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英语句子成分和练习题及答案


句子成分(Members of a Sentence) 什么叫句子成分呢?句子的组成成分叫句子成分。在句子中,词与词之间有一定的组合关系,按照不同的关系, 可以把句子分为不同的组成成分。句子成分由词或词组充当。现代汉语里一般的句子成分有六种,即主语、谓语、宾 语、定语、状语和补语。英语的基本成分有七种:主语(subject)、谓语(predicate)、表语(predicative)、宾语(o bject)、定语(attribute)、状语(adverbial) 和补语(complement)。 英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种 英语句子结构的基础。 英语五种基本句型列式如下: 一: S V (主+谓) 二: S V P (主+系+表) 三: S V O (主+谓+宾) 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) 基本句型 一:S V (主+谓) 主语:可以作主语的成分有名词(如 boy),主格代词(如 you),动词不定式,动名词等。主语一般在句首。注 意名词单数形式常和冠词不分家! 谓语:谓语由动词构成,是英语时态、语态变化的主角,一般在主语之后。不及物动词(vi.)没有宾语,形成主 谓结构,如:We come. 此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做不及物动词,后面可以跟 副词、介词短语、状语从句等。 S │ V (不及物动词) 1. The sun │was shining. 太阳在照耀着。 2. The moon │rose. 月亮升起了。 3. The universe │remains. 宇宙长存。 4. We all │breathe, eat, and drink. 我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。 5. Who │cares? 管它呢? 6. What he said │does not matter. 他所讲的没有什么关系。 7. They │talked for half an hour. 他们谈了半个小时。 8. The pen │writes smoothly 这支笔书写流利。 基本句型 二: S V P (主+系+表) 此句型的句子有一个共同的特点:句子谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意思,必须加上一个表明主语身份或状态的表 语构成复合谓语,才能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做连系动词。系动词分两类:be, look, keep, seem 等属一类,表示 情况;get, grow, become, turn 等属另一类,表示变化。be 本身没有什么意义,只起连系主语和表语的作用。其它系动词 仍保持其部分词义。 表语:说明主语的状态、性质、等。可为形容词、副词、名词、代词、不定式、分词。当联系动 词不是 be,而其后是名词和代词时,多表达‘转变为’之意,注意与动宾关系的区别。感官动词多可用作联系动词:look well/面色好,sound nice/听起来不错,feel good/感觉好,smell bad/难闻 例:Tom is a boy.(Tom 是个男孩)/主语为 Tom,系 词为 be 动词的第三人称单数 is,表语为 a boy S │V(是系动词)│ P 1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 这是本英汉辞典。 2. The dinner │smells │good. 午餐的气味很好。 3. He │fell │in love. 他堕入了情网。 4. Everything │looks │different. 一切看来都不同了。 5. He │is growing │tall and strong. 他长得又高又壮 6. The trouble│is │that they are short of money. 麻烦的是他们缺少钱。 7. Our well │has gone │dry. 我们井干枯了。 8. His face │turned │red. 他的脸红了。 There be 结构: There be 表示‘存在有’。这里的 there 没有实际意义,不可与副词‘there 那里’混淆。 此结构后跟名词,表示‘(存在)有某事物’ 试比较:There is a boy there.(那儿有一个男孩。)/前一个 there 无实意,后一个 there 为副词‘那里’。 基本句型 三: S V O (主+谓+宾)

此句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生的动作,但不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语, 即动作的承受者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫做及物动词。宾语位于及物动词之后,一般同主语构成一样,不同的 是构成宾语的代词必须是‘代词宾格’,如:me,him,them 等 例:The boy needs a pen.主语 the boy,谓语 needs(need 的第三人称单数形式),宾语 a pen. S │V(及物动词)│ O 1. Who │knows │the answer? 谁知道答案? 2. She │smiled │her thanks. 她微笑表示感谢。 3. He │has refused │to help them. 他拒绝帮他们。 4. He │enjoys │reading. 他喜欢看书。 5. They │ate │what was left over. 他们吃了剩饭。 6. He │said │"Good morning." 他说:"早上好!" 7. I │want │to have a cup of tea. 我想喝杯茶。 8. He │admits │that he was mistaken. 他承认犯了错误。 基本句型 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give 给,pass 递,bring 带,show 显示。这两个宾语通常一个指人,为间接 宾语;一个指物,为直接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。如: Give me a cup of tea, please. 强调间接宾语顺序为:动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如: Show this house to Mr. Smith. 若直接宾语为人称代词:动词+ 代词直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如:Bring it to me, please. S │V(及物)│ o(多指人) │ O(多指物) 1. She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。 2. She │cooked │her husband │a delicious meal. 她给丈夫煮了一顿美餐。 3. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 他给你带来了一本字典。 4. He │denies │her │nothing. 他对她什么都不拒绝。 5. I │showed │him │my pictures. 我给他看我的照片 6. I │gave │my car │a wash. 我洗了我的汽车。 7. I │told │him │that the bus was late. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。 8. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. 他教我开机器。 基本句型 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) 此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补 充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。 宾语补足语:位于宾语之后对宾语做出说明的成分。宾语与其补足语有逻辑上的主谓关系,它们一起构成复合宾 语。 名词/代词宾格 + 名词 The war made him a soldier./战争使他成为一名战士. 名词/代词宾格 + 形容词 New methods make the job easy./新方法使这项工作变得轻松. 名词/代词宾格 + 介词短语 I often find him at work./我经常发现他在工作. 名词/代词宾格 + 动词不定式 The teacher ask the students to close the windows./老师让学生们关上窗户. 名词/代词宾格 + 分词 I saw a cat running across the road./我看见一只猫跑过了马路. S │V(及物)│ O(宾语) │ C(宾补) 1. They │appointed │him │manager. 他们任命他当经理。 2. They │painted │the door │green. 他们把门漆成绿色 3. This │set │them │thinking. 这使得他们要细想一想。 4. They │found │the house │deserted. 他们发现那房子无人居住。 5. What │makes │him │think so? 他怎么会这样想?

6. We │saw │him │out. 我们送他出去 7. He │asked │me │to come back soon. 他要我早点回来。 8. I │saw │them │getting on the bus. 我看见他们上了那辆公共汽车。 但常用的英语句子并不都象基本句型这样简短,这些句子除了基本句型的成分不变外,通常是在这些成分的前面 或后面增加一些修饰语(modifier)而加以扩大。这些修饰语可以是单词(主要是形容词、副词和数词),也可以是各 种类型的短语(主要是介词短语、不定式短语和分词短语)。我们称之为:定语、状语 一、 定语:定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子,汉语中常用‘……的’表示。定语通常位于被 修饰的成分前。若修饰 some,any,every,no 构成的复合不定代词时,(如:something、nothing);或不定式、分词短语 作定语、从句作定语时,则定语通常置后。副词用作定语时须放在名词之后。 形容词作定语: The little boy needs a blue pen.(little 修饰名词 boy;blue 修饰名词 pen.)/小男孩需要一支兰色的钢笔。 Tom is a handsome boy./Tom 是个英俊的男孩。 There is a good boy./有个乖男孩。 数词作定语相当于形容词: Two boys need two pens./两个男孩需要两支钢笔。 The two boys are students./这两个男孩是学生。 There are two boys in the room./房间里有两个男孩。 代词或名词所有格作定语: His boy needs Tom\'s pen./他的男孩需要 Tom 的钢笔。 His name is Tom./他的名字是汤姆。 There are two boys of Toms there./那儿有 Tom 家的两个男孩。 介词短语作定语: The boy in the classroom needs a pen of yours./教室里的男孩需要你的一支钢笔。 The boy in blue is Tom./穿兰色衣服的孩子是汤姆。 There are two boys of 9,and three of 10./有两个 9 岁的,三个 10 岁的男孩。 名词作定语: The boy needs a ball pen./男孩需要一支圆珠笔。 It is a ball pen./这是一支圆珠笔。 There is only one ball pen in the pencil box./这铅笔盒里只有一支圆珠笔。 副词作定语: The boy there needs a pen./那儿的男孩需要一支钢笔。 The best boy here is Tom./这里最棒的男孩是 Tom。 不定式作定语: The boy to write this letter needs a pen./写这封信的男孩需要一支钢笔。 The boy to write this letter is Tom./将要写这封信的男孩是汤姆。 There is nothing to do today./今天无事要做。 分词(短语)作定语: The smiling boy needs a pen bought by his mother./那个微笑的男孩需要一支他妈妈买的钢笔。 The pen bought by her is made in China./她买的笔是中国产的。 There are five boys left./有五个留下的男孩。 定语从句: The boy who is reading needs the pen which you bought yesterday./那个在阅读的男孩需要你昨天买的钢笔。 The boy you will know is Tom./你将认识的男孩叫汤姆。 There are five boys who will play the game./参加游戏的男孩有五个。 二、状语:状语修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句,说明方式、因果、条件、时间、地点、让步、方向、程度、目的等。 状语在句子中的位置很灵活,常见情况为:通常在句子基本结构之后,强调时放在句首;修饰形容词或副词时, 通常位于被修饰的词之前;表示时间、地点、目的的状语一般位于句子两头,强调时放在句首,地点状语一般须在时 间状语之前;一些表示不确定时间(如:often)或程度(如:almost)的副词状语通常位于 be 动词、助动词、情态动 词之后,动词之前。

有时状语在句中的某个位置会引起歧义,应注意,如:The boy calls the girl in the classroom.一般理解成‘男孩喊 教室里的女孩‘(此时 in the classroom 为 girl 的定语),也可以理解为‘男孩在教室里喊女孩’(此时 in the classroo m 为地点状语),最好写作‘In the classroom,the boy calls the girl.\' 副词(短语)作状语: The boy needs a pen very much./男孩非常需要一支钢笔。(程度状语) The boy needs very much the pen bought by his mother./男孩非常需要他母亲买的那支钢笔。(宾语较长则状语前置) The boy really needs a pen./男孩真的需要一支钢笔。(程度状语) The boy needs a pen now./Now,the boy needs a pen./The boy,now,needs a pen./男孩现在需要一支钢笔。(时间状语) 介词短语作状语:In the classroom,the boy needs a pen./在教室里,男孩需要一支钢笔。(地点状语) Before his mother,Tom is always a boy./在母亲面前,汤姆总是一个男孩子.(条件状语) On Sundays,there is no student in the classroom./星期天,教室里没有学生.(时间状语) 分词(短语)作状语: He sits there,asking for a pen./他坐在那儿要一支笔。(表示伴随状态) Having to finish his homework,the boy needs a pen./因为不得不完成作业,男孩需要一支笔。(原因状语) Frightened,he sits there soundlessly./(因为)受了惊吓,他无声地坐在那儿。(原因状语) 不定式作状语: The boy needs a pen to do his homework./男孩需要一支笔写家庭作业。(目的状语) To make his dream come true,Tom becomes very interested in business./为实现梦想,汤姆变得对商业很有兴趣. 名词作状语: Come this way!/走这条路!(方向状语) 状语从句: 时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、结果状语从句、目的状语从句 、比较状语从句、让步状语从句、条件状语从句 三、同位语:同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者加以说明的成分,近乎于后置定语。如: We students should study hard. / (students 是 we 的同位语,都是指同一批‘学生’) We all are students. / (all 是 we 的同位语,都指同样的‘我们’) 四、独立成分:有时句子中会有一些与句子没有语法联系的成分,称为句子独立成分(注意:区别于分词独立结构)。 感叹词:oh,hello,aha,ah,等。 肯定词 yes 否定词 no 称呼语:称呼人的用语。 插入语:一些句中插入的 I think , I believe,等。 如: The story,I think,has never come to the end./我相信,这个故事还远没结束. 情态词,表示说话人的语气(多作为修饰全句的状语):perhaps 也许,maybe 大概,actually 实际上,certainly 当然,等。 五、分词独立结构:分词作状语时其逻辑主语与句子的主语一致! 否则应有自己的逻辑主语,构成分词独立结构。 例: 错句:Studying hard,your score will go up. 正确:(1) Studying hard,you can make your score go up. 或 (2)If you study hard,your score will go up. 解析:错句中分词 studying 没有自带逻辑主语,则其逻辑主语就是句子的主语,既 your score . 显然做 study 的应是人, 不应是 your score (分数) 正确句(1)更正了句子的主语,使其与分词逻辑主语一致( 同为 you );正确句(2)则使用条件分句 . 带出 study 的主语,(不过已经不是分词结构了). 分词独立结构常省略 being,having been.不过‘There being...’的场合不能 省略. 如: Game (being) over,he went home. He stands there,book (being) in hand. 独立结构还可用 with、without 引导,作状语或定语。这种结构不但可以用分词,还 可以用不定式、形容词、介词短语、副词或名词等。 如:

With nothing to do,he fell asleep soon./无事可做,他很快就睡着了。 The teacher came in,with glasses on his nose./老师进来了,戴着一付眼镜。(注意,此句 on his nose 不可省略!) 练习题 (一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词(4 分, 4 分钟) ① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult. (二) 选出句中谓语的中心词(10 分, 10 分钟) ① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall

② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer

③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C.go D. bus

④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon

⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? A.Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast

⑥ Tom didn't do his homework yesterday. A. Tom B. didn't C. do D. his homework

⑦ What I want to tell you is this. A. want B. to tell C. you D. is

⑧ We had better send for a doctor. A. We B. had C. send D. doctor

⑨ He is interested in music. A. is B. interested C. in D. music

⑩ Whom did you give my book to? A. give B.did C. whom D. book

(三) 挑出下列句中的宾语(10 分,10 分钟) ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English. ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ④ How many new words did you learn last class?

⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? ⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ⑦ They made him monitor of the class. ⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left. ⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. ⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is. (四) 挑出下列句中的表语(5 分, 5 分钟) ① The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. ⑤ She was the first to learn about it. (五) 挑出下列句中的定语(6 分,6 分钟) ① They use Mr, Mrs with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe! (六) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语(6 分, 6 分钟) ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ④ They call me Lily sometimes. ⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus. ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now? (七) 挑出下列句中的状语(8 分, 8 分钟) ① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it.

⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine. (八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语(5 分, 5 分钟) ① Please tell us a story. ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen.Give it to Tom. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me?

1、 ___ six years since I began to study English. A. It is B. I have been C. There are D. It was 2 、___ in the room at that time. A. Nobody was B. Someone were C. Who is D. He are 3 、IT'S very noisy outside. ___ is going on? A. Who B. What C. Which D. Where 4、 ___ in English in class every day is important. A. Speak B. Talking C. Saying D. To tell 5 、There must be____ near the factory. A. a book store B. book store C. books store D. books stores 6 、Although it's raining hard, ___ are still working in the fields. A. but they B. and they C. they D. since they B 1、 The doctor as well as the nurses ___ great concern for the patients. A. show B. shows C. have shown D. are showing 2、 Your son must be a clever boy, ___ he? A. is B. isn't C. must D. mustn't 3、 The computer center, ___ last year, is very popular among students in this school. A. open B. opening C. opened D. being opened 4 、I ___ go to the shop today, for there is a lot of food at home. A. mustn't B. had to C. can't D. needn't 5 、Don't ___ excited. A. get B. is C. seem D. look 6 This room ___ every morning. A. is cleaning B. is cleaned C. cleans D. cleaning C

1、 Glad to meet you! ___ is your full name? A. What B. Where C. How D. Who 2、 He is ___ to lift the heavy box. A. too weak B. weak tooC. enough weak D. weak enough 3、 The days are ___ warmer and warmer in spring. A. getting B. looking C. seeming D. going 4 、His job is____English. A. teach B. to teach C. taught D. teaches 5 、Two balls are___. A. under the desk B. in the wall C. to here D. at desks D 1 、We should get ready___ others. A. helping B. to help C. help D. help with 2、 ___interesting work we are doing? A. What a B. How C. What D. What an 3、 I want___ a teacher when I grow up (-fx;fc). A. to be B. to C. be D. being 4、 -Would you like to go on a picnic with me today? -I don't think so. To be honest, I really don't feel like___on a picnic. A. going B. to go C. go D. went 5 Do you know___? A. where does he live B. where he lives C. where he live D. if where he lives 6 Let ____ do it again. A. I B. me C. he D. she 7 I don't know___. A. how to do B. what to do C. where to do D. when to do E 1、 I saw him ___ basketball with Jack an hour ago. A. plays B. to play C. played D. play o 2、 Sorry, we've kept you___ for a long time. A. waited B. sing C. stand D. waiting

3 、The teacher told us ____ late again. A. aren't be B. don't be C. not to be D. not be 4 、We find the room very___. A. warm B. warmly C. terribly D. hardly F 1 、I found ___ difficult to work together with him. A. it B. its C. that D. those 2 、We all know ___ our duty to clean our classroom after school every day. A. that B. this C. which D. it 3、 He found ___ very interesting to play with the little dog. A. what B. it C. / D. that G ( ) 1 Tom said he ___ a good dream yesterday evening. A. dream B. dreamed C. have D. has ( ) 2 Children ___ a happy life in China. A. lead B. living C. has D. leading H ( ) 1 America, Japan and Canada are___countries. A. developing B. developed C. less developed D. develop ( ) 2 -___ skirt is that on the chair? -Let me see. Oh, no, it's not mine. A. Whose B. What C. Who's D. Which ( ) 3 Do you have anything ___? A. saying B. to^ay C. said D. say ( ) 4 Look, there is an___tree by the wall. A. apple B. apple's C. apples' D. apples ( ) 5 Where is____seat? A. yours B. your C. you D. yourselves I ( ) 1 The box is ___ heavy for her ___ carry. A. very; to B. too; not to C. too; to D. very too; to

2 -___ did you buy the new bag? -Last Monday. A. Where B. How C. When D. Who 3 You can see these signs in a hospital. ___ can you see them? A. Where else B. Where place else C. Where else place D. Else where 4 They went out ___ their old friends. A. visit B. visiting C. to visit D. visited 5 There is a wide river____ our village. A. outside B. over C. from D. below J 1 The young man, ___ works in the office. A. me brother B. my brother C. my brothers D. me 2 Our English teacher, ___ often helps us with study. A. Mrs Wang B. Mrs5 WangC. MrsWang's . D. of him 3 ___, some railway workers are busy repairing the train. A. Them B. He C. They D. Theirs 答案 (一)① teacher ② man ③ dictionary ④ To do(二)① B② A ③ C ④ A ⑤C ⑥C⑦D ⑧ C⑨ A⑩ A

(三)①homework. ②English. ③attention ④ words ⑤to go swimming ⑥ he was ill. ⑦ him monitor ⑧bridge museum⑨ i t school. ⑩ who"Father Christmas"really is. (四)①tired. ②worried ③yellow. ④interested ⑤the first (五)① family ②given③third ④ some ⑤ downstairs ⑥ of the other shoe! (六)①to read newspapers and books ②to take the boy ③ difficult ④ Lily ⑤ get on the bus ⑥ playing football (七)① on her face. ②Every night ③ when he was eleven. ④ too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm ⑥ because she loves books. ⑦ if you’ve lost it ⑧ to see the other ma chine. (八)① us, 间接宾语 a story, 直接宾语

② me, 间接宾语 a new bike, 直接宾语 ③ us, 间接宾语 history, 直接宾语 ④ Tom, 间接宾语 it, 直接宾语 ⑤ me, 间接宾语 message, 直接宾语 A . 1-6 A A B B A C B. 1-6 B B C D A B C. 1-5 A A A B A D. 1-7 B C A A B B B E. 1-4 D D C A F. 1-3 A D B G. 1-2 B A H. 1-5 B A B A B I .1-5 C C A C A J. 1-3 B A C


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