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北语1003春《大学英语三》导学资料二(交际用语)


北语 1003 春《大学英语三》导学资料二 大学英语三》
同学们,大家好,现在我们进入第二阶段的学习,这一阶段我们会针对《大学英语》统 考中的交际用语考题进行讲解和详细地阐述。 I.交际用语 测试目的:检测考生在不同的情境中运用英语进行交际的能力。在复习该部分知识时,注意 以下两个方面: 一、解题技巧 (一)英语国家应答的总体原则(3 个) A.委婉原则 无论在任何场合,发话/发问和应答都要有礼貌,即使表达不同看法或批评意见,也要 委婉问接表达。命题中特别测试考生拒绝对方要求和发表不同观点的能力。例如: Do you think I can borrow your pen? A.I’m afraid not. B.No.you can’t.

C.I won’t let you do that. D.Absolutely not. 解析:拒绝一个请求时,要么使用委婉句型:I’m afraid not,要么采取“先扬后抑”的做 法,即“先表同意或者赞许,然后用“but”来个转折,表达出不同意的意思"。例如: Mary,do you want to go to the movies with me tonight? That’s very kind of you,but the final tests is coming. 在这个结构中, 常见的还有: That’s very kind of you, but…. (太谢谢你了, 但…); That’s a good idea,but…(太好了!但是…);I’d love to,but…(我愿意啊,但…) B.主动同情原则 在日常交际中,要尽可能主动为对方提供帮助和方便(offering),对别人遇到的好事/成 功要表示高兴(sharing),坏事要表示难过/惋惜(sympathetic),在交际用语中也要体现出来 这种倾向,例如: I am going to the Water Cube,can you tell me how to get there,Sir? A.Well,it is a modem building in Peking B.I don’t know. C.Yes,you will. D.Sorry.I am new here too.But there is a information center over there. Can you believe it? I won the scholarship! A.Impossible! B.So what? C.How much you got? D.Congratulations!

My mom have been not feeling very well recently! A.I am sorry to hear that! B.Really? But she looks very healthy though. C.All right! D.Wonderful! C.文化遵从原则 在选择交际用语时, 要有跨文化视角, 也就是说, 要克服本民族的习惯思维和应答模式, 要使用得体的、符合对方习惯的方式来应答。这个原则常被反向用来设置错误选项,因此, 当考生看到自己感觉亲切的回应方式时,一定要小心是否掉入了命题者的圈套。 Mary,your dress is really beautiful.How is John? A.Thank you very much B.No,no,John is not bad C.Thank you.He is fine D.Don’t say that.It’s ugly.John is good (二)逆向思维,巧用排除法 在应对测试的时候, 我们往往会发现有些题目的正确性难以达成或者较为隐晦, 又或者 我们所建立的数据体系无法确定选项的正确性,这时,我们一定要充分地使用题目(由题面 和选项构成)本身所提供的线索来进行解题。这不是投机取巧,相反,巧用排除法恰恰是一 个人英语能力的直接反映, 甚至命题者本身命题的出发点就是考查考生运用周边信息解题的 能力。 通常情况下,在标准化命题中,选项的构成是有正确答案、强干扰项(近似项)和无关选 项(错误选项)构成的。在题目构建过程中,命题者常常采取的是做法是尽可能掩盖正确选项 的正确性,尽可能加大选项的相似性或者无关性。因此,我们常常发现,往往最不可能的选 项是正确的,而越是看似原文的选项是错误的。我们常见的错项的类型大体有:A.选项本 身语法错误:B.选项议题与谈话主题无关;C.选项明显违反上述三原则;D.选项虽然 与谈话主题有关,但不能提供发问者要求的信息、态度或观点; 例如: 1)Mary.are you and your husband busy this weekend? A.This weekend we may go to cinema B.No,we’re not C.Oh,it’s none of your business D.Welcome to our party 2)You are not the manager here,are you? A.Yes.I’m not

B.No,I am C.Yes,I am D.No,not at all 二、交际用语测试必须记住的知识点和典型题型 交际用语在统考试题中,考察题型主要可分为以下三类:询问类试题;看法类试题;功 能类用语试题。 (一)询问类(5 种情况) 1、请求允许和应答 A. 提出请求(此部分常由题面给出,注意句型的提示作用、 May/Can/could I use (borrow/take/ask/see)…? 我可以用/借/问/看……吗? I wonder/I am wondering if…? 不知道我能否……? Would you please…? Do you think…? 能请你……吗?

你是否认为……?

B.回答请求(此部分常由考生选择,关键是考查考生能否正确地表达“同意”和“拒绝”) ① 同意 Sure./Certainly./Of course./By all means./ Yes,do please./Here you are./Help yourself. 可以/当然/拿去/请便。 ② 回绝 I’m afraid… 我恐怕…… I’m sorry.but… 对不起,但是…… I’m sorry you can’t./You’d better not. 很抱歉,不行。/你最好别这样。 【典型示例】 1)Could I borrow your car for a few days?(《大学英语》(B)Test 3.3) A.Yes,you may borrow. B.Yes,go on. C.Sure,here are.Enjoy your journey. D.It doesn’t matter. 答案: 2)I wonder if I could use your computer tonight? I’m not using it right now.(《大学英语》(B)Test 6.1) A.Sure,go ahead. B.I don’t know. C.It doesn’t matter.

D.Who cares? 特殊题型: A 提出请求 Do/Would you mind if I/my doing…… 你是否介意……? B. 回答请求 ① 同意 No,I don’t mind./Of course not./Not at all. 不介意./当然不介意/一点也不介意 Please do./Go ahead,please./OK. 行,做吧。 ② 不同意 Yes.I do. 我介意 【典型示例】 Do you mind if I read the newspaper on the table? A.Good news for you B.Go ahead,please C.Yes,sure D.No,I can’t *在用 mind 句型征求对方的意见时,如果表示同意,也可明确表示“please do/做吧, Go ahead,please./行”。 2、邀请与应答 A.提出邀请 Would you like to…? 可以…… 吗? 你能来参加……吗? 我想邀请你……

Will/Can you come to…?

I’d like to invite you to ……. B. 回答邀请 ①同意

Yes/thank you.I’d love to. That would be very nice.

谢谢,我愿意。

那太好了。

Yes,it’s very kind of you. 愿意,你太好了。 ⑦回绝 Thanks/Sorry,I… 非常感谢/抱歉,我…… I’d like to but…/I’d love to but… 我很愿意去,但是……

【典型示例】 1) Can you go to the concert with us this evening? (《大学英语》(B)Test 4,2) A.No.I already have plans. B.I’d love to,but I’m busy tonight. C.No,I really don’t like being with you. D.I’m ill,so I shouldn’t go out. 2)We are going to have a dancing party tonight.Would you like to join us? A.Yes.it’s very kind of you B.Ofcourse not.I have no idea C.No.I can’t D.That’s all set 3、提供帮助及应答 A.提供帮助 Can I help you/What can I do for you? 有什么可以为您效劳吗? Would you like me to help you with…? 我能帮您做……吗? B.应 答 ①接受帮助 Thanks.That would be nice./It’s so nice of you. 多谢,那太好了 Thank you for your help. ②礼貌地回绝 No,thanks./That’s ok.I can manage it myself. 【典型示例】 1)This box is too heavy for me to carry upstairs. A.You may ask for help. B.Let me give you a hand. C.Please do me a favor. D.I’d come to help 2)Can I help you with your suitcase?. A.That’s OK.I can manage B.It’s not very light C.I can help you with it D.Put it down on the ground 4、 问路 (《大学英语》 (B)Test 5,5) 感谢你的帮助

A.询问道路 Excuse me.can you tell me the way to…? Excuse me.where is…/how can I get to…? Is this right(the right way to)…? 请问这是去……的路吗? B. 回答 ① 当知道对方询问的道路,就一定要给出具体信息 Go down(up)the street./Turn right(1eft)… Go straight ahead till you see… 顺着街道往上/下走。在……右/左转。 抱歉,请问去……怎么走呢?

往前直走直到你看见……

It’s on the right(left)comer just ahead. 在前面右边/左边转角处。 ② 当不知道对方询问的道路,抱歉地说明原委 Sorry,I don’t know. Sorry,I’m a stranger here./I am new here 【典型示例】 Excuse me.but can you tell me the way to the post office? (《大学英语》(B)Test 3,9) A.Don’t ask that. B.Sorry,I’m a stranger here. C.No.I can’t say that. D.No,you’re driving too fast. 5、询问具体信息 A.询问询问的主题为:时间、地点、距离、费用、人物、事件、频率等。 Who/What/When/Where…(何人/何事/何时/何地……) How long/How often/How many…(时间多长或距离多远/频率/数量多少…) B.回答: 直扣主题,提供对方需要的信息。注意: ①特殊疑问句的答语通常针对特殊疑问词做出具体的回答。 ②一般疑问句通常用 yes 和 no 来回答,时态人称要一致。 ③当情态动词 must 引起一般问句: “必须…吗?”, 其否定回答通常用“you needn’t/don’t have to”表示“没有必要”。 ④选择疑问句是问话者提供两个或两个以上答案供对方择一回答的问句, 答语应做出一 个明确的选择。 ⑤反意问句的答语应根据实际情况确定:内容是肯定的,就用 yes,其后则跟肯定句; 内容是否定的,则用 no,其后则跟否定句。 抱歉,我不知道。

【典型示例】 1) Paul,____? ( 《大学英语》 (B)Test 3,4) 一 Oh.that’s my father! And beside him,my mother. A.what is the person over there B.who’s talking over there C.what are they doing D.which is that 2)Are there any drug-stores around here? A.Yes,there is one on the left comer B.Yes,it is C.No,it isn’t D.Oh,you must have a cold 3)Must I take a taxi? No,you .You can take my car.

A.had better to B.don’t C.must not D.don’t have to (二)看法类(4 种情况) 1、表达惊讶,喜悦 第一:惊讶 Really?/Is that so?/Oh dear!/Good heavens! (真的?/哎呀!/天哪!) 第二:喜悦 That’s nice/wonderful/great! (真好!) 【典型示例】 Ed said that his boy fell off tree. A.Oh dear! I hope he wasn’t hurt B.Oh.no.A luck boy C.He might have broken his arm D.Nothing serious 2、表示附和、赞同 第一:附和与赞同

Yes.I think so. 是的,我也这样认为。 I agree(with you). 我同意你的看法。 I can’t agree with you more. 第二:不赞同 No,I don’t think so. 我不这样认为。 I’m afraid not. 恐怕不行 我非常同意。

I can’t agree with you. 我不同意你的看法。 【典型示例】 Is it possible for you to work late tonight? 《大学英语》 A.I like it. B.I’ll do that. C.I’d love to. D.I think so. 3、表示肯定与否 I’m sure./I’m not sure. 我确定。/我不确定。 Maybe/Perhaps… 或许…… 【典型示例】 My camera isn’t working properly. A.Maybe there’s something wrong with it B.Here,have a look C.I have no idea about it D.There isn’t anything at all 4、表示喜好、厌恶 I like…very much. 我很喜欢…… (B)Test 6,4)

I don’t 1ike(hate)…我不喜欢/讨厌…… So do I./Neither do I. 【典型示例】 1)What do you think about this story? A.Thank you for telling me about the story B.Yes,it’s a real story C.I like it very much D.So do I 2)I don’t like the sports programs on Sundays. 我也……/我也不……

A.So do I B.Neither do I C.So am I D.Neither am I *当第一说话人对问题的看法是肯定、赞同的,用“So do I.”表示自己同样赞同的 态度:当第一说话人对问题的看法是否定、不赞同的,用“Neither do I.”表达自己同样 不赞同的态度。 (三)功能类(19 种情况) 1、打电话 A.发话方 Hello! May/Could/Can I speak to…? Is…in/over there? (你好!请找某某接电话好吗?) B. 受话方 ① 当你就是对方要找的听话人时: This is…(speaking).Speaking. (我就是某某,请讲。) Who is that(speaking)? (你是哪位?) ②当对方要找的人不在场时,需要去叫他/她 Hold on,please/One moment. (I’ll get him/her.) (请稍等,我去叫他/她。)

③ 当对方要找的人不在或不能接电话时, Sorry,he is busy at the moment. Sorry,he isn’t here/is out right now.(对不起,他/她不在/现在忙……) Can I take a message for you? (我能替你捎个话吗?)

④ 当发现对方拔错电话号码时, I’m afraid you’ve got the wrong number. 【典型示例】 1)Hello.I’m Harry Potter. Hello,my name is Charles Green,but 《大学英语》(B)Test 1,3) A.call my Charles C.call me Charles B.call me at Charles D.call Charles me (我想你拨错号码了。)

2)Could I speak to Don Watkins,please?

(《大学英语》(B)Test 3,2) A.I’m listening B.Oh,how are you?

C.Speaking.please. D.I’m Don. 2、 购物 A. 售货员 Can/May I help you?/What can I do for you. (你想买点什么呢?) B. 顾 客 1 want/I’d like/I need… (我想买……) Thanks.I’m just having a look. (谢谢,我只是看看) 【典型示例】 What can I do for you? (《大学英语》(B)Test 3,8) A.1 want a kilogram of pears. B.You can do in your own way. C.Thanks. D.Excuse me.I’m busy. 3、 就餐 第一: A. 服务员 What would you like(to have)? Would you like something(to eat/to drink)? Are you ready to order…? B. 顾 客 I’d like… (我想要……) (你想吃点/喝点什么吗?)

(可以点……了吗?)

No.thanks. (不用,谢谢。) 第二: A. 主人 Please help yourself to some… B. 客人 Just a little.please. (就一点,谢谢。) Thank you.I have had enough./I don’t like…(谢谢,我吃饱了。/我不太喜欢……) 【典型示例】 1) Would you like to order now? (请吃点……)

A.I’m full now B.Yes.I’d like fish and soup C.But the price is high D.It’s very kind of you 2)Please help yourself to the seafood (《大学英语》(B)Test 4,1) A.No.I can’t. B.Sorry,I can’t help. C.Well.seafood don’t suit for. D.Thanks,but I don’t like the seafood. 3)Have you got a table for four,Waiter? A.We are going to restaurant B.Yes,sure.This way,please C.We have booked the seats D.Here are the menus. 4、祝愿、祝贺与应答 第一:祝愿 A.表达祝愿 Good luck!/Have a good time./Wish you success. 功!) B. 回答 Thank you.The same to you./You too. (谢谢!你也一样。) 第二:祝贺 A. I won the first/I got A… (我获得第一名/我取得 A 等……) B. 表达祝贺 (Well done!)Congratulations(on…)! (干得好!祝贺你……) A. 回答 Thank you. (谢谢。) 【典型示例】 1)I was worried about my maths,but Mr.Brown gave me an A. (祝你好运!/祝你愉快!/祝你成

(《大学英语》(B)Test 3,10) A.Don’t worry about it. B.Congratulations! That’s a difficult course. C.Mr.Brown is very good. D.Good luck to you! 2)Tomorrow is my birthday. (《大学英语》(B)Test 5,8) A.Oh.I have no idea. B.I’m glad you like it. C.Many happy returns of the day! D.You must be very happy. 5、赞美与应答 A.How beautiful…/How lovely… (此类句子表达说话人对对方的住房、家

具、衣物、发型、小孩等表示赞扬欣赏。) B.Thank you. (谢谢。) 【典型示例】 That’s a beautiful dress you have on! (《大学英语》(B)Test 1,6) A.Oh,thanks.I got it yesterday. B.Sorry,it’s too cheap. C.You can have it D.See you later. 6、遗憾、歉意与应答 第一:遗憾 I’m sorry to hear it. (听到这个我很遗憾。) What a pity!/It’s a pity that… (……真是太遗憾了。) 【典型示例】 I have got a pain in my neck. A.Yes,I agree B.Yes,you are quite right C.I’m sorry to hear that

D.I’m feeling sick 第二:歉意 A.表达歉意 I’m sorry… (抱歉……) B. 应 答 That’s all right./That’s ok. That’s nothing./It doesn’t matter. 【典型示例】 Oh,sorry to bother you. (《大学英语》(B)Test 3,10) A.That’s Okay. B.No,you can’t C.That’s good. D.Oh,I don’t know. 7、感谢与应答 A.表达感谢 Thanks a lot!/Thank you(very much). (多谢!) It’s very kind of you(to help me). (你真是太好了。) B. 回 答 Not at all./That’ s all right. You’re welcome./My pleasure. (不客气。不用谢。) 【典型示例】 1)Thanks for your help. (《大学英语》(B)Test l,2) A.My pleasure. B.Never mind. C.Quite right. D.Don’t thank me. 2)Thank you for inviting me. (《大学英语》(B)Test 3,4) (没关系。)

A.I really had a happy time. B.Oh.it’s too late C.Thank you for coming D.Oh,SO slowly? 8、 看病 第一: A. 医生 What’s the matter/problem? What’s wrong with you? (你哪儿不舒服?) B. 病人 I feel terrible. (我觉得不舒服。) There’s something wrong with my leg. (我腿出了的点问题。) I’ve got a high temperature/pain here. (我发烧/这里疼。) 第二: A. 病人 Is there anything serious…? (严重吗?) B. 医生 No/Nothing serious. (不/没什么问题。) Take this medicine three times a day.You’ll be all right soon.(一天吃三次药。你很快就 会好。) Just have a rest and drink more water (注意休息,多喝水。) 【典型示例】 How are you feeling? Much better. (《大学英语》(B)Test 5,6) A.Thanks for coming to see me. B.You look great.

C.You are so kind. D.Don’t mention it. 9、劝告,建议,提醒 A.劝告、建议 You’d better (not) do…/You should… (你最好/最好别…/你应该…) Why don’t you/Why not… (你为啥不…) What/How about…/Shall we… (我们去…如何?) B. 应 答 Sure./Great./Why not? That’s a good idea. (可以/为什么不呢?好主意。) I’ll take your advice. (我会采纳你的建议的。) No,thanks… (不用了,谢谢……) 【典型示例】 1)Shall we go shopping this Sunday? A.Why not? Good idea! B.I’ve no idea. C.Yes,you will. D.See you then. 2)Don’t take too long at the coffee shop.It’s 14:15. A.I’ll think your advice over B.I see.We have 30 minutes left. C.That’s no problem D.I’m afraid so 3)How about going to dinner at the Mexican restaurant tonight? (《大学英语》(B)Test 2,10) A.Forget it. B.Sorry,I like Mexican food. C.That’s great! D.Glad you like it. 10、见面问候

A.How are you?/How’s everything? (你好吗?/一切都好吗?) B. Fine,thank you,and you?/Very well,thank you.(挺好的,谢谢。你好吗?) Just so-so. (一般。) Pleased/glad to meet you here. (很高兴在这里见到你。) 【典型示例】 How are you.Bob? Ted.(《大学英语》 (B)Test l,1) A.How are you? B.I’m fine.Thank you. C.How do you do? D.Nice to meet you. 11、告别 A. I’m afraid I must be leaving now. (恐怕我得走了。) I think it’s time for us to leave. (我想我们该离开了。) B.Good night. (晚安。) Good bye./See you later/tomorrow. (再见。) 【典型示例】 1)Marilyn,I’m afraid I have to be leaving now. (《大学英语》(B)Test 1,10) A.That sounds wonderful. B.Oh,so early? C.Not at all. D.Good luck! 2)It’s getting late.I’m afraid I must go now. Ok. A.Take it easy B.Go slowly C.Stay longer

D.See you 12、旅行 A.What/How about your trip/joumey to… (旅行如何?) B.It went very well./It’s very interesting. (挺好的。/挺有趣的。) 【典型示例】 How was your trip to London.Jane? (《大学英语》(B)Test 5,1) A.Oh.wonderful indeed. B.I went there alone. C.The guide showed me the way. 13、天气 A.How is the weather?/What’s the weather like…(某地方天气如何呢?) B.It’s fine. (很不错。) It’s rather warm/hot/cold/rainy/cloudy/windy. (非常温暖/热/冷/常下雨/多 云/吹风。) 【典型示例】 What’s the weather like in your hometown? A.It’s a nice place B.I like the food there C.He asks me whether I like the weather D.It’s cold in winter and hot in summer 14、订票 A. 顾客 I’d like to book…/Can I get a seat… (我想订……) B. 售票员 Yes,Sir/Madam… (好的,先生/女士……) I’m sorry,but… (抱歉,但是……) 【典型示例】 D.By plane and by bus.

1)Hello.is that Shanghai Airlines? A.Yes,can I help you? B.Yes,what do you want? C.Yes,you’re right D.Yes,right number 2)I’d like to book a flight to Shanghai.please. A.No.of course not B.Do you mind if I said no? C.Yes,sir,single or retum. D.You can’t.We are busy.

答案:意为“好的,先生。单程还是往返票?” 15、乘车 A.Which bus goes to…? Does the bus go to… (去…乘哪路公车/这路公车是否到…) B.No.…bus. (乘……路公车。) 【典型示例】 Excuse me.which bus goes to the city museum? A.The subway is over there B.You can take No.102 bus C.It takes a long time 16、意愿 A.I want/hope/wish…/I’d like to… (我想……) I’d rather not… (我宁愿不……) B. I’ll… (好的,我会…) 【典型示例】 Ami.I want this report typed today. A.It’ll be ready in the afternoon.sir B.I’d like you to help me C.I know nothing about the report D.Leave it to tomorrow. 17、语言困难 D.it’s wonderful

A.What does this word mean? (这个单词什么意思?) What do you mean by saying… (你说的是什么意思?) B.Pardon? Would you please say that again? (请再说一遍好吗?) I’m afraid/sorry I don’t know. (抱歉,我也不知道) 【典型示例】 I want to go to New York.What’s the fare? A.Pardon me? B.I’m sorry C.Yes.I don’t understand D.I’m not understanding 18、预约 A. Can I help you/What can I do for you? (有什么可以为您效劳吗?) B. I’d like to make an appointment(with…) (我想跟……预约) 【典型示例】 1)Good morning.Dr Johnson’s office.Can I help you? A.Speaking.please B.I’d like to make an appointment,please C.Yes,go on D.No,you can’t

2)I have an appointment with Dr.Johnson. A.The appointment is put off B.You look sick and weak C.Please wait for a minute.He is busy now D.Tell me your ID number. (identity card 身份证) 19、 安慰 Cheer up.振奋起来, 感到振奋/Take it easy.从容, 不紧张, 松懈, 轻松/Don’t worry. (别担心。) 【典型示例】 Unbelievable! I have failed the driving test again!

This is not the end of the world.(《大学英语》(B)Test 6,5) A.Good luck. B.Cheer up. C.Go ahead. D.No problem. 本题是考察大家的交际能力, 要求大家应掌握日常生活常见情景中的基本交际用语。 希 望大家能认真学习以上内容,并能将其运用到日常生活交流当中。祝大家学习进步,生活愉 快!

《大学英语三》辅导老师


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