a shirt. A. a tailor B. the tailor C. a tailors D. the tailors’ 42. Joan is____. A. Mary’s and Jack sister B. Mary and Jack’s sister C. Mary and Jack sister D. Mary’s and Jack’s sister 二. 完形填空 A driver was going by car through a country . He saw a dog 1 a man . As the car came near them , 2 dog suddenly started to cross the road . The poor animal was 3 and killed . The driver 4 his car and walked towards the man . “ I’m very 5 that this happened . ” he said , “ Will five pounds be enough ? ” “ Oh 6 , ” said the man . “ Five pounds will 7 , ” The man put the money in his pocket , and as the car , he looked down at the 9 animal and thought . “ I wonder 10 dog it was . ” had 8 1. A. after B. behind C. back D. between 2. A. the B. a C. an D. some 3. A. taken B. caught C. hit D. followed 4. A. started B. stopped C. pulled D. cleaned 5. A. glad B. afraid C. sorry D. happy 6. A. yes B. no C. not D. yet 7. A. be enough B. be lost C. be returned D. not be enough 8. A. repaired B. arrived C. came D. gone 9. A. dead B. die C. death D. dying 10. A. who B. whose C. whom D. which 三. 阅读理解 A good reader is like a driver very much . He must change his reading speed to fit his purpose and material he is reading , just as a driver does fit the road situation. A good reader may be able to read a thousand words per minute（WPM）, but he won’t use the speed for everything he reads . A good reader doing research reading in the library may read at the speed of 1, 000 words per minute as he looks for material for a report . But once he finds omething that is useful to him , he may need to slow down to 100 WPM . A good reader may read newspaper and magazine article at 600 WPM . But it may take him 150 WPM to read his science or maths text . Just as a driver has a wide change of speed , so has a good reader . 1. According to the writer , good reader can . A. read at 1,000 WPM B. often go to the library C. spend more time reading D. change the speed as needed 2. The passage tells us that the speed of reading depends on . a. the member of books b. the purpose of reading c. the time when you are reading d. the material that you are reading e. the place where you are reading A. a and b B. b , c and d C. b and d D. a , d and e 3. A good reader may use highest speed of reading when . A. he reads newspaper and magazine B. he reads the material most useful to him C. he is trying to work out a math problem D. he is trying to find material for his report
4. The passage suggests（暗示）that a good driver should . A. be able to drive at a high speed B. be good at changing driving speed C. be able to drive in all kinds of weather D. be good at driving on a country road . 5. This passage is mainly about A. the best way of fast reading B. the difference between driving and reading C. the importance of having different reading speed D. the relation between reading and driving speed 四. 句型转换及完成句子 1. His work is almost finished . His work is finished . 2. Because there was no rain for three months , all the crops nearly died . of for three months all the crops nearly died . As the 3. We can see many trees on each side of the streets . Many trees can on sides of the street . 4. Please tell me where I can find him . Please tell me where . 5. 大米需要在恰当的时候收割。 Rice should . 6. 惟一的问题是你没有足够的钱。 that you don’t have enough money . 7. 所以土壤不会被轻易的冲走。 So the soil . 8. 我洗好了衬衣以便第二天穿。 9. 那家饭店有上千公里远。 （not put）on your coat . 10. It’s quite hot outside . You’d better 五. 书面表达 根据下面的汉语提示写一篇日记，字数 70—80 词。 今天是植树节，星期四你与同学们一起坐公共汽车去了西山农场。路上大家非常高兴，有的唱歌，有的讲故 事。一到农场，大家干起活儿来。李雷挖洞，你挑水，你们种了很多树以及帮助农民们干了许多其他的活儿。 你们都很努力。大约 10：30，树栽完了，大家在农场吃了午饭，那一天真开心！
【试题答案】 试题答案】 一.1—5CBCAB 6—10CDADD 11—15 ABAAC 16—20DAAAA 21—25DADCD 26—30 BBBDB 31—35BACDA 36—40BDADC 41—42CB 二.1—5 BACBC 6—10 AADAB 三.1—5 DCDBC 四.1. more or less 2. result , drought 3. be , seen , both 4. he is 5. be harvested at the right time 6. The only problem is 7. isn’t easily washed away 8. I washed my blouse / shirt so that I could wear it in the next day. 9. The restaurant is / was thousands of kilometers away. 10. not put 五.Thursday March 12th , 2003 Today is Tree Planting Day . I went to the West Hill Farm with my classmates . All were very happy on the bus . Some sang the beautiful songs , some told stories for each other . We all worked hard as soon as we got to the farm . Li Lei dug holes , I carried the water . We planted many trees and helped the farmers do many other things . Though we were tired , we felt very happy . It was 10：30 . We had lunch on the farm after planting trees . We enjoyed ourselves .
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